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DOMINION OF CANADA 
DOMINION BUREAU OF STATISTICS 



ORIGIN, BIRTHPLACE, NATIONALITY AND 
LANGUAGE OF THE CANADIAN PEOPLE 



(A CENSUS STUDY BASED ON THE CENSUS 
OF 1921 AND SUPPLEMENTARY DATA) 




OTTAWA 

F. A. ACLAND 

PRINTER TO THE KING'S MOST EXCELLENT MAJESTY 

tm 



Price oO cents. 



I 



DOMINION OF CANADA 
DOMINION BUREAU OF STATISTICS 



ORIGIN, BIRTHPLACE, NATIONALITY AND 
LANGUAGE OF THE CANADIAN PEOPLE 



(A CENSUS STUDY BASED ON THE CENSUS 
OF 1921 AND SUPPLEMENTARY DATA) 




OTTAWA 

F. A. ACLAND 

PRINTER TO THE KING'S MOST EXCELLENT MAJESTY 

1929 



PREFACE 

The present report is one of a series that has been prepared in the Dominion Bureau of 
Statistics, analytical! of the data on papulation collected by the census. It deals with the 
general question of the birthplace, nationality and origin of the Canadian population, 
including in the latter the colonial stocks from the British Isles and France, as well as the 
recent immigrant population. 

The general scope of the analysis will be seen by a glance at the various chapter head- 
ings. The first five chapters deal with the changing proportions of the various nationalities 
and stocks in Canada in the nine provinces, and their distribution in respect to date of 
arrival, age, sex, conjugal condition and urban and rural residence. The remaining seven 
chapters include an examination of the behaviour of the various groups as revealed by data 
on intermarriage, language spoken, illiteracy, naturalization, crime, fertility, and infant 
mortality. Preceding these chapters is a general "Summary" which sets out briefly the 
main facts and conclusions. As the subject-matter of the report is complex, involving several 
points of view which aJAough distinct are closely related and at times overtopping, it is 
recommended that before proceeding to any perusal of the report proper, the explanation* 
and definitions contained in the introduction be carefully noted. 

The report has been prepared in the Dominion Bureau of Statistics under the direction 
of PM£J^_Biir^on_Hurd, of Brandon College, Brandon, Manitoba. 

R. H. COATS, 
Dominion Statistician. 

Dominion Bureau of Statistics, 
Ottawa, September 1, 1928. 



74422 — 14 



CONTENTS 

Page 

Introduction. ,. „ 1t 

Data relating to Nationality, Birthplace, Language and Origin <u collected by the Canadian Census. ... 11 

Use of the term "Origin" as distinguished from Race 

Practical difficulties in the "origin" classification J4 

Classification of mixed stocks 

Summary. . 1B 

Changes in the composition of the population of Canada since 1901 J" 

Nativity and length of residence 18 

Age, sex and conjugal conditions ■ 20 

Distribution of immigrant stocks by provinces 22 

Urban and rural distribution 23 

Intermarriage '" 26 

Naturalization. 27 

Languages spoken | 27 

Illiteracy ■ 28 

Crime - 32 

Occupations 33 

• Fertility and infant mortality '.'.'.'.'.'.'. 35 

Summary tables 

Chapter I. . 43-48 

Origins of the Population of Canada • • • 43 

The proportion of specified origins in the population 44 

Numerical strength of stocks in Canada. .../..... .„ 

Changes in the proportion of different stocks m Canada 



^nMrihution of Various Stocks and of Foreign Born according to Length of Residence • 49-66 

DlS Proportion 0" dTfferent stocks' Canadian born, United States born and born in countries ^ 

other than the United - States -i ? 54 

The old and the new immigration . ..../... ■■ .....■■■■■■■■ ■■ 58 

The changing proportions of Canadian born and elsewhere born ° 

Principal countries of birth of recent immigrants from Continental Europe M 

^Composition of the Population of Various Stocks in respect of Sex, Conjugal Condition and Age 67-84 

Sex composition of the population of various origins 75 

Conjugal condition and nativity 76 

Age distribution of the foreign born... ■..••• • 81 

Age distribution of the different stocks in Canada 

Chapter IV. r^-KM 

Distribution of Population Stocks and Nativity Groups by Province , °° iuo 

Distribution of various stocks by provinces 90 

The birthplaces of the population by provinces... j 2 

Extent to which each province has shared in total immigration J»^ 

Number of immigrants in each province 

Cm The R Urban and Rural Distribution of the Population of ^ rio ^J>°ffJ T n S^- nl i the Dro Vinces 104 "l04 

Percentage of urban residents among the immigrant population for Canada and the provinces . iu» 

Eural and urban distribution as between provinces m 

Urban and rural distribution by sex. . ;■.',' •:•'„; 113 

The extent to which the different stocks congregate in large cities 

Chapter VI. . 116-139 

Origins and Intermarriage in the Registration Area m Canada 

The tendency to marriage within the same origin group. 

A=<.;mil!(tirm bv intermarriage with the British and irench • V. --- "", 

TS ! relaton be! wee? intermarriage, length of residence, surplus males and size of ^ 

origin groups....... ..■■..■■ 134 

T^^So ^Icf cSentarEuropeanstockshaVemarried'withintheirown^ ^ 

graphical groups 

Chapter VII. 140-159 

The Naturalization of Immigrant Peoples... . ..... ..... n , a v; q2 : ;;;;;;. 140 

The proportion of foreign born naturalized in Canada in 19^.^ 

Naturalization among immigrant peoples from the United States ^ 

The effect of urban residence on naturalization 148 

Percentages naturalized by sex. 150 

■p^r.^tages naturalized by provinces • ' • 15g 

of naturalization 

4 



Chapter VIII. Page 

Origin and Language — the use of English and French by immigrant peoples 160-169 

Proportion unable to speak English or French 161 

Proportions of non-British and non-French origins acquiring English 163 

Language, intermarriage and length of residence 167 

Chapter IX. 

Illiteracy and School Attendance as affected by the Origins and Nativity of the Population 170-1 75 

Illiteracy among the foreign born of non-British and non-French origins 170 

Relation of illiteracy to origin and other factors 173- 

Illiteracy as affected by birthplace 173 ; 

Illiteracy and rural and urban distribution 17£ 

Sex and illiteracy 174; 

Illiteracy and inability to speak English and French 174; 

School attendance and illiteracy 174 

Chapter X. 

The Relation of Origins and Nativity to Crime 176-202 

Nativity and convictions for indictable offences 176 

Origins and nativity of the reformatory population 179 

Sex and birthplace 179 

Origin and birthplace 181 

Rural and urban distribution 185 

Origins and birthplaces of the penitentiary population 187 

Introduction 187 

Age and sex distribution of the penitentiary population. 188 

Conjugal condition of the penitentiary population 188 

Birthplace of the penitentiary population 189 

Citizenship of the penitentiary population 193 

Origin of the penitentiary population 194 

Parentage of the Canadian born in the peniten tiary population 198 

Date of immigration of immigrant penitentiary population 199 

Mathematical appendix 200 

Chapter XI. 

Occupational Distribution of the Population 203-210 

Occupations of the populati6n by sex and birthplace 203 

Proportions employed in specified occupations 206 

Chatter XII. 

Relation of Origins to Fertility, Infant Mortality, Blindness and Deaf-mutism 211-221 

Fertility of the peoples of Canada 211 

Proportions of children in the several origin groups 211 

Birth rates in the prairie provinces, 1926 214 

Correlation between fertility, rural domicile, illiteracy and length of residence in Canada 215 

Infant Mortality 217 

Deaf mutism and blindness 221 



INDEX OF TABLES 

SUMMARY 

Table 1. — Summary table showing standing of the population of various origins in Canada according 

to specified headings, 1921 36 

Table 2. — Verbal summary table showing standing of the population of various origins in Canada 

according to specified headings, 1921 38 

Table 3. — Summary table showing standing of specified groups of origins in Canada according to 

specified headings, 1921 40 

Table 4. — Summary table showing standing of immigrants by country of birth according to 

specified headings, Canada, 1921 41 

Table 5. — Verbal summary showing standing of immigrants by country of birth, according to 

specified headings, Canada, 1921 42 

Table 6. — Summary table showing standing of immigrants by groups of countries of birth 

according to specified headings 42 

CHAPTER I 

Table 7. — Proportion of various stocks in the population of Canada, 1921, as compared with 

1911 and 1901 43 

Table 8. — Population of Canada by origins, 1921 ' 45 

Table 9. — North Western and South, Eastern and Central European Population of Canada by origins 

other than British and French, 1921 45 

Table 10. — Population of Canada, by linguistic grouping of origins, 1921. (British and French 

not included) 45 

Table 11. — Numerical rank of principal stocks other than British and French, by specified 

groups, 1921 46 

Table 12. — Number of various stocks in Canada, 1901, 1911, 1921 and percentage increases for decades, 

1901 to 1911 and 1911 to 1921 48 



6 

CHAPTER II 

Page 

Table 13— Canadian born, United States born, and Elsewhere born, by origins in Canada. 1921 50 

Table 14.— Number Canadian born, United States'born and Elsewhere born of principal European 

origins in Canada, by geographical groups (French and British excepted) 1921 51 

Table 15.— Number Canadian born, United States born, and Elsewhere born of principal European 

origins in Canada by linguistic groups (French and British excepted) 1921 52 

Table 16.— Per cent Canadian born, United States born, and Elsewhere born, by origins, 1921 53 

Table 17.— Per cent and rank of (1) Canadian born and (2) Elsewhere born (other than in U.S.) by 

origins 1 921 ^ 

Table 18.— Per cent Canadian born, United States born, and Elsewhere born of principal European 

stocks in Canada (French and British excepted) by geographical groups, 1921 56 

Table 19;— Per cent Canadian born, United States born, and Elsewhere born of principal European 

stocks in Canada, by linguistic groups (French and British excepted) 1921. 57 

Table 20.— Summary table of per cent Canadian born, United States born and Elsewhere born of 

certain stocks in Canada, by specified groups, 1921 • ■ • : ■ • ■ • ■■•■••••■• • 58 

Table 21.— Proportion of population Canadian and Elsewhere born by country of birth, 1901, 1911 



1921 



59 



Table 22.— Number of Continental European born in Canada in 1901, 1911 and 1921 and per cent 

increase 1901-1911 and 1911-1921, by geographical grouping of countries of birth 61 

Table 23.— Number of Continental European born in Canada in 1901, 1911 and 1921, and per cent 

increase 1901-1911 and 1911-1921 by linguistic grouping of countries of birth ........... -61 

Table 24.— Summary table showing percentage increase of ihe immigrant population in Canada by 

specified nativity groups, for the decades 1901-1911 and 1911-1921 ....... 62 

Table 25.— Principal countries of birth of Continental European immigrants to Canada in 

STDGcificcl Doriods ' 

Table 26.— Number and percentage of immigrant population in Canada 1921, who arrived before 

1901, classified by country of birth ■_• •■-.:• • ■ • • • ■ • • .• • ■ • b * 

Table 27.— Percentage of Continental European born population of Canada in 1921 who arrived 

before 1901 , by specified groupings of countries of birth .-•■•■. • ■ • • • • , 6 

Table 28.— The average number of years foreign born persons immigrating since January 1, 1901 have 

been in Canada, by specified countries of birth and the percentage of the foreign born from each 

country who arrived prior to 1901 



60. 



CHAPTER III 
Table 29— Population by origin and sex in Canada, 1921, with percentage of Males to Females for 

each origin ■ ■ ■ • • • • • • ■. ■ • • • • • ■ ■ ■ • ■ • :v 

Table 30.— Population of European origin (other than British and French) in Canada by sex, with 

percentage surplus of males, 1921 .•■.■; 

Table 31 —Population of European origin (other than British and French) arranged by principal 

linguistic divisions, by sex, with percentage surplus of Males, 1921. . . . . . . . ... . . ... . • . ■ 

Table 32.— Number and percentage of immigrant males and females in Canada, by birthplace, 

1921 ;■•• v ■■•;■• u 

Table 33.— Percentage of foreign born males and females and percentage surplus of males by geo- 
graphical and linguistic grouping of countries of birth. 1921 ■ • 72 

Table 34.— Summary table showing percentages of males and females and percentage surplus of 
males for immigrants in Canada by specified group3 of countries of birth, 1921 ,■■■■■. 

Table 35.— Percentage surplus of males in total foreign born population, compared with surplus of 

males among foreign born adults (21 and over), by country of birth, 1921 74 

Table 36.— Percentage surplus of males in total population compared with percentage surplus of 

males among adults (21 and over) for principal origins in Canada, 1921 74 

Table 37.— Percentage of single males and females, fifteen years of age and over classified as Cana- 
dian, British and Foreign born, by provinces, 1921 _ ; • ' 5 

Table 38.— Percentage of population fifteen years of age and over single, by quinquennial age groups 

and sex, classified as Canadian, British and Foreign born, for Canada, 1921.... . . . . • 7b 

Table 39.— Numerical and percentage distribution by quinquennial age groups of male and female 

population in Canada, 1921, classified as Canadian born, British born and Foreign born 7S 

Table 40.— Percentage age distribution of various stocks in Canada in 1921. . ......... . . .... . M 

Table 41— Percentage age distribution of specified stocks in Canada in 1921, by linguistic and other 
groupings 



86 



96 



CHAPTER IV 
Table 42A —Percentage distribution of the population of various origins, in Canada, by provinces, 

1901-1911-1921 .•■•"■.• W j ' V • 

Table 42B.— Percentage distribution of the population of various origins in Canada, by provinces, 

1901-1911-1921 ,■•;•••••,■■ 'A' ' 'J' •'■ j lii. • 

Table 43— Percentage distribution of the population, by birthplace, for Canada and the provinces, 

1911 and 1921 • ■ •■.•■: 

Table 44.— Percentage distribution of Continental European born by provinces and geographical 

grouping of countries of birth, in Canada. 1911 and 1921 97 

Table 45.— Percentage distribution of Continental European born in Canada, by provinces and 

linguistic grouping of countries of birth, 1911 and 1921 ._ ■ ■ ■ ■ • • ■ • ■ 9 ° 

Table 46.— Summary table showing percentage distribution by birthplace of population of Canada 

and the provinces by specified groupings of countries of birth, 1911 and 1921. ................. 99 

Table 47.— Provinces ranked according to percentage of population of specified birthplace in 

Table 48.— Percentages of Foreign torn and British born among the immigrant Population by 
provinces, 1921 ,••■■••. .■•■'••;' ;•■••.■■■. 

Table 49.— Percentage distribution of British born and foreign born immigrants by year of arrival 
in Canada, for the nine provinces, 1921 • ; • • • • 

Table 50.— Number of foreign born from nine main countries of birth, by provinces, 1921 lUi 



101 
102 
102 



CHAPTER V Page 

Table 51. — Percentage urban of immigrant population by country of birth; for Canada and thepro- 
• vinces, 1921 : 105 

Table 52. — Percentage urban of Continental European born, for Canada and the provinces, by geo- 
graphical grouping of countries of birth, 1921 106 

Table 53. — Percentage urban of Continental European born, for Canada and the provinces by lingu- 
istic grouping of countries of birth, 1921 108 

Table 54. — Summary showing percentage urban of immigrant population for Canada and the pro- 
vinces, by specified grouping of countries of birth, 1921 Ill 

Table 55. — Percentage urban of male and female Immigrants in Canada, by countries of birth, 

1921 113 

Table 56. — Per cent of specified origins in cities 25,000 and over in Canada, 1921 114 

Table 57. — Per cent of specified origins in cities 25,000 and over, in Canada, by geographical grouping 

of origins, 1921 115 

Table 58. — Per cent of specified origins in cities, 25,000 and over, 1 in Canada, by linguistic grouping 

of origins, 1921 115 

CHAPTER VI 

Table 59. — Origin of parents of children born in the Registration Area in 1921 117 

Table 60. — Percentage of endogamous marriages among parents of children born in Registration ■ 

Area in 1921 118 

Table 61. — Endogamy among parents of children of coloured races, 1921 119 

Table 62. — Endogamous marriages among the population of Continental European origins by geo- 
graphical groupings, '1921 (as indicated by the parentage of children born in the Registration Area) 120 

Table 63. — Endogamous marriages among the population of Continental European origins by lingu- 
istic groups, 1921 (as indicated by the parentage of children born in the Registration Area) 120 

Table 64 — Number and percentage of married men and women of different origins who had mar- 
ried into the British stocks and had children born to them in 1921 121 

Table 65. — Percentages of married men and women of Continental European origin married into the 

British stocks and having children born to them in 1921, by geographical grouping 122 

Table 66. — Percentages of married men and women of Continental European origin married into 

the British stocks, and having children born to them in 1921, by linguistic grouping 122 

Table 67.— Summary table showing percentage of married men and women of Continental European 
origin married into British stocks by geographical and linguistic groups, 1921 (as indicated by 
the parentage of children born in the Registration Area) 123 

Table 68. — Percentage of married men and women of Continental European origin married to French 

in the Registration Area, by geographical and linguistic groups, 1921 124 

Table 69. — Percentage of married men and women of Continental European origin married into 
French and British stocks in Registration Area, by geographical and linguistic groups (as indi- 
cated by the parentage of children born in the Registration Area) 124 

Table 70 — Intermarriage, sex distribution, percentage North American born and proportions of total 

population in Canada for specified origins, 1921 128 

Table 71. — Number and percentages of married men married to wives of different origins and the 
proportion of those who married into British stocks (as indicated by parentage of children born in 
the Registration Area in 1921) 135 

Table 72.— Number and percentages of married women married to husbands of different origin, 
and the proportion of those who married into British stock, (as indicated by parentage 
of children born in the Registration Area in 1921) 136 

Table 73. — Percentages of mixed marriages contracted with men and women of British origin, 
arranged in descending order of magnitude, (as indicated by parentage of children born in the 
. Registration Area in 1921) 136 

Table 74. — Per cent of mixed marriages contracted by continental Europeans with men and women 
of British origin, by geographical grouping (as indicated by parentage of children born in the 
Registration Area in 1921 ) 137 

Table 75. — Per cent of mixed marriages, by linguistic grouping, contracted by continental Europeans 
with men and women of British origin (as indicated by parentage of children born in the Regis- 
tration Area in 1921) 138 

Table 76. — Intermarriage between non-whites and those of British stocks, (as indicated by parentage 

of children born in the Registration Area in 1921 ) 138 

Table 77. — Percentage of married men and women of continental European stocks who had con- 
tracted mixed marriages, ard percentage of these contracted with peoples from the same part 
of Europe (as indicated by parentage of children born in the Registration Area in 1921) 139 

CHAPTER VII 

Table 78. — Percentage of foreign born naturalized, for Canada, 1921, by countrv of 'Mrth 141 

Table 79. — -Percentage of foreign born males, 21 years and over, naturalized, for Canada, 1921, by 

country of birth 141 

Table 80.— Percentage of European born naturalized by geographical groups, 1921 142 

Table 81. — Percentage of European born naturalized, by linguistic groups, 1921 143 

Table 82.— Naturalization of United States born immigrants, by origins, and o: other foreisn born 

by corresponding countries of birth, 1921 145 

Table 83. — Data in Column 3, Table 82, arranged by linguistic groups '. . . 145 

Table 84. — Percentage naturalized of all foreign born compared with percentage naturalized in cities 

25,000 and over, 1921 147 

Table 85. Percentage of foreign born (1) naturalized and (2) urban, in Canada, by country of birth, 

1921 148 

Table 86. — Citizenship of foreign born population in Canada classified according to birthplace and 

sex, 1921 149 

Table 87. — Percentage by which the proportion of foreign born females naturalized exceeds the 

proportion of foreign born males naturalized in Canada, by geographical groups of countries of 

birth, 1921 150 



8 

CHAPTER VII— Concluded Page 

Table 88. — Percentage by which the proportion of foreign born fem .les naturalized, exceeds the 

proportion of foreign born males, naturalized, in Canada, by linguistic groups of countries of 

birth, 1921 150 

Table 89. — Percentage of foreign born naturalized for Canada and the provinces, by country of birth, 

1921 151 

Table 90. — Percentage by which the proportions of foreign born naturalized in each province differed 

from the proportion naturalized for Canada, by country of birth, 1921 1 54 

Table 91. — Percentage of foreign born naturalized by provinces, and the foreign born and naturalized 

foreign born as percentages of total population in each province, 1921 154 

Table 92. — Range of fluctuations of percentages of foreign born naturalized, as between provinces, 

by countries of birth, 1921 155 

Table 93. — Range of fluctuations of percentages of foreign born naturalized as between provinces, by 

geographical grouping of countries of birth, 1921 155 

Table 94. Range of fluctuations of percentages of foreign born naturalized as between provinces, by 

linguistic grouping of countries of birth, 1921 155 

Table 95. — Percentage naturalized of foreign born residents in Canada in 1921, by date of arrival 159 

CHAPTER VIII 

Table 96. — Percentage of the population 10 years of age and over, of British origin, reported as able 
to speak French. Percentage of the population of French origin reported as able to speak Eng- 
lish, 1921 160 

Table 97. — Percentages 10 years of age and over unable to speak (1) English, (2) French or English, 

for the principal non-British, non-French origins in Canada, 1921 162 

Table 98. — Percentages 10 years of age and over unable to speak (1) English, (2) French or English, 

by geographical and linguistic groups of non-British and non-French origins, 1921 163 

Table 99. — Numbers and percentages of principal non-British and non-French origins, 10 years and 

over in Canada who had acquired English by 1921 164 

Table 100. — Percentages of principal origins, 10 years of age and over who did not Know English as 

the mother tongue but who had learned it by 1921 164 

Table 101. — Percentages 10 years and over of principal non-French or British origins spearing (1) 

English, (2) English or French, as mother tongue, 1921 166 

Table 102. — Percentages 10 years and over of principal European origins speaking (1) English and (2) 

English and French as mother tongue, by geographical groups, 1921 166 

Table 103. — Percentage 10 years old and over of principal European origins speaking (1) English 

and (2) English or French, as mother tongue, by linguistic groups, 1921 167 

Table 104. — Summary showing the relation between the learning of the languages of Canada and 
(1) Intermarriage with the basic stocks of Canada (2) Urban domicile and (3) Length of 
Canadian residence by origins, 1921 169 

CHAPTER IX 

Table 105. — Percentages illiterate among the foreign born of the principal non-Biitish and non-French 

origins in Canada, 1921 170 

Table 106. — Percentages illiterate among the foreign born of the principal non-British and non- 
French origins in Canada by geographical and linguistic groups, 1921 171 

Table 107A. — Non-literate stocks in 49 census divisions of the prairie provinces 173 

Table 107B. — Percentages illiterate and percentages unable to speak English or French among the 

foreign born of the principal non-British and non-French origins in Canada, 1921 174 

CHAPTER X 

Table 108. — Age and sex as factors in corvictions for indictable offences in Canada 177 

Table 109. — Actual number of convictions for indictable offences in Canada in 1921, by broad nativity 

groups and the rates per 100,000 population of each group 178 

Table 110. — Comparative rates of criminality among the Canadian-born, British-born, and 

Foreign-born populations of Canada, with the bias due to differing age and sex distribution of 

these populations removed, 1921... 178 

Table 111. — Reformatory population by sex and birthplace, 1921 180 

Table 112. — Parentage of the Canadian born reformatory population, 1921 181 

Table 113. — Reformatory population in Canada, by origin and birthplace, 1921 183 

Table 114. — Reformatory population in Canada, by groups of origins, 1921 186 

Table 115. — Number in penitentiaries in Canada, per 100,000 population of each sex by quinquennial 

age groups, 1921 .■•.••• 1^8 

Table 116. — Number in penitentiaries, male and female, classified according to conjugal condition; 

and number per 100,000 population of each group, 1921 189 

Table 117.— Number in penitentiaries per 100,000 population by nativity, sex and quinquennial age 

groups, 1921 190 

Table 118. — Number and rate per 100,000 of foreign born male penitentiary population aged 21 years 

and over in Canada, ,by country of birth, 1921 191 

Table 119. — Number of foreign born males in penitentiaries per 100,000 male population aged 21 

years and over, of specified groups of countries of birth, 1921 193 

Table 120. — Citizenship of foreign born penitentiary population (both sexes) aged 21 years and over, 

1921 193 

Table 121.— Origin of penitentiary population 21 years and over (both sexes) 1921 195 

Table 122. — Origin of penitentiary population (both sexes), 21 years and over, by specified groups of 

origins, 1921 196 

Table 123. — Origin and nativity of penitentiary population, 21 years and over, by specified groups, 

(both sexes), 1921 197 

Table 124. — Canadian born population of penitentiaries by nativity of parents, 1921 198 

Table 125. — Distribution of the immigrant male population of penitentiaries by birthplace and year 

of arrival, 1921 199 



9 

Mathematical Appendix to Chapter X 

Page 

Table A. — Convictions for indictable offences in Canada by age and sex 200 

Table B. — Males and females by specified age and nativity groups in Canada, 1921 200 

Table C. — Males in each age and nativity group as percentage of total male population of corres- 
ponding nativity in Canada, 1921 200 

Table D. — Females in each age and nativity group as percentage of total female population of cor- 
responding nativity in Canada, 1921 200 

Table E. — Number of males per 100,000 male population of each nativity who would be convicted 

of indictable offences on the basis of uniform crime rates for males of all nativity groups 201 

Table F. — Number of females per 100,000 female population of each nativity who would be convicted 

of indictable offences on the basis of uniform crime rates for females of all nativity groups 201 

CHAPTER XI 

Table 126. — Numbers and percentages of employed males and females of specified nativity groups 

in principal occupations in Canada, 1921 204 

Table 127. — Percentage distribution of employed males in specified occupations, by nativity, 1921 . . 205 
Table 128. — Percentage distribution of employed females in specified occupations by nativity, 1921 . 205 
Table 129. — Percentage distribution of population of Canada, 15 years and over and of persons engaged 

in gainful occupations by sex and nativity, 1921 209 

Table 130. — Number of persons engaged in gainful occupations expressed as percentages of the total 

population 15 years of age and over, by nativity and sex, for Canada, 1921 210 

CHAPTER XII 

Table 131. — Percentage of each origin under 10 years of age, 1921 213 

Table 132. — Percentage under 10 years of age of specified origin groups in Canada, 1921 214 

Table 133. — Birth rates per 100 women, 15-49 years, of specified origins, in the prairie provinces, 1926. 215 
Table 134. — Index of fertility, percentage of females (1) Rural (2) Illiterate (3) Proportion of popu- 
lation 21 years and over, North American born, for specified origins in the prairie provinces, 1926. . 217 
Table 135. — Number of deaths of infants under one year of age expressed as a percentage of number 

of births, by origins, for the Registration Area of Canada, 1925 218 

Table 136. — Infant mortality rate in Registration Area of Canada, by origins, arranged in order of 

size, 1925 220 

Table 137. — Infant mortality rate in the Registration Area of Canada, by geographical and linguistic 

grouping of origins, 1925 220 

Table 138.— Origins of deaf mutes in Canada, 1921 221 

Table 139.— Origins of the blind in Canada, 1921 221 



INDEX OF CHARTS 

Chart 1. — Percentages of the population of Canada of British, French, other European and Asiatic 

origins in 1901 and 1921 16 

Chart 2. — Percentages of population of Canada, born outside of Canada, 1901 and 1921, by specified 

nativity 17 

Chart 3. — Percentages of European immigrants in Canada from North Western and South, 

Eastern and Central Europe in 1901 and 1921 18 

Chart 4. — Surplus males per 100 females among immigrants in Canada, 1921 -. 19 

Chart 5. — Percentage of population 15 years and over married, by sex and nativity groups, Canada, 

1921 20 

Chart 6. — Percentage of specified foreign nativities in the population of the provinces, 1921 21 

Chart 7. — Percentages of immigrants from specified countries of birth, domiciled in urban areas, 

1921 22 

Chart 8 . — Percentages of married males and females of specified origin married to British and French 

in Registration Area, 1921 (as indicated by the parentage of children born in that year) 23 

Chart 9. — Number of males and females of foreign origin married into British stocks as a pro- 
portion of the number married outside their own stock ; by specified groups of origins, Registra- 
tion.Area, 1921 (as indicated by the percentage of children born in that year) 25 

Chart 10. — Naturalized foreign born as percentage of the total population by provinces, 1921 26 

Chart 11. — Proportions illiterate among foreign born, 10 years and over, for specified groups of coun- 
tries of birth, 1921 28 

Chart 12. — Number per 100,000 children 10-20 years, in reformatories, for specified origin groups, 

1921 29 

Chart 13. — Number of foreign born males in penitentiaries per 100,000 male population, 21 years and 

over, of specified nativity groups, 1921 30 

Chart 14. — Number in penitentiaries per 100,000 population 21 years and over of specified origins in 

Canada, 1921 31 

Chart 15. — Occupational distribution of male population by birthplace, 1921 33 

Chart 16. — Percentages of children under 10 years of age of specified groups in Canada, 1921 34 

CHAPTER II 

Chart 17. — Percentage Canadian born of specified origins other than British and French in 1921.. . 55 
Chart 18. — Percentages of specified origin groups Canadian born, United States born and Else- 
where born, 1921 : 58 



10 

CHAPTER III 

Page 

Chart 19. — Age distribution of total population in Canada, 1921 80 

Chart 20. — Age distribution of Canadian born in Canada, 1921 80 

Chart 21. — Age distribution of Foreign born in Canada, 1921 -. . . 80 

Chart 22. — Age distribution of British born in Canada, 1921 8 n 

CHAPTER TV 

Chart 23. — Percentage of British stock in the population of the several provinces, 1921 88 

Chart 24. — Percentage of French stock in the population of the several provinces, 1921 : . . . . 88 

Chart 25. — Percentage of other European stock in the population of the several provinces, 1921 88 

Chart 26. — Percentage of Asiatic stock in the population of the provinces, 1921 89 

Chart 27. — Percentage of population Canadian born, British Isles born and Foreign born by pro- 
vinces, 1921 92 

CHAPTER VI 

Chart 28. — Actual percentage of intermarriage compared with percentages predicted from con- 
ditions of excess of males, North American birth and size of origin groups 131 

CHAPTER VII 

Chart 29. — Percentages naturalized by length of residence for immigrants from specified countries 

of birth 158 

CHAPTER VIII 

Chart 30. — Percentages of specified groups of origins unable to speak either English or French in 

Canada, 1921 162 

CHAPTER IX 

Chart 31. — Percentages illiterate among the foreign born ten years and over of the principal 

non-British and non-French origins in Canada, 1921 172 

CHAPTER X 

Chart 32. — Rate per 100,000 in reformatories for Foreign born and Canadian born children of 

specified origins 185 

CHAPTER XI 

Chart 33.— Percentage of employed males in specified industries by nativity groups in Canada, 

1921 203 

CHAPTER XII 

Chart 34.— Index of fertility 217 



Origin, Birthplace, Nationality and Language 
of the Canadian People 

INTRODUCTION 

DATA EELATING TO NATIONALITY, BIRTHPLACE, LANGUAGE AND ORIGIN 
AS COLLECTED BY THE CANADIAN CENSUS 

The population schedule of the census contains all together thirty-five questions, of 
which ten bear on the related subjects of nationality, birthplace, language and origin. 

(1) Nationality. — Each and every person is asked to state his nationality or citizenship. 
A person of Canadian citizenship or nationality, whether such by birth, domicile or naturali- 
zation, is recorded as " Canadian ". 

(2) Birthplace. — The country of birth of each person is recorded, and in the case of 
Canadian born, the province of birth. Further, the birthplaces of the father and mother 
of each person are also recorded for the purpose of distinguishing Canadian families of three 
or more generations residence in the country. 

(3) Language. — The language spoken is recorded, whether English, French or other 
language used in the family. 

(4) Origin. — The " origin " of each person is also recorded in ordter to ascertain from 
what basic stocks the Canadian population is being derived. 

The answers to the above questions are not only compiled separately, but in com- 
bination and cross-relation with each other, and are drafted with the purpose of throwing 
light from as many points of view as possible on the growth and present composition of the 
Canadian people. 

It is noted from the above, that the census describes everyone of Canadian nationality 
as "Canadian"; everyone born in Canada, as of "Canadian" birth; and everyone whose 
family has been of three generations residence (or more) in Canada, as " Canadian " in a 
special sense. 

Nationality and Citizenship. — At the last three decennial censuses of 1901, 1911 and 1921 
inquiry has been made into the nationality of the population. The relevant linsbnuotions to 
enumerators at the 1921 census were as follows: — 

"It is proper to use 'Canadian' as descriptive of every person whose home is in the 
country and who has acquired rights of citizenship in it. A person who was born in the 
United States, or France, or Germany or other foreign country, but whose home is in Canada 
and who is a naturalized citizen, should be entered as 'Canadian'; so also should a person 
born in the United Kingdom or any of its colonies whose residence in Canada is not merely 
temporary. An alien person will be classed by nationality or citizenship according to the 
country of birth, or the country to which he or she professes to owe allegiance. 

" A married woman is to be reported as of the same citizenship as her husband. 

"A foreign-born child under 21 years of age is to be reported as of the same citizenship 
as the parents." 

The fact that foreign-barn persons who have been in Canada less than five years (the 
length of residence required to obtain naturalization) are reported as " Canadian citizens " 
■is dn virtue of the operation of the Naturalization' Act of 1914, which provides that the fol- 
lowing persons shall be deemed to be British subjects: — 

(a) "Any person born within His Majesty's dominions and allegiance; and 
(6) "Any person born out of His Majesty's dominions, whose father was a British sub- 
ject at the time of that person's birth and-' either was born within His Majesty's allegiance or 
was a person to whom a certificate of naturalization had been granted; and 

(c) "Any person born on board a British ship whether in foreign territorial waters or 
not." 

11 



12 ORIGIN, BIRTHPLACE AND NATIONALITY 



Provided (1) "that the child of a British subject, whether that child was born before 
or after the passing of this Act, shall be deemed to have been born within His Majesty's 
allegiance if born in a place where by treaty, capitulation, grant, usage, sufferance, or other 
lawful means, His Majesty exercises jurisdiction over British subjects." 

(2) "The wife of a British subject shall be deemed to be a British subject." 

(3) "A woman, who having been an alien, has by or in consequence of her marriage 
become a British subject, shall not, by reason only of the death 6f her husband or the disso- 
lution of her marriage, cease to be a British subject." 

The approximate number of Canadian nationals in 1921, on the assumption that all 
CanadianHborn .persons resident in Canada, are Canadian nationals, was 8,412,383, including 
6,832,747 Canadian-born, 1,065,454 resident British-born and 514,182 naturalized foreign-born, 
of whom 237,994 had been born in the United States. Doubtless there were domiciled in 
Canada at "the date of the census certain Canadian-horn people who had at some time or 
other given up 'their original Canadian citizenship and had not resumed it either because of 
personal preference or because they had not been resident in this country the necessary period 
of five years required for repatriation. Again, certain of our British-born people domiciled 
in Canada were not Canadian citizens either because they had been naturalized in some 
foreign country and had never given up such allegiance or because they had not been resi- 
dent in Canada for the one year required to vote at elections or the five-year period required 
by the Immigration Act. 1 

On the other hand, many Canadian citizens are residents of other countries, the largest 
nuimber being in the United States, where the census taken on January 1, 1920, showed that 
out of 1,117,778 white persons of Canadian birth reported as residents of the United States 
at the date of the census, 607,303 were naturalized citizens, 72,714 had taken out (heir first 
papers and 345,557 were, from the point of view of the United States, aliens, and therefore, 
from our point of view, presumably Canadian citizens, while the citizenship of 92,304 was not 
ascertained. Thus a very considerable number of Canadian citizens were domiciled outside 
of Oanada in 1920 and 1921. 

USE OF THE TERM " ORIGIN " AS DISTINGUISHED FROM " RACE " 

In a strictly biological sense, the term " race " signifies a subgroup of the human species 
related by ties of physical kinship. Scientists have attempted to divide and subdivide the 
human species into groups on the basis of biological traits, such as shape of the head, stature, 
colour of skin, etc., and to such groups and to such only, would the biologist apply the term 
" race ". The use of the term, however, even in this strictly scientific sense is neither 
definite nor free from confusion, for there is no universally accepted classification. Further- 
more, the identification of certain types of culture with definite biological types has led 
inevitably to the result that, even in the hands of the ethnologist, the term " race " has 
acquired a cultural as well as a biological implication. 

Most modern national groups are composed of widely varying racial strains. The 
English type, if such exists in the biological sense, is the product of the commingling of 
perhaps half a dozen primitive stooks. The same applies to the French, Italians and indeed 
to any European group. Whether these peoples, during the past thousand years, have 
evolved distinct and homogeneous biological types which could approximately be termed 
"races" is a matter for debate. Homogeneity is always relative; so with race differentia- 
tion. The technical biological question as such, however, is of minor importance as far as 
the census is concerned. Even in such cases as Scottish and Irish, where it is well known 
that distinct strains exist, the cultural consideration is predominant. 

The significant fact in the present connection is this. The combined biological and 
cultural effect on Canada of the infiltration of a group of English is clearly different from 
that produced by a similar niuimber of, say, Ukrainians coming to the country. This is 
partly due to the different biological strains and partly to different cultural environment in 
the home country. It would be futile from a practical point of view to attempt to separate 



1 Out of 1,065,454 British-born residents of Canada on June 1, 1921. 90,056 immigrants had 
arrived since January 1, 1920, most of whom would presumably not have been residents of 
Canada for the one year required by the Dominion Election Act. Further, a total of 177,920 
British-born immigrants had entered the country since January 1, 1915, and most of these 
would not have been five years in the country and would not be considered as " Canadian 
citizens " under the definition of section 2 of the Immigration Act. 



DIFFICULTIES OF ORIGIN CLASSIFICATION 13 



the biological and the cultural influence. It is known, for example, that biologically the 
Orientals are not assimilable in Canada, even if •culturally assimilation were possible. On 
the other hand, neither Menmonites nor Doukhobora are easily assimilated culturally, though 
biologically an infusion could be effected. But the relative importance of the biological 
and cultural factors is not subject to quantitative measurement. Both, however, are com- 
bined under the term " origin." 

The term " origin ", therefore, as used by the census, usually has a combined biological, 
cultural and geographical significance. It suggests whence our people come and the implied 
biological strain and cultural background. Following popular usage, the terms, "English 
stock", " French stock", " Italian stock", etc., are employed to describe the sum total of the 
biological and cultural characteristics which distinguish such groups from others. Such 
usage is familiar to the public in general, and only when our " origin " classifications follow 
such lines, can they be collected by a census, be understood by the people or have any 
significance from the practical standpoint of the development of a Canadian nation. 

PRACTICAL DIFFICULTIES IN THE ORIGIN CLASSIFICATION 

The term " origin ", as used here, has a combined biological, cultural anl geographical 
significance. In certain cases all three aspects are clearly defined; in others the classification 
means little more than geographical origin, being distinct from nativity classification mainly 
in that it includes not only immigrants, but their descendants. The situation is made clear 
by examining the actual divisions in the origin tables of the census. 

First, there are cases in which the biological connotation included in' the term " origin " 
is pronounced, i.e., where the strains of the immigrating people are comparatively pure. 
Such are the coloured stocks, the Chinese, Japanese, Hindu, Negro and aboriginal Indians. 
In the case of many of the white peoples also the term " origin " includes both biological and 
cultural elements, as in the case of the English, French, Danish, Dutch, Finnish, German, 
Greek, Hebrew, Icelandic, Italian, Norwegian, Swedish, Syrian, and so on. With such 
groups no serious difficulties are involved. 

With certain other groups, however, the problem of classification is not so simple. 
Nearly 10,000 people in Canada in 1921 claimed to be of " Swiss " origin. Here " origin " 
can only mean original geographical habitat (" Swiss " being a national term including 
French, German and other stocks), coupled with a more or less distinct culture, the product 
of the partial fusing of several North Western European stocks. The same may be said 
of the Belgians, of whom nearly 60 p.c. speak Flemish as the mother tongue, while a con- 
siderable proportion speak French, Belgium consisting of two distinct peoples, the Flemish 
and the Walloons.^ 

It is in the Eastern and Central parts of Europe, however, that the greatest difficulty 
arises! While there are certain groups like the Bulgarians, Hungarians and Czechoslovaks 
where the mixture is not so confusing, there are groups found in the Canadian census like the 
Roumanians, 13 p.c. of whom spoke German as the mother tongue and 16 p.c. spoke one of 
the Slavic languages, arguing biologically a mixture of stocks. The intermingling is perhaps 
not so great with the Poles, S5 p.c. of whom spoke Slavic languages as the mother tongue 
and only a little under 10 p.c. spoke German. The Serbo-jCroata are preponderantly 
Slavs, judging from the data on mother tongue; but further difficulties emerge with the 
Russian, Ukrainian and Austrian groups. Of those reported as of Russian origin 40 p.c. 
spoke German as the mother tongue — presumably those from the Baltic provinces of 
Russia— and 54 p.c. spoke one of the Slavic languages, the great majority Russian. Thus, 
while the majority of those classed as of Russian origin were Slavs, there -was a considerable 
admixture of Teutonic stock. Of the Austriams, some 41 p.c. spoke German as mother 
tongue, and 53 p.c. one of the Slavic languages, nearly one-half of the latter speaking 
Bukoviniain, Galician, Ruthendan or Ukrainian. Such a group is clearly not a biological 
unit. The term " Austrian ". in the " origin " tables merely designates a group of immigrant 
people, most of whom are Slavs, and whose homes before coming to Canada in the pre-war 
days had been for many generations within common political boundaries and who had 
therefore the common traits begotten of a similar cultural and economic environment. 



14 ORIGIN, BIRTHPLACE AND NATIONALITY 

The Ukrainian classification, again, includes four groups: the Bukoviniain, Galician, 
Ruthenian, and Ukrainian. But the problem . here is not in the diverse elements within 
the group. The four peoples are separately classified and 97 p.c. of them speak Slavic 
languages. The group thus includes only biological strains which are closely allied — a 
fact which did not obtain with the Austrian or Russian. The difficulty is that the Ukrainian 
group probably includes only a part of those who might properly be so classed. There are 
about 20,000 in the Austrian " origin " group who speak one of the Ukrainian languages 
as the mother tongue, and it is probable ffliat 'there were also some Ukrainians among the 
33^56 so-called Russians who were reported as speaking Russian as the mother tongue. 

It is clear, therefore, that in certain cases, especially with people from South, Eastern 
and Central Europe, the " origin " classification signifies, primarily, original geographical 
habitat. In view of this fact the data in the present report are presented in such cases 
not only by origins but in general geographical groups and by language classification. 
Separate figures have been computed for those of North Western and South, Eastern and 
Central European origins, and for the Scandinavians, Germanic, Latin and Greek and Slavic 
groups. In some of the linguistic groups certain proportions speaking other languages were 
necessarily included. For example, the Austrians and Russians are classed as Slavs, yet 
about 40 p.c. of each speak German as the mother tongue. With the exception 'of those 
two groups, however, considerable homogeneity appears within the larger groupings, and 
even in the cases mentioned (the Austrians and Russians) it is a matter of debate whether 
from the point of view of culture the Germans of Austria and Russia domiciled in Canada 
aire not closer to the Slavs than to the Germans coming to Canada from Germany. 

The above facts regarding the " origin " classification should be borne in mind in 
reading the subsequent pages of this monograph. Except in the case of the Hebrews, 
the term " origin " always connotes the original geographical habitat of a population group, 
usually implies a distinct culture, and often a definite biological strain. In any case, it 
refers to a specific group of immigrants and their progeny. 

CLASSIFICATION OF MIXED STOCKS 

The male line is used in the census for tracing " origin " derivation. In this connection 
the population falls into two main categories: (1) the less assimilable peoples who have 
maintained their original purity, and (2) those who have intermarried freely for several 
generations. In the case of those falling within the first category, the procedure of the 
census is obviously satisfactory. It might be objected in the case of. those falling within 
the second category, however, that there are many individuals whose origins are so 
intermixed through intermarriages that their designation as of the origin indicated by 
their fathers' patronymic is largely meaningless. This may be accepted as true in so far 
as the individual is concerned. It remains true, however, that by the law of large numbers 
in the mass, the adoption of the practice followed in the census will yield approximately 
accurate measurements of the different infusions of blood that have gone to make up the 
total. 

The above becomes clear when we consider in greater detail the purposes for which 
" origin " data are collected. Apart from purely scientific studies such data have two 
types of use. First, they have an important bearing on the study of immigration, for 
they show with what measure of success the newer peoples are mixing with the basic stocks 
of the country and adapting themselves to Canadian institutions. In the second place, 
such data have considerable historical interest in recording not only the continuous infusion 
of foreign blood and foreign cultures from abroad, but the combined effect of natural 
increase and immigration on the " origin " structure of the population. 

In its bearing upon immigration' policy, the accuracy of the origin classification varies 
directly with^ its importance to public policy. Certain peoples readily intermarry with the 
native English and French stock in Canada and are easily assimilated in other respects. 
The larger the amount of intermarriage the greater is the number, for example, with 
part English blood who are classified as of Swedish origin and vice versa. As the fusion 
proceeds the social behaviour of the two groups becomes more and more alike. However, 



CLASSIFICATION OF MIXED STOCKS 15 

even when the two peoples have merged biologically and socially, the origin data perform 
a practical function in tracing the progress of the assimilative process and finally demon- 
strating that assimilation has taken place. 

There are other peoples like the South, Eastern and Central Europeans who are less 
successful in adapting themselves to Canadian social and legal institutions. The problem 
of assimilating such people is a . difficult one. With these peoples, however, much less 
intermarriage has taken place than is often supposed. It is shown in chapter VI that 
only about 5 p.c. of the men of South, Eastern and Central European stocks had married 
into the British or French stocks in Canada up to 1921 and less than 3 p.c. of the women. 
Almost all of those classed. as of Slavic stock are, therefore, of Slavic or allied origin and 
. the origin data for such people may be taken as accurately describing the behaviour of 
very definite groups in the population. This will continue to be the case until inter- 
marriage has proceeded much further than it has done up to the present. 

The origin data are thus most adequate in the case of groups where accuracy is most 
desirable, for it is with the groups where intermarriage . has made least headway that the 
progress of assimilation is slow and merits careful attention. The differences established 
in the various chapters of this report testify to the adequacy of the census procedure in 
respect to these non-assimilating peoples. 



SUMMARY 

Note. — It should be clearly understood by the reader of this summary and the report 
proper that the conclusions reached apply only to those portions of the several nationalities 
and stocks which have emigrated to, and are now a part of the population, of, Canada. 

CHANGES IN THE COMPOSITION OF THE POPULATION OF CANADA BETWEEN 

1901 AND 1921 

(1) In 1921, 55 p.c. of the population of the Dominion was of British stock, and nearly 
28 p.c. French. The other European stocks constituted 14-16 p.c. of the population, Asiatics 
less than 1 p.c.,- and all others, including Indians and Negroes, slightly over 2 p.c. The 
population of Canada is thus predominantly British a nd, JFYenp.h , these two stocks represent- 
ing over 83 p.c , or five-sixths, of the total. 

(2) In numbers, the North Western Europeans (other than British and French) 
exceeded the South, Eastern and Central Europeans in 1921 by approximately 20 p.c, 
but the latter group has been rapidly overtaking the. former. Numerica lly, the most, 
important foreign stocks in Canada of North West European origin are the Germans, JDutch, 
N orwegians and Swedi sh, in the order named; and among the South, East and Central 
Europeans those reported as of Austrian, Ukrainian, Russian, Italian and Polish origins. With 
the exception of the Germans, the Hebrews (the majority of whom have come from Central 
and Eastern Europe) are the most numerous of the foreign stocks in the Dominion. 

(3) Since the beginning of the century, the composition of the population of Canada 
has been in a state of rapid change. (See Chart 1.) The British and French form a pro- 
gressively smaller proportion of the population, and the numbers of Negroes a nd Red 
Indians have remain ed v irtually station ary. On the other hand, the numerical and per- 
centage increases of the non-British stocks in the past two decades have been relatively 

Chart 1 



PERCENTAGES or the POPULATION orCANADA of BRITISH, FRENCH, 
OTHER EUROPEAN and ASIATIC ORIGINS in 1901 and 1921. 

% 10 20 30 40 50 60% 



BRITISH 



FRENCH 



OTHER EUROPEAN 



ASIATIC 



mss^Mfs^maamtmsmitiffmmiZimz 



W///AW//////////MrMP/SAm 




1901 
1921 



16 



NATIVITY AND LENGTH OF RESIDENCE 



17 



great. Other European stocks increased relatively four times as rapidly as did the British 
between 1901 and 1911 . and constituted in 1921 almost twice as large a proportion of our 
population as they did in 1901. The Asiat ics increased three times as fast relatively as the 
British stocks in the first decade of the century. Increases in the foreign content of the 
Canadian population were not so great in the last decade, chiefly on account of arrested immi- 
gration. With' economic readjustment in Europe, however, joined to the United States' 
policy of exclusion, immigration, it is expected, will be renewed, with probable further shift- 
ing in the balance of the different stocks in Canada. It will be shown below that such an 
event will be hastened by abnormally high rates of natural increase, especially among the 
peoples from Southern, Eastern and Central Europe. 



NATIVITY AND LENGTH OF RESIDENCE 

(1) In 1921, 9,7 p.c. of the French and three-quartera. of the British stocks were Canadian 
born. The Dutch, Germans, Swiss and Icelanders from the North and West of Europe, and 
the Ukrainian, Austrian, Polish and Russian peoples from the South, East and Central parts 
of the Continent, showed proportions Canadian born ranging from 50 p.c. to 80 p.c, the figure 
for the Germanic group being the highest. Though the Slavs and the Latins and Greeks both 
Showed larger proportions Canadian 'born than the Scandinavians, a relatively large propor- 
tion of the latter group was born in the United States, so that from the standpoint of date 
of arrival on this continent, the Scandinavians with the Germanic peoples belong to the 
older immigration. 

(2) While the Germanic an d Scandinavian stocks from the North and West of Europe 
generally may be regarded as the older .se ttler s on this continent, and the Latin and Greek 
and Slavic peoples as on the whole the more recent arrivals, it should be borne in mind 
that there are exceptions to any such general rule. The Belgians from North Western 
Europe are recent arrivals, while the Austrians, Czechs and Russians from Central and 
Eastern Europe show almost as small proportions born outside Canada and the United 
States as some of the stocks classed among the older immigrants. 

(3) Passing to the proportions of our total population Canadian born and born outside 
of Canada, there has been a marked decrease in the proportion Canadian born and a cor- 

Chabt n 



PERCENTAGES of POPULATION orCANADA BORN OUTSIDE or 
CANADA,I90UndI92I.bt SPECIFIED NATIVITY. 



ayAWsimmi 



ALL IMMIGRANTS 
BRITISH COUNTRIES 
UNITED STATES 

NORTH WQTERN EUROPE || 

»Sr EUROPE ga 



'mr/jy/y/MimLMiim'/M: 



56 O 2 4 6 a O 12 14 -16 18 20 22 24 26 X 



74422-2 



18 



SUMMARY 



responding increase in the proportion of immigrants as between 1901 on the one hand and 
1911 and 1921 on the other. At the latter date 8 p.c. more of the population was foreign 
born than in 1901. The proportion of our population born in North Western Europe was 
80 p.c. greater in 1911 than in 1901, and the proportion born in South, Eastern and Central 
Europe almost trebled in that decade. Since the beginning of the century, the proportion 
of our population born in South, Eastern and Central Europe has been greater than that 
born in the North and West of Europe, and the disparity between the numbers of the 
foreign born from the two sections of the continent has become progressively more marked. 
In 1901 the inuimbers were about equal, but by 1921 the foreign born from South, Eastern 
and Central Europe exceeded those from North Western Continental Europe, by two and 
a half times. There has thus been a shifting of the weight of immigrant population from 
the Germanic and Scandinavian to the Slavic and Latin countries. These points are pre- 
sented graphically in Charts 2 and 3. 

Chart III 



PERCENTAGES ofEUROPE AN IMMIGRANTS in CANADA from 
North Western and South,Eastern and Central Europe in 1901 and 1921 



NORTH WESTERN EUROPE 

SOUTHEASTERN p . ,pODP 
AND CENTRAL tUKUrt 



1901 g2^ 
1921 




70% 



AGE, SEX AND CONJUGAL CONDITION 

Age. — Among the Canadi an born , the proportion of children under 15 was nearl y four 
times greate r than among the foreign born , and over five times greater than among the 
other British born. Over against this comparative paucity of immigrant children, both the 
foreign and British born show much larger proportions in the prime of life. The social effect 
of such radical differences in age distribution is illustrated in subsequent parts of the report, 
especially in that dealing with criminality. 

Equally significant are the differences in age distribution between the various stocks 
m Canada. A group classified on the basis of original extraction includes not only the 
foreign born, but also their Canadian born children, and thus has a more or less real and 
distinct existence as a population group. Differences in the age distribution of the different 
stocks suggest, among other things, differences in fertility. Among the Slavs and Latins 
and Greeks in Canada, the proportions under 10 years of age were greater by half than 
those of British origin, and more than a quarter greater than those of German or Scandi- 
navian origin. The percentage of those of French origin, under 10 years of age was about 
midway between that for the Slavs and that for the Scandinavians. 

Sex. — As in tho case of age, differences in sex distribution have an important bearing 
on criminality and law enforcement; indirectly, sex differences also throw light on the dif- 
fering behaviour of immigrant peoples in respect to permanency of residence in Canada and 
in such social phenomena as intermarriage, etc. Marked differences in the numbers of the 
sexes exist as between the various origins in Canada, but of more direct interest are the 
differences in the sex composition of the immigrant groups. (See Chart 4.) In 1921, the 
immigrants from British countries showed a surplus of 14 males for every 100 females, 
those from South, Eastern and Central, Europe, a surplus of 45, and those of North Western 
European birth a surplus of 50. The Asiatic immigrants led with over seven times as many 



AGE, SEX AND CONJUGAL CONDITION 



19 



males as females. Among the linguistic groups, the Germanic immigrants were lowest with 
a third or 33 p.c. more males than females; the Slavs stood next with a surplus of 38 p.c; 
the Scandinavians had 75 p.c. more males than females, and the Italian and Greek immi- 
grants ranked highest with a surplus of 88 p.c. 

These differences are based on data for all ages. When the analysis is confined to the 
adult section of the population, the proportion of surplus males is much greater, as among 
children the numbers of the sexes tend to be equal. 

Chakt IV 



SURPUUS MALES per 100 FEMALES AMONG IMMIGRANTS in 

CANACA.I92I 

% 10 20 30 40. SO 60 70 80 90 10 0% 



Latin and GreekCountries 



Scandinavian Countries 



NorthWestern Europe 



Southeastern andCentral Europe 



Slavic Countries 



Germanic Countries 



British Countries 



United States 





m 



Conjugal Condition.— As indicated in Chart 5, the British born females showed a 
larger percentage married than the Canadian born fema'les at all ages, and the foreign bom 
a larger percentage than either the British or Canadian born. The foreign born females 
have mot only married to a. greater patent, than- tjip rinr iadian and British, but have married 
on the a vprnfrp. p.nnmHprnMy ynnnprpr These facts have an important and obvious bearing 
on the future population structure of the Dominion. 

The foreign born males also tend to marry younger than the Canadian and British 
born males. The difference is so marked that in spite of a large shortage of immigrant 
women, the foreign born- males between the ages of 15 and 25 years show larger percent- 
ages married than the British or Canadians. It is of interest to note further, that there is 
a much larger proportion of unmarried foreign born males in the far east and far west of 
Canada than in the central provinces. 



74422— 2J 



20 



SUMMARY OF 



Chart V 



SO 60 70 80 90 10 0% 



PERCENTAGE orPOPULATION 15 YEARS ano OVER MARRIED,by 
SEX and NATIVITY GROUPS, CANADA 1921 

(MALES) 

FOREIGN^™ 

BRITISH born ■ ., ■ 

CANADIAN born 
(FEMALES) 
FOREIGN born, 

BRITISH born 
CANADIAN born 




, DISTRIBUTION OF IMMIGRANT STOCKS BY PROVINCES 

(1) Radical differences appear in the structure of the population of the various sections 
of the Dominion. The following table shows the proportions of specified groups in the 
population of Canada as a whole and in each of the nine provinces in 1921 : — 



Province 


P.c. 
British 
Origin 


P.c. 

French 
Origin 


P.c. 

Other 

European 

Origin 


P.c. 

Asiatic 
Origin 




55 '40 
85-34 
77-81 
65-23 
15-12 
77-79 
57-53 
52-86 
59-79 
73-87 


27-91 
13-51 
10-81 
31-22 
80-01 
8-46 
6-66 
5-56 
5-25 
2-14 


14-16 

0-67 

9-34 

2-53 

3-85 

11-99 

32-99 

39-14 

31-16 

11-63 


0-75 




, 0-11 




1 0-28 




0-21 




0-22 




0-31 




0-28 




0-43 




0-73 




7-57 







It is seen that the proportion of British stock in the provinces from Ontario east 
(Quebec excepted) was, on the average, approaching a half greater than in the Prairie 
Provinces. On the other hand, the proportion of foreign European stock in the three 
Prairie Provinces was three times greater than in Ontario and Nova Scotia, and ten times 
greater than in Quebec, Prince Edward Island and New Brunswick. 

(2) While the population structure an the East is changing comparatively slowly, the 
population structure in the West is in a state of flux. An examination of the population 
by nativity brings out. this fact clearly. The proportions of the population foreign born 
range from a little over one per cent in Prince Ediward 1 Island to nearly 30 p.c. in Alberta 
and Saskatchewan and close to 20 p.c. in Manitoba and British Columbia. The largest 
proportion shown in any Eastern province was 6 p;c. for Ontario. The proportion Cana- 
dian born ranges from over 97 p.c. in Prince Edward Island at the extreme East to approxi- 



DISTRIBUTION OF IMMIGRANT STOCKS BY PROVINCES 



21' 



mately 50 p.c. in the far West. In the eastern provinces and British Columbia the propor- 
tion of the population of British birth (outside Canada) is much greater than the propor- 
tion of foreign birth; in Manitoba, the numbers are almost equal; in Saskatchewan there 
are twice as many foreign born immigrants as immigrants from the British Isles; and in, 
Alberta the preponderance of the foreign born is also marked, though not to quite the 
same extent. (See Chart 6.) 

By way of illustration, a few additional facts are presented. The province of Ontario 
showed in actual numbers as many British born immigrants as the entire West, while the 
four western provinces, with a combined population smaller than Ontario, bad three times 
as many foreign born residents. _ In _ On tario three-quarters of the imm igrants j£eifi_of_ 
British _birth and o ne-qua rter foreign. In Alberta . .and fias jkatcriBiwn.n ,, two-thirds of the 
immigrants were born in foreign countries and only nnp- frhirH wprc ^f "RT-;t,j R h hil fV ' In 
Manitoba half of the immigrants born were from foreign European countries and three- 
quarters of these were from South, East and Central Europe, nine-tenths of whom were 
from Slavic countries. In each of the three Prairie Provinces, the South, East and Central 
Europeans outnumbered those from Germanic and. Scandinavian countries combined by 
from two to three times. 

Not only has the composition of the population of Canada radically changed since 1901, 
but what is of equal importance from the standpoint of Canadian unity, 1 a progressive dif- 
ferentiation between East and West has taken place in population structure. That differ- 
ence will not only be permanent, but must increase, if immigration and natural increase 
(or either) continue on the existing scale. 

Chart VI 



PERCENTAGEor SPECIFIED FOREIGN NATIVITIES.nthiPOPULATION 
or the SEVERAL PROVINCESJ92I 






°4o 

British Columbia 






f&nrip/rtirjre c/'/ : b/xt&r//0/r dar/r 




%% 



22 



SUMMARY ON ORIGIN AND BIRTHPLACE 



URBAN AND RURAL DISTRIBUTION 

(1) An analysis of the rural and urban' distribution of the population by origins in 
Canada reveals several significant facts. Approximately one-quarter of the population 
of Canada is resident in cities of 25,000 and over. The Hebrews show a proportion of 
84-06 p.c, a percentage three times as large as that for the British. The Greeks with 
64-20 p.c, the Italians wit'h 47-92 p.c, the Chinese with 44-87 .p.c, and the Negroes with 
35-97 p.c, also show an unusual tendency to congregate in large centres. The British with 
28-17 px. in such cities are slightly more urban than the total population, and the French 
with a percentage of 22-45 slightly less. With the exception of the Boles, the Slavs show 
much smaller proportions in cities 25,000 and over than the population as a whole, and 
those of Germanic and Scandinavian origin are also among the least urban of the peoples 
in Canada. The differences are very great, the proportions in large cities ranging all the 
way from 2-66 p.c. for the Ukrainians to 84-06 p.c. for tihe Hebrews. 

(2) Of the immigrants, those from Asia, from the British Isles and from Latin and Greek 
countries were domiciled in incorporated cities., towns and villages of all sizes to an extent 
far greater than those born in Slavic, Germanic and Scandinavian countries. (See Chart 7.) 

(3) A distinction between the behaviour of the immigrants in the east and west is 
interesting. Those from South, East and Central Europe resident in the Eastern provinces 
are more urban than the total population in those provinces, but those in the West are 

' somewhat less urban than the population as a whole. Similarly, immigrants from the 

I United States tend to settle in. the cities, especially in Ontario and Quebec, but in Saskat- 

L chewan and Alberta they take up rural residence. Both in the East and West, the North 

Western Europeans are more rural than the populations of the respective provinces in which 

they have settled. 

There is a marked tendency to segregation among the stocks which congregate in large 
cities and among certain very rural peoples; this materially impedes the process of 
assimilation. 

Chart VII 



PERCENTAGES or IMMIGRANTSfrom SPECIFIED COUNTRIES of 
BIRTH, DOMICILED in URBAN AREAS, 1921 
Asia 
British Isles 

Latin and Greek Countries 

SJLastern and Cent. Europe 

Slavic Countries 

United States 

Germanic Countries 

N.Western Europe 



Scandinavian Countries 
















































































%o 



10 20 



30 



40 SO 60 70% 



INTERMARRIAGE OF PERSONS OF DIFFERENT ORIGINS 



23 



INTERMARRIAGE! 

Intermarriage is at once an index and a method of assimilation. The foreign stocks in 
Canada show great differences both in respect of the extent to which they have inter- 
married with the basic stocks of the country and their inclination to do so. Some stocks, 
such as the Orientals, Hebrews and certain of the Slavic peoples, are practically inassimilable 
by marriage; others assimilate very readily. 

(1) Deailing first with the amount of intermarriage which had taken place by 1921, it 
was found that. 3/! -3 n .n. of the married men of North Western Europeans had married out- 
side their own stock and 34-3 t >.c, of the women, as against 16-2_pc. of the men and 13-j^p.c. 
of the women of South, Eastern and Central European stocks. Thus the North Western 
Europeans as a group had intermarried with others more than twice as much as the South, 
Eastern and Central Europeans. Of the linguistic groups, the Scandinavians had married 
into other stocks to the greatest extent-^approximately 43 p.c. for both men and women ; the 
Germanic peoples ranked second with 30 p.c. Only 22-2 p.c. of the men of Latin and Greek 
origin had crossed the line of their own stock in marriage, and 15-2 p.c. of the men of Slavic 
origin. The figures for the women of the last mentioned origins were even smaller, being 
14-4 p.c. for the Slavs; and 7-6 p.c. for the Latins and Greeks. Differences between individual 
stocks are still more marked. For example, using the data for the men one finds that 74-2 
p.c. of the Danes, 73-7 p.c. of the Swiss and 53 p.c. of the Dutch had married wives of other . 
origins, as against 10-6 p.c. for the Austrians, 10-5 p.c. for the Galicians, 9-2 p.c. for the Finns, 
7-5 p.c. far the Ukrainians and 4-2 p.c. for the Hebrews. The progress of intenminglinig by 
marriage has proceeded farther with the Scandinavian and Germanic origins than with the 
Slavic and Latin and Greek peoples. Many stocks have intermarried scarcely ait all. 

Chakt VIII 



PERCENTAGES orMARRIED MALES and FEMALESor SPECIFIED 
ORIGIN MARRIEDtoBRITISHandFRENCHinREGISTRATION 

AREA, 1921 



0ri6in groups %q 
N.Western Europeans 



S, Eastern anoCcnt. Eur. 

Scandinavian 
Germanic 

Latin and Greek 

Slavic 




'/////////. v/jy/AW///jy////////jY//////s. 



Y/y////s//y///Ays/jy////0///f////Ar///s////A 



mz'///s////<7^a 



f/fs //rt//G?fcef6y/te0Jrr'/7/4r<je of c#//t/sr/7 6or/7 //r /Az/ye.srr.1 



1 The conclusions in this section are based on the parentage of children born in the Regis- 
tration Area in 1921. 



24 SUMMARY ON ORIGIN AND BIRTHPLACE 

(2) Turning next to the progress of assimilation by intermarriage with the basic stocks 
of the country, one finds even greater differences between the foreign stocks. While 24.0 
p.c. of .the married males of North Western European origin and 24.6 p.c. of the females had 
married into the British and French stocks, only 5.2 p.c. of the men and^2.5 p.c. of the 
women of South, Eastern and Central European stock had' done so. Similar differences' 
appear in the data for the linguistic groups. (See Chart 8.) Generally speaking, those of 
Scandinavian and Germanic origins showed a relatively large amount of intermarriage 
with the British, and French, while the Slavs and the women of Latin and 1 Greek 
origin showed very small percentages. The Italian and Greek males have intermarried 
more than the females because of the large surplus of men in the immigration from these 
countries. 

A study of intermarriage between the foreign stocks and the English speaking peoples 
reveals such interesting facts as the following: approximately 43.4 p.c. of the married men 
of Dutch origin had married wives of British stock, 36.8 p.c. of the Swiss and 34.5 p^c. of 
the Danes. As against these, one finds such strikingly low figures as 3.6 ip.c. for the Poles, 
3.3 p.c. for the Roumanians, 1.6 p.c. for the Hebrews, 1.3 p.c. for the Austrians, 0.7 p.c. 
for the Ukrainians and 0-5 p.c. for the Galicians. 

Important as are such differences, the absolute magnitude of the proportions is of as 
great if not greater significance. Assimilation by intermarriage with the British and French 
has made some progress among most of -the North Western European peoples, but it has 
, scarcely begun with those of the South, Eastern and Central parts of the Continent 

(3) Considerations of length of residence in Canada, sex distribution and numerical size 
of the several groups interfere with the use of the above percentages as an index of assimila- 
bility. As has been pointed out, they merely measure the amount of assimilation by inter- 
marriage having already taken place. There appear, however, to be very real differences 
between the. groups in respect to ease of assimilation, quite independent of the three more 
or less accidental and extraneous factors mentioned above. A multiple correlation was worked 
out, and the expected amount of intermarriage was computed for the males of nineteen white 
stocks in terms of (1) length of residence as indicated by percentage of stock North 
American born, (2) percentage surplus of males (21 years of age and over), and (3) pro- 
portion which the stock constituted of the total population of Canada. 

In seven out of nineteen cases, the actual amount of intermarriage up to 1921 exceeded 
expectation. All seven groups, except the Czechoslovaks, were North Western European 
peoples. With the exception of the Dutch and Icelanders, those showing percentages less 
than expectation were all South, Eastern and Central Europeans. Moreover, the differences 
in assimilability were of no mean order. Intermarriage for the Swedes and Danes, for 
example, exceeded expectation by 75 p.c, and that for the Austrians fell short by 42' p.c, 
for the Icelanders 52 p.c. and for the Ukrainians by 61 p.c It is a wide spread from 75 p.c 
above to 61 p.c. below expectation, and it would be hard to find more conclusive proof that 
peculiarities of the different stocks are of major importance in the matter of assimilation. 

It was shown, in particular, that segregation was an important barrier to intermarriage 
—indeed, the disparity between the figure for the Icelanders and those for the other Scandina- 
vian peoples is probably due mainly to geographical and occupational segregation. 
That the recorded intermarriage for the Dutch was slightly below expectation is explained by 
the segregation of the Mennonites in Manitoba and Saskatchewan, and the unusually low 
figure for the Ukrainians is attributed in part at least to a similar circumstance. Some stocks 
tend to segregate to a much greater extent than do others, and to that extent they are more 
difficult to assimilate. 

Other barriers also were found to exist, but the principal findings of this subsection 
may be summarized as follows: First, the different stocks differ radically in assimilability 
by marriage with other stocks in Canada, and secondly, speaking generally, the North Western 
Europeans are' possessed of distinctive characteristics favourable to assimilation by marriage, . 
while the peculiarities of the South, Eastern and Central Europeans and, in particular, their 
tendency to segregate make assimilation abnormally difficult. 



INTERMARRIAGE OF PERSONS OF DIFFERENT ORIGINS 



25 



(4) Of equal importance with the general question of assimilability is the ease of 
assimilation with the basic stocks of the country. Greater differences appear in respect 
to assimilability with the British. A rough index is given by the proportion of men marrying 
outside their respective stocks, who choose wives of British extraction. The disturbing 
influences of sex, length of residence and numerical strength of the several groups are 
thereby greatly reduced. On the basis of mere chance, something over 50 p.c. of the exoga- 
mous marriages would have been contracted with the British. The analysis based on the 
Registration Area of 1921 (that is, all Canada, excluding Quebec) shows that of the 'men who 
bad married into other stocks only 4-4 p.c. of the Galicians, 8-9 p.c. of the Ukrainians, 12-6 
p.c. of the Austrians, 14.1 p.c. of the Roumanians, 18-0 p.c. of the Poles and 19-3 p.c. of the 
Russians had married into British stocks, \Vhile 82.0 p.c. of the Dutch', 78.7 p.c. of the Ice- 
landers and 68 - p.c. of bhe Germans had done so. The proportion for the men of the 
Germanic stocks was 70-0 p.c, of the Scandinavian 52-1 p.c, of the 'Latins and Greeks 47-4 
p.c, and the Slavic 16-8 p.c. The figures for the women were as follows: Germanic stocks. 
69-6 p.c; Scandinavian, 56-6 p.c; Latins and Greeks, 17-6 p.c; and Slavic, 15-3 p.c. (See 
Chart 9.) 

The preference of the Germanic and Scandinavian peoples for the British stocks (or the 
preference of the British for them) is clearly brought out, as well as the existence of unusual 
resistance to intermarriage between the Latin and Greek and Slavic peoples, and the British. 
Certain stocks assimilate fairiy rapidly in Canada's "melting pot"; others move slowly, while 
many appear to be practically inassimilable. It is a matter of indifference whether foreign 
people fail to marry with the British and French stocks because of aversion on their own 
part or on the part of the British and French. The result is the same so far as Canada's 
population structure is concerned. 

Chaut IX 



NUMBER ofMALESandFEMALESofFOREIGN ORIGIN MARRIED.nto 

BRITISH STOCKSas. a PROPORTION or the NUMBER MARRIED 

OUTSIDEtmeirown STOCK; by SPECIFIED GROUPSorORIGINS 

REGISTRATION AREA,I92I. 



ORIGIN SROUPS 



N.V\fesTERNEu»«<»EANS 



S,Eas 



Cent.Eu 



TERN AND <wENT. C.UR. 




Scandinavian 
Germanic 
Latin and Greek 
Slavic 



y///////,'///A s//nY/y/rAV////jY////s, 



*£00*Z*09**K***2*0**ftgS«***2 




WZ?7>7Z77&, 7 Zm 



fds //7c//c<?/e'd ' 4y tfe /sr/fwfr^f 0/ cA/ya r /v/7 for/7 //7 /A&/ yr^s:J 



26 



SUMMARY ON ORIGIN AND BIRTHPLACE 



NATURALIZATION 

(1) Naturalization is one step in assimilation. Like intermarriage, it has a twofold 
aspect. It is, in the first place, an indication of the progress of the assimilative process. 
Further, it is indicative of the permanency of the interest of foreign immigrants in the 
country. Other things being equal, where foreigners naturalize readily they are usually 
more permanent residents than where they remain aliens. Great differences appear in the 
extent to which foreigners have naturalized and also in their predisposition to identify them- 
selves with Canadian national life and Canadian affairs. 

(2) To illustrate the first point, some 86-4 p.c. of the foreign born Icelanders <of all ages 
and both sexes had become naturalized by 1921, while the proportion naturalized of the 
foreign born Chinese was only 4-8 p.c. The ten groups of foreign born who had naturalized 
to the greatest extent were the Icelanders, Hungarians, Norwegians, Swedes, Germans, Gali- 
cians, United States born, Russians, Roumanians and Austrians in descending order; the 
ten among whom naturalization had progressed least, were the Chinese, Bulgarians, Greeks, 
Italians, Japanese, Jugo-Slavs, Belgians, Finns, Turks and Dutch, in ascending order. The 
Icelanders had the highest percentage in the first list, and the Chinese the lowest in the 
second. The median percentage naturalized for the first group was 65-6 p.c; for the second, 
33-6 p.c. 

(3) Urbanization is unfavourable to naturalization . When the proportions of the 
respective groups living in urban areas are compared with the proportions naturalized, on 
the average, a high percentage naturalized is associated with a comparatively small percent- 
age urban, and vice versa. 

Chart X 



NATURALIZED FOREIGN-BORN as PERCENTAGE of the TOTAL 
POPULATION by PROVINCES. 1921 

% O 2 4 6 B 10 12 14 16 IB 20 2? 24 26^ 




LANGUAGES SPOKEN AND ILLITERACY 27 

(4) Naturalization of the foreign born has progressed to differing degrees and at differ- 
ent rates in the nine provinces. The percentages of all foreign born naturalized by prov- 
inces were in 1921 as follows: — 



Province 


P.c. 

of Foreign 

Born 
Naturalized 




" 81-3 




70-9 




67-2 




64-1 




61-9 




55-5 




54-5 




46-3 




40-5 




57-8 



When the above figures are related to the percentages of the population foreign born 
in the various provinces, the following facts are revealed. In the three Prairie Provinces 
the proportion of the population foreign born in 1921, was from three to five times greater 
than in Ontario and the percentage of those naturalized was larger by half. The net result 
was that the naturalized foreign born formed four times as large a proportion of the popula- 
tion in Manitoba as in Ontario, and in Saskatchewan and Alberta the proportion was six 
times greater than in Ontario. (See Chart 10.) 

(5) An indication of the speed of naturalization is given by the percentages naturalized 
by date of arrival. The Scandinavians and the United States born have naturalized most 
rapidly; the rates for the Slavic and Germanic peoples are about equal and considerably 
lower; the rates for the Italians and Greeks are the lowest for any Europeans. Indeed the 
rates for the Italians and Greeks up to 1910 were only a little higher than for the Japanese, 
and since that time they have been considerably lower. Apparently large numbers of immi- 
grants from those countries do not come to Canada with the intention of becoming Cana- 
dian citizens. Among the Slavs, the Russians have naturalized the most rapidly and the 
Poles, being the most urban, have been the slowest. 

LANGUAGES SPOKEN 

(1) Only Jj-Q p.c. of those belonging to the North Western European group, 10 
years of age and over, were unable to speak French or English, whileJLZJi.p.c. of the South, 
Eastern and Central Europeans were unable to do so in 1921. The percentages for the 
linguistic groups were: Scandinavians, 2-1; Germanic, 3-4; Latin and Greek, 13-3; and 
Slavic, 18-9. Peoples like the Danes, Swiss, Greeks, etc.. learn English comparatively rapidly, 
while the Icelanders, Hungarians, Roumanians and Austrians are very slow in acquiring it. 
Over one quarter of the Ukrainians were unable to speak either language, yet 55 p.c. of them 
were Canadian born. 

(2) The extent to which the languages of Canada are acquired and the speed of learn- 
ing them is largely a matter of the stock one belongs to, and, on the whole, those people 
who intermarry least, not only show the largest percentages ignorant of French and English, 
but show the least disposition to acquire those languages. 

ILLITERACY 

(1) The correlations between illiteracy in the various groups, the proportions unable to 
speak English or French and the regularity of school attendance, are very high. 

(2) Of the ten most illiterate stocks, nine, come from the South, East and Central parts 
of Europe, the tenth being the Chinese. The foreign born of North Western European 
origin showed 2-66 p.c. 10 years and over, illiterate; the immigrants from South, Eastern 
and Central Europe, 22-31 p.c. The foreign born of Slavic origin are by far the most illiter- 
ate people in Canada, showing 24-45 p.c. unable to read or write any language. The 



28 



SUMMARY ON ORIGIN AND BIRTHPLACE 



Ukrainian immigrants are the worst with a proportion of 39-46 p.c. illiterate, and the Aus- 
trians are not much better— 35 -OS p.c. of them are illiterate. .The Czechs are different from 
the other Slavs in respect to literacy, as in many other particulars; their illiterates represent 
only 11-94 p.c. Of the foreign born from Latin and Greek countries, the Roumanians with 
27-03 p.c. unable to read or write any language, are the most illiterate; the Italians rank 
second with 23-68 p.c. The Greeks are much better, showing only 11-59 p.c. illiterate. All 
those percentages, however, are quite high when compared with 3-03 p.c. for tlhe imimiigrante 
of Germanic origin, and 1-81 p.c. for the Scandinavians. These data are presented in sum- 
mary form in Chart 11. 

(2) Birthplace is a factor in illiteracy. The native born show considerably smaller pro- 
portions illiterate than the foreign born, which is an evidence of the effectiveness of Cana- 
dian schools and other institutions. However, strong ancestral tendencies appear over and 
above the influence of nativity, making it very clear that illiteracy is in no small measure a 
matter of group heredity. 

(3) A comparison of the above data on illiteracy with the distribution of the various 
origins by provinces and the proportions naturalized, is rather significant. 

Chart XI 



PROPORTIONS ILLITERATE AMONG FOREIGN BORN, 10 YRS 
andOVER.for SPECIFIED GROUPSof COUNTRIES or BIRTH, 

1921. 



%o 



N. Western Europe 

S, Eastern and Cent. Europe 

Scandinavian Countries 

Germanic Countries 
Latin and Greek Countries 
Slavic Countries 



20 



**% 




CRIME 

The relation of criminality to extraction and birthplace is shown by an examination of 
data for reformatory and penitentiary population and of the statistics of convictions for 
indictable offences. 

(1) Data on Convictions for Indictable Offences. — An analysis of the data covering all 
convictions for indictable offences showed that, taking the age and sex distribution as they 
actually existed in 1921, the problem of law enforcement was 50 p.c. greater among the 
British born and between three and four times more difficult among the foreign born than 



CRIME 



29 



with native Canadians. After age and sex differences were eliminated, the number of con- 
victions per 100,000 British born was about equal to that for the Canadian born, but the 
number for the foreign born was nearly twice as great. 

(2) Reformatory Data. — The proportion of immigrant males and females in reforma- 
tories in 1921 was about twice greater than that for the Canadian born. Those of the North 
Western European peoples (other than British and French) had 36 per 100,000 children 
between 10 and 20 years of age in reformatories, while the South, Eastern and Central 
European peoples showed 184. The Scandinavians had 32 per 100,000; the Germanic group, 
38; ithe British 135; the Slavs 166; and the Latins and Greeks 340. (See Chart 12.) The 
influence of nativity is included in the above figures. They depict the situation as it actu- 
ally existed in i921. The influence of nativity may be eliminated by examining separ- 
ately the rates for the immigrants and the Canadian born of the various origins. When the 
rates are thus freed from the influence of nativity, it appears that the Italian, Greek, Polish, 
Russian and Austrian children show many times larger percentages in institutions of cor- 
rection than do those of the Germanic and Scandinavian origins. 

The data also show that, for the average foreign community, there is marked improve- 
ment in the behaviour of the children of the second and subsequent generations in Canada. 

Chart XII 



NUMBER per 100,000 CHILDREN, 10-20 YRS.in REFORMATORIES, 
tor SPECIFIED ORIGIN-GROUPS.I92I 



ORIGIN O ?5 50 

Si, Eastern and Cent. Eur 
N'.Western European 




RATE PER 100,000 

200 , 2K> 



Latin and Greek 

Sl/vic 

British 

French 

Germanic 

Scandin/vian 



-300. 



JiSi 




(3) Penitentiary Data. — The evidence of the penitentiary population is much the same, 
except that the rate for the British born is comparatively low as compared with that for 
the foreign born. The crude penitentiary rates per 100,000 population of corresponding 
nativity groups, 15 years and over, were for the Canadian born 19, for the British born 27, 
and for the foreign born 75 per 100,000. Differences in sex distribution were elim- 
inated by examining the data for the males and females separately. The rate for the Cana- 
dian born males was found to be 38, for the British born males 49, and for the foreign born 



30 



SUMMARY OF DATA ON ORIGIN AND BIRTHPLACE 



males 127, the latter being more than three times greater than the rate for the Canadian 

born. The age distribution of the British and foreign born males is more favourable to 

I crime than that of the Canadian born. However, there were only three quinquennial age 

! groups between 15 and 60 years when the penitentiary rate for the foreign born males was 

f not more than twice that for the Canadian born, and in those three cases the rates were 

only slightly less than double. A similar comparison of the Canadian and British born 

reveals very small differences between the penitentiary rates for the males of those nativity 

groups at the various ages. 

While the foreign born as a group were thus less law-abiding by half than the Canadian 
born after considerations of -age and sex are eliminated, if one takes the sex and age dis- 
tribution as it actually existed in 1921, the problem of law enforcement in respect to major 
offences was four times greater for the foreign born than for the Canadian born. Peni- 
tentiary data thus confirm the previous conclusions based on indictable offences. 

_(4) When the analysis is made by specific countries of birth, it is found that the peni- 
tentiary rates for the males 21 years of age and over from the five foreign countries from 
which the largest numbers of male immigrants have come in recent years, were as follows: — 

Italy 337 Poland 182 

Austria 273 Russia 144 

Roumania 209 

The rate for all foreign born males was 142. 

The rate for the North Western European born males was 59, as against 185 for the 
South, Eastern and Central European born. That for the Asiatic males was 53 and for the 
United States born males, 159 1 . Taking the linguistic groups, the males 21 years and over 

Chart XIII 



NUMBERorFOREIGN BORN MALES in PENITENTIARIES per 
100,000 MALE POPULATION 21 YRS.ano OVER or SPE- 
CIFIED NATIVITY GROUPS, 1921. 

[RATE PER 100,000] 
50 100 ISO 200 250 300 

S^Eastern and Cent. Europe 



United States* 

+tf/f6r<3fedi/efoprv/ess/'o/Tjr/cr/mi/r^/a - no/ seftvrs. 

N .Western Europe ■■ 

Asia R0 

Latin and Greek Countries 
Slavic Countries 
Germanic Countries 
Scandinavian Countries 





1 The high rate for the United States born is not attributed to the bona fide settler. The 
close proximity of the United States and the ease of crossing the international boundary makes 
Canada peculiarly subject to temporary visits of professional criminals from that country. 



CRIME 



31 



from Scandinavian countries showed 42 per 100,000 in penitentiaries; those from Germanic 
countries, 68; from Slavic countries, 161; and from Latin and Greek countries, 290. The 
reader is referred to Chart 13. 

(5) The relationship between citizenship and criminality is briefly summarized as fol- 
lows: out of 608 foreign born inmates of penitentiaries in 1921, 526 or 87 p.c. were aliens. 
The rate for the aliens was 179 and for the naturalized, 20. Similar differences appear in the 
rates for the individual countries of birth. 

(6) That origin, as well as country of birth, is an important factor in criminality has also 
been demonstrated. The negroes are the most criminal in respect of major offences. Of 
foreign origins the rates for the Roumanians (341), Italians (239), Greeks (219), Austrians 
(196), Serbo-Croats (188), and Russians (141) are very high. That for all Scandinavian 
origins combined was 25 per 100,000; for the Germanic, 20; for Slavic origins, 115; and for 
the Latins and Greeks, 252. See Chart 14.) 

That these differences are by no means accounted for by age and sex distribution is 
made clear on examining the data for the Canadian born of the various groups, in the light 
of recorded age distribution. Among the Canadian born of all groups the numbers of the 
sexes are approximately equal, so that comparisons are not invalidated by considerations of 
sex. The age distribution of the Canadian born section of the British, French, Scandinavian 
and Germanic stocks was at least as favourable (if not more so) to crime than that of the 
Slavic and Latin and Greek peoples, yet the latter showed proportions in penitentiaries 
from six to sixteen times greater than shown by the Canadian born of the various North 
Western European origins. The Slavic group showed a rate from one-half to four times 
greater. These conclusions were confirmed by an examination of the foreign born male 
population of the penitentiaries. 



Chart XIV 



NUMBER in PENITENTIARIES per 100,000 POPULATION 
21 YRS. OLD and OVER of SPECIFIED ORIGINS .n 
CANADA, 1921 

SO IOO 150 200 250 SOO 


S.,Eastern and Cent. Eur. 
N .Western European 

Latin and Greek 

Slavic 

French 

British 

Scandinavian 

Germanic 


























f 


■ 


. 


. 


. 

















32 



SUMMARY OF DATA ON ORIGIN AND BIRTHPLACE 



OCCUPATIONS 

(1) While 87-5 p.c. of the Canadian born males over 15 years of age were engaged 
in gainful occupations in 1921, 92-3 p.c. of the British born males and 93-3 p.c. of the 
foreign born were gainfully employed. Of the females, 18-2 p.c. of the Canadian born 
over 15 years of age were gainfully employed and 19-5 p.c. of the British born, but only 
12-4 p.c. of the foreign born. 

(2) A summary table showing the proportion of males of different nativity engaged in 
the more important industries appears below: — 



Occupation 


All Classes 


Birthplace 


Canada 


British 
Isles 


British 
Poss'ns. 


U.S.A. 


Europe 


Asia 




p.c. 

38-16 
15-47 
6-88 
8-43 
9-26 
11-16 


p.c. 

40-91 
14-52 
6-57 
7-97 
9-29 
9-90 


p.c. 

23-91 
20-41 

9-83 
10-95 

9-97 
15-25 


p.c. 

9-51 

24-94 

. 11-73 

11-89 

8-38 
14-03 


p.c. 

53-30 
10-87 
4-40 
7-52 
7-35 
913 


p.c. 

43-41 
14-47 
5-78 
814 
8-88 
7-96 


p.c. 
10-40 




18-20 




0-48 




3-76 


Trade '. 


9-62 




41-98 







1 Services include custom and repair, domestic and personal and professional services. These figures are presented 
graphically in Chart 15. 



Speaking relatively, immigrants from trip Britis h Possessions and British Isles avoid 
agriculture , a nd engag e in manufact uring, mining, transp ortation and construction t o a much 
greater extent than dlTthe Canadian born! The United States immigrants show the l arges t^ 
proportion of all classes in agriculture. The proportion of the European born engaged in 
agriculture was approximately the same as that for all Canadian born, and their distri- 
bution among the other industries does not radically differ from that of the Canadian 
born. That, of course, does not apply to the immigrants from the individual European 
countries. Only one-tenth of the Asiatics were in agricultural industries, but 40-21 p.c. were 
in domestic and personal service — as large a proportion as is found in agriculture among the 
Canadian born males. Most of the other Asiatics are found in logging, fishing, trapping and 
especially in the wood and paper manufacturing industries. 

(3) Over 50-0 p.c. of all gainfully occupied women of Canadian birth appear in the 
service group, half being in domestic and personal service and half in professional occupa- 
tions. The women from the British Possessions showed the largest percentage in domestic 
and personal service (43-50 p.c), and those from Asia (41-83 p.c), the British Isles 
(36-26 p.c.) and Europe (35-58 p.c.) follow in the order named. The United States born 
females showed 30-37 p.c. in domestic and personal service as against 24-60 p.c. for the 
Canadian born. In the professional services, the Canadian born women lead, the United 
States born stand second, those of the other nativity groups engaging in such occupations 
to about half the extent. 

Manufacturing is the second important occupation for females of all nativity groups; 
trade comes third. Speaking generally, the bulk of gainfully emp loyed jmrm'fli-ant wpmgn 
are in the servicje_grgup^-especially domestic_and__pexsoaaij considerable proportions are 
in m anufacture , notably the textile industries; and of the balance, the largest percentage 
are engaged in trade . 



OCCUPATIONAL DISTRIBUTION OF MALES BY BIRTHPLACES 33 



Chart XV 



OCCUPATIONAL DISTRIBUTION ofMALE POPULATION by 
BIRTHPLACE, 1921 



I J United STATE^ | 



Canadian Born 

%6 10 20 30 40 50 10 20 30 40 50 % 



Agriculture 

Manufacturing 

Construction 

Transportation 

Trade 

Services 

Agriculture 
Manufacturing 

Construction 
Transportation 
Trade. 
Services 




Bi 



ritish Isles 






British Possessions 




Agricuoure 1 


"I 








Manufacturing 1 


-H 


■ 






Construction 1 


- 








Transportation 1 


■. 


i 








Trade 1 


■i 










Services 1 


■■■ 










Europe 

i i 




■Ao 



10 20 30 40 50-0 10 20 30 40 50% 



FERTILITY AND INFANT MORTALITY 
(1) No direct measure of fertility is obtainable by origin for Canada as a whole, but 
the indirect evidence of the age distribution of the various groups in 1921, interpreted in 
74422—3 



34 



SUMMARY OF DATA ON ORIGIN AND BIRTHPLACE 



the light of sex distribution and infant mortality rates, suggests that the fertility of the 
Slavic, Latin and Greek st ocks in Canada isjn uch greater , than that of the British, It 
appears also that the fertility of the French, German and Scandinavian stocks, though 
somewhat greater than that of the British, was not nearly so high as that for the South, 
Eastern and Central Europeans. The proportions of the several groups under ten years of 
age are shown in Chart 16. The seven origins with the largest proportions under ten and 
the seven with the smallest are as follows: — 



The Upper Group 



The Lower Group 



Origin 



■ Ukrainian... 

Austrian 

Roumanian. 
Lithuanian . . 

Polish 

Hungarian... 
Russian 



P.c. under 
10 years 
of age 



Origin 



36-60 
35-31 
36-31 
34-64 
33-70 
33-67 
32-91 



Chinese . . . 
Bulgarian. 

Irish 

Scotch — 
English 

Negro 

Welsh 



P.c. under 
10 years 
of ago 



518 

14-27 
20-00 
20-70 
21-62 
21-96. 
22-33. 



Each of the first group has a larger surplus of males than have the British stocks in 
Canada. In. all cases the infant mortality rates are considerably greater than for the British. 
Both of these factors would make for smaller numbers of children. On the other hand,, 
the age distribution of the adults is more favourable to fertility. While larger proportions 
of. the men of British origin were away during the war, the differential effect of this cir- 

Chart XVI 



PERCENTAGESofCHILDREN UNDER 10 YRS.ofAGEof speci- 
fied GROUPS in CANADA.I92I 



ORIGIN 



%b 



10 



15 



20 25 



30 



35 40-<S 



N. Western Europe (continental) 
S.,Eastern and Cent. Europe 



British 

Scandinavian 

Germanic 

Latin and Greek 

Slavic 



I 



cumstance on the proportions under ten years of age was largely offset by an exceptionally- 
high marriage rate among the British between the years 1919 and 1921, which was imme- 
diately reflected in the number of births. Consequently, differences due to war service may- 
be neglected. Unfortunately the relative importance of high fertility cannot be isolated 
from the' above data. The table is significant, however, in showing the magnitude of the- 



FERTILITY OF DIFFERENT STOCKS 35 

combined effect of high birth rate and favourable adult age distribution. In spite of very 
high mortality rates and unfavourable sex distribution the proportions of children under ten 
years of age in those seven races were approximately two-thirds greater than obtained for 
the British stock in Canada. The Italians, with an infant mortality rate considerably larger 
than that for the British and with half again as many men as women in Canada, show 
32-04 p.c. of their population under ten years of age. The Greeks, with between two and 
three times more adult males than females and an infant mortality rate higher than the 
Italians, showed a proportion under ten years of age some 25 p.c. larger than the average 
figure for the British stocks. 

Such facts are important as indicating the relative proportions which the several races 
contributed to the rising generation in the nine years preceding 1921. So long as the 
conditions remain-as in the past decade, the natural increase of foreign stocks and especially 
of the South, Eastern and Central Europeans, will continue to be about one-half again as 
large as that for the British stock. 

(2) The 1926 Census of the three Prairie Provinces and the Annual Reports- on Vital 
Statistics furnish sufficiently detailed data to permit the elimination of the factor of age 
in studying birth rates for women of various origins (though no correction is possible for 
conjugal condition). It was found that the stocks which are most illiterate and most rural 
multiply much more rapidly than those, with higher educational standards and larger per- 
centages in incorporated cities, towns and villages. It is especially significant that at least 
the second, and probably subsequent generations of the non-British stocks, appear to have 
somewhat higher birth rates than the original immigrants. How long these high rates will 
continue is a matter of speculation, as is the extent to which differences in birth rates are 
occasioned by bona fide differences in fertility and differences in the proportions of women 
marrying — especially at earlier ages. 

The striking correlation with illiteracy recalls the close relationship established in earlier 
chapters between illiteracy, intermarriage, school attendance, learning of the languages of 
Canada and crime. Now high fertility may be added. It is not necessary to repeat that 
the groups which have the lowest educational standards and intermarry least appear most 
frequently in criminal statistics nor to review the growing predominance of these among 
-recent immigrants from Europe. The mere mention of these facts is adequate to establish 
the significance of the exceptionally high birth rates among the women of such stocks and 
the tendency to increase rather than diminish. 

(3) The infant mortality rate in 1925 for the average British stock in Canada was 6.16 
per 100 births, for the average Scandinavian people 5.37, for the average Slavic people 
8.97, for the Latins and Greeks 10.73, for the average Asiatic stock 10.86, and for the 
French 11.45. From the four Slavic stocks with the highest infant mortality rates, viz., 
Austrians (13.76), Polish (12.30), Ukrainian (9.75), and Russian' (9.15), Canada has derived 
the great bulk of her Slavic immigration during the last two decades. 

SUMMARY TABLES' 

Summary tables are appended which present -the principal findings of the report in 
such form that the standing of each of the immigrant groups and stocks in Canada may 
be seen at a glance. The vertical columns give comparative standing in respect to each 
of the different points studied; reading horizontally, the standing of each group is obtained 
on all counts. The irregular nature of many of the series and the comparatively small 
number of groups from a statistical point of view, made it impracticable to follow any 
uniform plan in designating the percentages as "large", "small", "average", etc. The 
procedure was varied with the nature of the dispersion, hoping thereby to suit more closely 
the verbal ranking to the actual figures. Where data are not included, they were either 
considered as of minor importance, as obviously unrepresentative or were not available. 
Tables 2, 3, 5 and 6 being verbal summaries no further comment is necessary. 
74422— 3J 



TABLE I. 



-SUMMARY TABLE SHOWING STANDING OF THE POPULATION OF VARIOUS ORIGINS IN CANADA ACCORDING TO 

SPECIFIED HEADINGS, 1921. 





CD 


(2) 


(3) 


(4) 


(5) 


(6) 


(7) 


(8) 


(9) 


(10) 


(ID 


(12) 
Pro- 
portion 


(13) 


(14) 


(15) 


(16) 


(17) 
















Pro- 


Per cent 


Per cent 


Pro- 










Pro- 
















Pro- 


portion 


of total 


of total 


portion 




10 years 






Pro- 


portion 
















portion 


of males 


mar- 


married 


10 years 


Pro- 


and over 




Pro- 


portion 


of 












Pro- 




of males 


15 years 
and over 


ried 


males 


and over 


portion 


who did 


Pro- 


portion 


21 years 
and over 


foreign 


Infant 


Origin 


Number 


Per cent 


Per cent 


portion 


Per cent 


15 years 


males 


married 


speaking 


10 years 


not speak 


portion 


10-20 


born 


mortality 




in Canada 


Cana- 


United 


under 


surplus 


and over 


marrying 


mar- 


into 


English 


and over 


English 


10 years 


in 


in peni- 


males 21 


(deaths 




1921 


dian 


States 


10 years 


males 


married 


outside 


ried 


British 


or French 


unable 


or French 


and 


reforma- 


tentiaries 


years and 


per 100 






born 


born 


of age 




outside 


race who 


into 


and 


as their 


to speak 


as native 


over 


tories 


(rate per 


over in 


born) 














their own 


married 


British 


French 


mother 


English 


tongue 


illi- 


per 100,000 


100,000 


peniten- 


~~ 














stock* 


into 
British 
stock* 


stock* 


stock* 


tongue 


or French 


but had 
learned it 
by 1921 


terate 


population 


both 
sexes) 


tiaries 
(rate per 
100,000) 




British— 




































English 


2,545,496 

1,107,817 

1.173,637 

41,953 

2,452,751 


68-34 
85-48 
76-58 
56-29 

97-02 


4-24 
4-66 
3-57 
8-56 

2-06 


21-61 
20-00 
20-70 
22-33 

27-79 


4 

4 

6 

23 

1 


23-5 
53-7 
49-2 
78-9 

151 


: 


12-2 


95-5 
93-0 
95-0 
89-6 

97-1 


: 


- 


- 


1-00 
1-37 
1-09 
0-69 

7-96 


168 
96 
100 
167 

99 


36 

37 

. 23 

35 


77 


7-34 




6-70 


Scotch 


615 


Welsh 


4-46 


French 


11-45 


Scandinavian — 




Danish 


21,124 
15,876 


42-18 
55-06 


19-51 
6-35 


25-26 
22-47 


36 
2 


74-2 
16-7 


46-4 

78-7 


34-4 
13-2 


34-38 
1317 


31-2 
6-1 


1-4 

5-9 


98-0 
93-7 


1-49 
2-01 


71 



61 
23 


132 



4-75 


Icelandic 


3-39 


Norwegian 


68,856 


34-23 


32-22 


26-88 


30 


41-3 


54-8 


22-6 


22-63 


17-1 


1-3 


98-4 


1-38 


15 


19 


29 


6-84 


61,503 


35-33 


18-90 


23-55 


38 


44-6 


48-3 


21-6 


23-43 


17-4 


2-2 


97-3 


2-34 


49 


20 


36 


6-48 


Germanic — 




Dutch 


117,506 

20,234 

294,636 


82-77 
33-41 
71-74 


8-66 
3-63 
13-58 


24-79 
23-82 
24-90 


8 

20 
9 


53-0 
28-2 
248 


82-0 
33-6 
680 


43-4 

' 9-5 
16-8 


43-46 
27-90 
16-83 


72-3 
37-8 
46-0 


7-7 
4-1 
1-7 


72-3 
77-2 
96-5 


2-29 
5-69 
315 


28 
23 
42 


19 
54 
17 


107 
99 
46 


6-00 


Flemish 


9-17 


German 


7-51 


Latin and Greek — 






5,740 
66,769 
13,470 


30-64 
43-03 
44-75 


2- 13 
2-86 
1-07 


26-83 
3204 
35-31 


161 
47 
40 


51-3 
19-3 
23-5 


53-6 
57-4 
141 


27-5 
111 
3-3 


27-50 
1110 
3-40 


8-8 
7-5 
2-9 


6-5 
12-3 
13-4 


91-8 
830 
860 


10-81 
19-44 
23-73 


370 
370 
177 


219 
239 
341 


273 
337 
209 


1015 




8-19 


Roumanian 


13-86 




467 


72-81 


7-28 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


2,208 


44-84 


13-99 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


Slavic — 


107,671 
1,765 


52-12 
14-96 


1-30 
0-62 


35-31 
14-27 


23 
366 


10-6 
48-5 


12-6 

48-5 


1-3 
. 23-5 


1-55 
27-94 


3-5 
3-4 


18 2 


81-1 


27-47 
23 -40 


159 
635 


196 
54 


273 
1,064 


13-76 






Czech 


8,840 

381 

1,970 


44-00 
39-37 
41-63 


11-81 
1-57 
2-23 


28-17 
34-64 


20 


34-5 


27-9 


9-6 


11-66 


10-5 


6-2 


92-8 


9-25 
18-41 






24 


45 


. 6-37 






Lithuanian 


_ 


Polish 


53,403 

100,064 

3.906 


51-78 
49-65 
36-33 


2-82 
6-15 
5-99 


33-70 
32-91 
27-40 


20 
23 
83 


20-0 
22-8 
33 


180 
19-3 

290 


3-6 

4-4 
8-9 


3-60 
4-40 
8-93 


5-5 
4-2 
5-2 


13-6 
16-9 


85-4 
82-3 


19-57 
19-55 
19-65 


317 
285 
292 


121 
141 
18S 


182 

144 




12-30 


Russian 


6-02 


Serbo-Croatian. . 


5-47 


Ukrainian 


106,721 


54-15 


0-28 


36-60 


18 


7-5 


8-9 


0-7 


0-67 


0-6 


26-2 


73-6 


30-39 





5 


- 


9-75 




24,456 


52-21 


0-41 


- 


21 


10-5 


4-4 


0-5 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


27 


915 



2 






o 
to 

o 
c 

>, 

to 

Co 

►-a 

S3 
t» 

O 

feq 



Bukovinian 
Rutbenian.. 
Ukrainian.. 

Other European- 
Finnish 

Hebrew 

Hungarian 

Swiss 

Asiatic — 

Armenian 

Chinese 

Japanese 

Syrian 

Turkish 

Hindu 

Others— 

Indian 

Negro 



1,616 
16,861 
63,788 


52-54 
56-25 
54-38 


0-50 
014 
0-26 


- 


24 
15 
18 


- 


- 


- 


_ 


- 


- 


- 


_ 


: 


_ 


32 


21,494 

126,196 

13,181 

12,837 


36-96 
40-33 
5001 
61-87 


6-64 
3-84 
4-36 
13-16 


26-54 
25-98 
33-67 
22-60 


27 
3 
11 
19 


9-2 

4-2 

14-4 

73-7 


441 
34-8 
13-5 
500 


4-1 

1-6 

1-9 

36-8 


406 

1-46 

1-94 

36-85 


30 
3-5 
3-2 
61-8 


141 
5-4 

10-4 
0-6 


84-7 
94-2 
89-2 
93-8 


10-85 
7-38 

12-09 
101 


46 
32 



62 
49 
54 
13 


104 

111 

199 


665 

39,587 

15,868 

8,282 

313 


26-92 
7-49 
27-31 
49-77 
41-85 


1-50 
0-09 
0-10 
3-05 
2-24 


5- 18 
2403 
32-71 


68 

1,433 

97 

25 


29-7 
7-1 
1-6 

29-9 


45-5 
47-6 
600 
48-3 


13-5 
3-4 
10 

14-4 


4-08 


9-5 


32- 1 

411 

3-9 


; 


30-39 
19-55 
16-53 


268 



168 


56 
28 
26 


57 

39 



377 


1,016 


" 


" 


" 


- 


- 


~ 


~ 


~ 


~ 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


110,814 
18,291 


99 11 

74-82 


0-60 
16-94 


27-83 
21-96 


3 

8 


10-0 
7-1 


44-2 
542 


4-4 
3-8 


4-42 
3-85 


: 


43-9 


- 


8-41 


54 
602 


51 
415 


- 



6-65 
418 
18-22 
7-93 



1111 
4-58 
8-64 

11-80 

18-18 



21 09 
15-95 






O 

o 

;*- 
a 

is 
to 

Cn 

o 

O 



•Percentages based on Registration Area only. 



few 



few 

■-a 

&o 
•S 
O 
O 

Go 



TABLE 2— VERBAL SUMMARY TABLE SHOWING STANDING OF THE POPULATION OF VARIOUS ORIGINS IN CANADA ACCORDING TO SPECIFIED 

HEADINGS, 1921. 





en 


(2) 


(3) 


(4) 


(5) 


(6) 


(7) 


(8) 


(9)' 


(10) 


(11) 


(12) 
Pro- 
portion 


(13) 


(H) 


(15) 


(16) 


(17) 
















Pro- 
















Pro- 
















Pro- 


portion 


Per cent 


Per cent 


Pro- 




10 years 






Pro- 


portion 
















portion 


of males 


of total 


of total 


portion 


■ Pro- 


and over 




Pro- 


portion 


of 












Pro- 




of males 


15 years 


mar- 


married 


10 years 


portion 


who did 


Pro- 


portion 


21 years 
and over 


foreign 


Infant 


Origin 


Number 


Per cent 


Per cent 


portion 


Per cent 


15 years 


and over 


ried 


males 1 


and over 


10 years 
and over 


not speak 


portion 


10-20 


born 


mortality 




in Canada 


Cana- 


United 


under 


surplus 


and over 


marrying 


males 


married 


speaking 


English 
or French 


10 years 


in 


in peni- 


males 21 


(deaths 




1921 


dian 


States 


10 years 


males 


married 


outside 


mar- 


into 


English 


unable 


and 


reforma- 


tentiaries 


years and 


per 100 






born 


born 


of age 




outside 


race who 


ried 


British 


or French 


to speak 


as native 


over 


tories 


(rate per 


over in 


born) 














their own 


married 


into 


and 


as their 


English 
or French 


tongue 
but had 


illi- 


per 100,000 


100,000 


peniten- 
















stock 


into 


British 


French 


mother 


terate 


population 


both 


tiaries 


















British 


stock 


stock 


tongue 




learned it 






sexes) 


(per rate 


















stock 










by 1921 








100,000) 




British— 






































v. 1. 
v.l. 
v. 1. 
av. 

v.l. 


v.l. 
v.l. 
v.l. 

1. 

v.l. 


av. 
1. 

av. 
1. 

s. 


8. 
8. 
S. 
S. 

1. 


V. s. 

s. 
s. 
av. 

v. s. 


av. 

v.l. 

v.l. 

v.l. 

8. 


v.l. 


av. 


v.l. 
v.l. 

v.l. 
v.l. 

v.l. 


- 


- 


- 


v. s. 

V. 8. 
V. 8. 
V. 3. 

3. 


av. 
av. 
av. 
av. 

av. 


8. 
S. 
S. 

S. 


av. 


av. 


Irish 


av. 


Scotch ; . 


8. 


Welsh 


V. 8. 




1. 


Scandinavian — 






av. 

6. 


8. 

av. 


v.l. 


av. 
av. 


1. 

V. 8. 


v.l. 
av. 


av. 

v.l. 


v.l. 

av. 


v.l. 
av. 


1. 

s. 


V. 8. 
S. 


v.l. 
1. 


V. 8. 
V. 8. 


8. 


av-. 

8. 


1. 


V. 8. 


Icelandic 


V. 3. 


Norwegian 


1. 


V. 8. 


v.l. 


1. 


1. 


1. 


v.l. 


1. 


av. 


av. 


V. 8. 


v.l. 


V. s. 


V. S. 


V. 8. 


V. 8. 


av. 


1. 


V. S. 


v.l. 


av. 


1. 


1. 


1. 


1. 


av. 


av. 


8. 


v.l. 


V. 8. 


S. 


v. a. 


3. 


s. 


Germanic — 




Dutch 


1. 

av. 
v.l. 


V.l. 
V. s. 

1. 


1. 

av. 
v.l. 


av. 
av. 
av. 


S. 

av. 

s. 


vA. 
av. . 
av. 


v.l. 
av. 
v.l. 


v.l. 
av. 
av. 


v.l. 

1. 

av. 


v.l. 

1. 
1. 


av. 
s. 

3. 


V. s. 

s. 
v.l. 


V. B. 
8. 
V. 8. 


V. 8. 

V. 3. 

8. 


V. 3. 

av. 
s. 


av. 

av. 
s. 


s. 


Flemish 


av. 


German 


av. 


Latin and Greek — 






s. 
1. 

s. 


V. 8. 

8. 

S. 


8. 
8. 

V. 8. 


1. 
v.l. 


v.l. 

1. 
1. 


v.l. 

av. 

av. 


v.l. 
v.l. 

s. 


v.l. 
av. 
v. s. 


v.l. 

av. 
v. s. 


av. 
av. 

V. 8. 


av. 
av. 
av. 


1. 

3. 

av. 


av. 
av. 
v.l. 


V.l. 
V.l. 

1. 


v.l. 
v.l. 
v.l. 


v.l. 

av. 
1. 


1. 




av. 




1. 


Spanish 


v. s. 


1. 


1. 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 




- 


- 


- 


v. s. 


8. 


V. 1. 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


~ 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


Slavic — 






































1. 


av. 


V. 8. 


v.l. 


av. 


8. 


8. 


V. s. 


V. s. 


8. 


1. 


s. 


v.l. 


av. 


1. 


1. 


1. 




s. 


V. s. 


V. 8. 


V. 8. 


v.l. 


1. 


1. 


1. 


1. 


V. 8. 


- 


- 


v.l. 


v.l. 


av. 


v.l. 


- 


Czech 


s. 

v. s. 
v. s. 


av. 

s. 

s. 


V.l. 

s. 
s. 


V. 1. 

V.l. 


av. 


1. 


av. 


av. 


av. 


av. 


av. 


1. 


s. 
av. 


: 


s. 


8. 


3. 






Lithuanian 


_ 


Polish 


1. 
1. 

V. s. 


av. 
av. 
s. 


av. 

1. 

1. 


V.l. 
V.l. 

av. 


av. 

av. 
v.l. 


av. 
av. 

1. 


8. 
8. 

av. 


8. 
8. 
8. 


s. 
s. 
av. 


s. 
s. 

8. 


1. 
1. 


av. 

s. 


1. 
1. 
1. 


v.l. 

1. 
1. 


i! 
l. 


1. 

1. 


1. 


Russian 


8. 


Serbo-Croatian. . 


V. 3. 


Ukrainian 


1. 


av. 


v. s. 


v.l. 


av. 


V. 8. 


v. s. 


V. S. 


V. 8. 


V. s. 


1. 


V. s. 


v.l. 


- 


- 


- 


1. 




av. 


av. 


V. s. 


- 


av. 


8. 


v. s. 


V. 3. 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


V.S. 


V. 8. 


av. 


Bukovinian.... 


v. s. 


av. 


V. s. 


- 


av. 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 




- 



Go 



to 
O 



o 



to 

►-a 
"a 



Ruthenian... 
Ukrainian 

Other European — 

Finnish 

Hebrew 

Hungarian 

Swiss... 

Asiatic — 

Armenian 

Chinese. ...... 

Japanese 

Syrian 

Turkish 

Hindu 

Others— 

Indian 

Negro 



v. 1. 



1. 
av. 



I. 


V. s. 


- 


s. 


av. 


V. s. 


~ 


av. 


a. 


1. 


av. 


av. 


s. 


av. 


av. 


v. a. 


av. 


av. 


v.l. 


v. a. 


1. 


v.l. 


av. 


av. 


V. s. 


s. 


_ 


v.l. 


V. s. 


V. 8. 


v. a. 


v.l. 


V. 8. 


V. 8. 


av. 


v.l. 


av. 


8. 


v.l. 


av. 


s. 


8. 


- 


- 


~ 


- 


■* 


~ 


v.l. 


V. s. 


1. 


V. 8. 


1. 


v.l. 


av. 


V. 8. 



V. s. 

8. 

V.l. 



]. 

av. 



av. 
1. 

v.l. 
1. 



av. 
v.l. 



v.l. 



av. 
v. s. 



V. 8. 
V.l. 



V. 3. 
V.l. 



av. 

V. 8. 



v.l. 
v.l. 



v.l. 



av. 
1. 

av. 
1. 



av. 
v. 8. 



v.l. 

1. 

av. 



v 1. 



av. 
v. a. 



av. 
1. 



v.l. 



av. 
av. 
v.l. 



v.l. 
v.l. 



Co 



O 

St) 

it. 
fti 
>- 
a 

"3 
tSI 

to 

l—l 
Co 

>-1 
O 
Go 

O 



■*! 

fcq 
to 

Co 

O 
O 

Co 



Key to abbreviations: — l.=large, v.l. = very large, av.=average, a. av=above average, b. av=below average, s.=small, v.s.= very small, r.=rapid, sl.=slow. 



TABLE 3.-SUMMARY TABLE SHOWING STANDING OF SPECIFIED GROUPS OF ORIGINS 'IN CANADA ACCORDING TO SPECIFIED HEADINGS, 1821'. 



g 





(i) 


(2) 


(3) 


(4) 


(5) 


(6) 


(7) 


(8) 


(9) 


(10) 


(11) 


(12) 
Pro- 
portion 


(13) 


(14) 


(15) 


(16) 


(17) 
















Pro- 
















Pro- 
















Pro- 


portion 


Per cent 


Per cent 


Pro- 




10 years 
and over 






Pro- 


portion 
















portion 


of males 


of total 


of total 


portion 


Pro- 




Pro- 


portion 


of 












Pro- 




of males 


15 years 


mar- 


married 


10 years 
and over 


portion 


who did 


Pro- 


portion 


21 years 


- foreign 


Infant 


Groups of 


Number 


Per cent 


Per cent 


portion 


Per cent 


15 years 


and over 


ried 


males 


10 years 


not speak 


portion 


10-20 


and over 


born 


mortality 


Origins 


in Canada 


Cana- 


United 


under 


surplus 


and over 


marrying 


males 


married 


8 peaking 


and over 


English 
or French 


10 years 


in 


in peni- 


males 21 


(deaths 




1021 


dian 


States 


10 years 


males 


married 


outside 


mar- 


into 


English 


unable 


and 


reforma- 


tentiaries 


years and 


per 100 






born 


born 


of age 




outside 


race who 


ried 


British 


or French 


to speak 


as native 


over 


tories 


(rate'per 


over in 


born) 














their own 


married 


into 


and 


as their 


English 


tongue 


illi- 


per 100,000 


100,000) 


peniten- 
















stock 


into 
British 
stock 


British 
stock 


French 
stock 


mother 
tongue 


or French 


but had 
learned it 
by 1921 


terate 


population 


both 
sexes) 


tiaries 
(rate per 
100,000) 
















(Regis- 


(Regis- 


(Regis- 


(Regis- 






























tration 


tration 


tration 


tration 






























Area) 


Area) 


Area) 


Area) 












_ 








4,868,903 
2,452,751 

612,572 


74,12 
97-02 

6306 


4-21 
2-06 

14-95 


210 
27-8 

24-8 


5 
1 

15 


151 
33-3 


81-4 
63-6 


12-3 
21-3 


240 


100-0 
100-0 

43-4 





30 


92-4 


1-10 
7-96 

2-66 


135 

99 

36 


33 
35 

21 


118 
45 


6-16 




11-45 


Other North 
Western European 


6-39 


South, Eastern 

and Central 
European 




































508,050 


49-24 


3-00 


33-7 


26 


16-2 


26-4 


4-2 


5-2 


4-0 


17-5 


84-7 


22-31 


184 


138 


223 


10-32 


Scandinavian 


167,359 


37-61 


23-27 


250 


31 


42-7 


52- 1 


22-2 


241 


17-9 


2-1 


96-9 


1-81 


32 


25 


42 


5-37 




432,376 
88,654 


72-95 
42-69 


11-78 
2-84 


24-8 
32-2 


9 
51 


. 29-2 
22-2 


700 
47-4 


20-5 
10-6 


22-8 
13-5 


52-7 
6-9 


3-4 
13-3 


84-4' 
85-9 


3-03 
19-45 


38 
340 


20 
252 


48 
358 


7-56 


Latin and Greek. . 


10-73 


Slavic 


. 384,721 
64,715 

v. 1. 
v. 1. 


51-41 
1804 

v. 1. 
v. 1. 


2-78 
0-05 

V. 8. 
V. 8. 


34-5 
13-4 

8. 
1. 


22 
372 

v. s. 
v. s. 


14-8 

V. B. 


16-8 
v. 1. 


2-5 
av. 


3-2 


3-4 

all 
all 


18-9 

none 
none 


830 


24-45 

V. 8. 
1. 


166 
1. 

8. 


115 

8. 
8. 


192 
av. 


8-97 




10-86 




8. 


French 


V. 1. 


Other North West- 




ern European 


1. 


1. 


1. 


av. 


s. 


V. 1. 


v. 1. 


1. 


1. 


v. 1. 


V. 8. 


1. 


V. 3. 


V. 8. 


V. 8. 


v. s. 


8. 


South, Eastern and 




































Central Europ- 






































1. 
av. 


av. 

s. 


V. 8. 
V. 1. 


v. 1. 
av. 


1. 

1. 


8. 
V. 1. 


. v. s. 
1. 


v. s. 

V. 1. 


v. a. 
v. 1. 


v. s. 
s. 


V. 1. 
V. 8. 


8. 
V. 1. 


V. 1. 

V. 8. 


V. 1. 

V. 8. 


V. 1. 

V. s. 


v. 1. 
V. 8. 


V. 1. 




V. 8. 


Germanic 


1. 

8. 


v. 1. 

8. 


1. 

V. 8. 


av. 
v. 1. 


s. 
v. 1. 


1. 

s. 


V. 1. 

1. 


V. 1. 

1. 


v. 1. 

1. 


V. 1. 

V. 8. 


V. 8. 
1. 


8. 

8. 


V. 8. 
V. 1. 


V. 8. 
V. 1. 


V. s. 

V. 1. 


V. s. 
V. 1. 


1. 


Latin and Greek.. . 


V. 1. 




1. • 

8. 


av. 

V. 8. 


V. 3. 
V. 8. 


v. 1. 

V. 8. 


1. 

v. 1. 


8. 


V. 8. 


v. s. 


T.S . 


V. 8. 


V. 1. 


8. 


V. 1. 


V. 1. 


V. 1. 


V. 1. 


1. 


Asiatic 


V. 1. 







1=3 

O 
"*] 

b 

o 

o 

So 

^' 

to 
to 
S3 

o 

feq 



1 The Mennonites in the West cause this figure to be lower than it should be to be representative. 
; For key to abbreviations see Table II, page 38. 



ANALYSIS OF DATA BY COUNTRY OF BIRTH 



41 



TABLE 4.— SUMMARY TABLE SHOWING STANDING OF IMMIGRANTS BY COUNTRY OF BIRTH 
ACCORDING TO SPECIFIED HEADINGS. CANADA, 1921. 



Country of birth 



CD 



Number 
of immi- 
grant 
population 
in 
Canada 
1921 



(2) 



Numerical 
increase 



1901-11 1911-21 



(3) 



P.c. increase 



1901-11 1911-21 



(4) 



Propor- 
tion in 

Canada 

before 

1901 



(5) 



Average 
length of 
residence 
of those 
coming 
since 
1901 



(6) 



Surplus 
males 
per 100 
females 



(7) 



Propor- 
tion 
urban 



(8) 



Propor- 
tion 

natural- 
ized 



(9) 



Num- 
ber 
per 
100,000 
adult 
males in 
peni- 
tenti- 
aries 



British Countries — 

England 

Ireland 

Scotland 

Wales 

Scandinavian — 

Denmark 

Iceland 

■ Norway 

Sweden 

Germanic — 

Belgium 

Germany 

Holland 

Latin and Greek — 

Greece 

Italy 

Roumania 

Slavic Countries — 

Austria 

Bulgaria 

Czechoslovakia. 

Galicia 

Jugo-Slavia 

Poland 

Russia 

Ukraine 

Oilier Europe — 

Hungary 

Switzerland 

Finland 

France 

Asiatic — 

China 

Japan 

Syria 

Turkey 

United States 



698,021 

109,196 

233,019 

14,746 

8,092 

6,127 

23,102 

28,151 

12,739 
43,253 
10,068 

3,859 
36,125 



60,162 

1,490 

3,906 

11,588 

2,253 

24,246 

44,228 

28,932 

6,014 
3,205 
12,123 
22,485 

36,586 

11,518 

3,907 

175 

374,024 



309,389 

8,755 

85,760 

6,209 

2,862 
1,052 



5,695 
12,277 
3,423 

2,427 
27,885 



9,675 

10,040 

3,751 

1,685 

1,504 

175,781 



175,989 

427 

57,092 

5,052 

2,255 
333 

526 

5,301 
14,311 
2,020 

1,129 
792 



9,967 



2,633 
4,652 



3,093 

1,169 
1,630 

9,841 
3,225 
972 
1,460 
70,344 



153-71 

8-61 

102-55 

246-58 

137-93 

17-37 

379-66 



249-78 
44-97 
889-09 

1,139-44 
406-84 



121-79 

58-91 
80-25 
137-89 
421-29 
137-44 



34-46 
0-46 
33-70 
57-89 

45-68 
-4 

10-30 
-1-86 

66-47 

-36-16 

53-05 

42-77 
2-28 



-14-77 



155-89 
14-83 



-29-22 

10-64 
9-25 

36-34 
38-28 
33-44 
78-45 
23-16 



17-34 

59-18 

7-99 

14-31 

10-62 
4110 
4-91 

5-31 
8-63 
13-16 

1711 
2-19 
12-03 
16-01 
5-04 
10-48 
17-50 
11-62 

11-29 

18-97 

8-97 

21-54 

16-54 
12-24 
23-25 
13-47 
14-20 



9-7 
14-8 
11-6 
11-9 

8-5 
12-3 
9-5 

9-5 
9-5 
12-0 



10-3 
10-9 



12-6 
9-3 
10-9 
10-3 



9-3 
12-2 
9-3 



14 
14 
14 
11 

118 
-1 

77 



32 
30 
49 

369 
114 
39 

45 
667 
41 
37 
189 
36 
29 
57 

24 
73 
57 
19 

2,867 
148 

61 
140 

11 



31-49 
37-57 
21-86 
24-60 

40-64 
37-24 
40-90 

89-33 
75-81 
51 12 

35-33 
52-83 
41-42 
24-39 
49-69 
67-30 
56-25 
41-85 

37-50 
44-64 
33-31 
52-37 

71-66 
38-16 
85-02 
84-54 
42-63 



56-3 
86-4 
71-7 
67-4 

42-1 
65-9 
48-4 

29-3 
30-2 
60-5 

59-4 

22-4 

55-7 

65 

33-7 

51-0 

62-4 

54-7 



4 
33-5 
58-4 

46-6 
63-6 



132 



29 

36 



46 
107 

273 
337 
209 

273 
1,064 
45 
27 

182 
144 
32 

111 

199 
104 
77 

57 

39 



377 

159 



42 



SUMMARY OF DATA ON ORIGIN AND BIRTHPLACE 



TABLE 5 — VERBAL SUMMARY SHOWING STANDING OF IMMIGRANTS BY COUNTRY OF BIRTH, 
ACCORDING TO SPECIFIED HEADINGS, 1021.' 



Country of birth 



Number 
of immi- 
grant 
population 
in Canada 
1921 


Increase 
1901-1911 


Increase 
1911 T 1921- 


Propor- 
tion in 

Canada 

before 

1901 


Average 
length of 
residence 
of those 
coming 
since 
1901 


Surplus 
males 
per 100 
females 


Propor- 
tion 
urban 


Propor- 
tion 

natural- 
ized 


v.l. 


v.l. 


v.l. 






V. 8. 






1. 


av. 


V. 8. 


- 


- 


v. s. 


- 


- 


v.l. 


v.l. 


V.l. 


- 


- 


V. 8. 


- 


- 


8. 


av. 


av. 


- 


- 


v. s. 


- 


- 


S. 


s. 


av. 


1. 


av. 


1. 


V. s. 


av. 


s. 


V. s. 


V. S. 


v.l. 


a. av. 





3. 


v.l. 


av. 


- 


- 


s. 


av. 


av. 


V. S. 


v.l. 


av. 


- 


V. s. 


av. 


av. 


av. 


V. 8. 


v.l. 


s. 


s. 


av. 


s. 


b. av. 


s. 


av. 


8. 


av. 


1. 


1. 


v.l. 


a. av. 


s. 


s. 


1. 


s. 


s. 


av. 


v. s. 


av. 


av. 


av. 


S. 


v. s. 


s. 


8. 


v. s. 


av. 


v.l. 


v.l. 


V. 8. 


av. 


1. 


v. s. 


s. 


av. 


1. 


v.l. 


V. 8. 


v. s. 


- 


- 


av. 


a. av. 


s. 


1. 


1. 


1. 


- 


I. 


1. 


av. 


av. - 


8. 


av. 


v. s. 


- 


- 


V. s. 


av. 


v.l. 


1. 


v.s. 


V. s. 


- 


av. 


av. 


- 


av. 


av. 


av. 


s. 


- 


av. 


av. 


- 


s. 


1. 


1. 


v. s. 


- 


- 


v. s. 


- 


v.l. 


av. 


s. 


av. 


- 


- 


s. 


av. 


8. 


1. 


av. 


I. 


- 


. - 


I. 


av. 


S. 


1. 


1. 


av. 


- 


- 


av. 


- 


av. 


av. 


av. 


s. 


- 


av. 


av. 


a. av. 


v. s. 


8. 


v.l. 


v. s. 


- 


- 


1. 


av. 


av. 


av. 


av. 


s. 


- 


s. 


s. 


av. 


av. 


s. 


s. 


av. 


av. 


8. 


v.l. 


av. 


v. s. 


1. 


av. 


av. 


av. 


1. 


av. 


b. av. 


v.l. 


I. 


v. s. 


s. 


s. 


av. 


av. 


av. 


I.. 


8. 


s. 


v. s. 


V. 3. 


s. 


v.l. 


a. av. 


av. 


V.l. 


av. 


v. s. 


V. S. 


s. 


av. 


av. 


1. ■ 


V.l. 


8. 


v. I. 


V. 1. 


v.l. 


av. 


— 


V. 8. 


av. 


'■ 



Number 

per 

100,000 

adult 

males in 

peni- 
tentiaries 



British Countries — 

England 

Ireland 

Scotland 

Wales 

(Scandinavian — 

Denmark 

Iceland 

Norway 

Sweden 

Germanic — 

Belgium 

Germany , 

Holland 

Latin and Greek — 

Greece 

Italy 

Roumania 

Slavic — 

Austria , 

Bulgaria , 

Czechoslovakia.. 

Galicia , 

Jugo Slavia 

Poland 

Russia 

Ukraine 

Other European — 

Hungary 

Switzerland 

Finland 

France 

Asiatic — 

China 

Japan 

Syria 

Turkey 

United States 



av. 


v.s. 
v. a. 

av. 



v.l. 
v.l. 

1. 

v.l. 
v.l. 

s. 

V. s. 


1. 

av. 

V. 8. 

av. 
1. 

av. 



v. s. 

I. 
av. 



TABLE 6.— SUMMARY TABLE SHOWING STANDING OF IMMIGRANTS BY GROUPS OF COUNTRIES 
OF BIRTH ACCORDING TO SPECIFIED HEADINGS, 1921». 



Nativity 



CD 



No. 



Canada 
1921 



(2) 



Numerical 
Increase 



1901-11 1911-21 



(3) 



Percentage 
Increase 



1901-11 1911-21 



(4) 


(5) 


(6) 


(7) " 


(8) 


Propor- 
tion in 
Canada 
before 
1901 


Surplus 
males 
per 100 
females 


Propor- 
tion of 
popula- 
tion 
urban 


Propor- 
tion 

natural- 
ized 


Speed of 
natural- 
ization 


18-32 


14 


65-30 


- 


- 


21 '20 


■ 50 


34-50 


60-8 


- 


14-35 

17-08 
27-23 


46 

• 75 

33 


50-12 
25-75 
38-74 


49-4 
70-5 
52-1 


~ 


12-80 
15-81 
15-98 
14-20 


88 
38 
625 
11 


63-97 
46-88 
65-50 
42-63 


40-0 
50-6 

63-6 


- 


av. 


v.s. 


v.l. 


- 


- 


1. 


av. 


s. 


1. 


- 


s. 


av. 


av. 


av. 


- 


av. 


1. 


v.s. 


v.l. 


v. r. 


v.l. 


s. 


s. • 


av. 


av. 


v.s. 


1. 


v.l. 


v.s. 


v. si. 


av. 


s. 


av. 


av. 


av. 


av. 


V.I. 


v.l. 


v. s. 


v. si. 


av. 


v. s. 


s. 


1. 


v. r. 



(9) 

Rateper 

100,000 

adult 

males in 

peni- 

tentia- 

aries 



British countries . 

North Western Europe 
(continental) 

South Eastern and Cen- 
ral Europe 

Scandinavian countries. . 

Germanic countries 

Latin and Greek coun- 
tries 

Slavic countries 

Asiatic countries 

United States 

British countries 

Other North Western 
Europe 

South, Eastern and Cen- 
tral Europe 

Scandinavian countries. . 

Germanic countries 

Latin and Greek coun- 
tries 

Slavic countries 

Asiatic countries 

United States 



,054,982 

157,220 

232,224 
65,470 
66,060 

47,282 
166,805 

52,186 
374,024 

v.l. 

av. 

1. 

av. 

av. 

s. 
v.l. 

s. 
v.l. 



412,710 

73,922 

157,617 
42,852 
21,395 

39,987 
91,028 
17,366 
175,781 

v.l. 

1. 

v.l. 
av. 



v. s. 
v.l. 



231,379 

1,805 

85,561 
3,d55 
6,990 

3,551 
20,966 
12,690 
70,344 

v.l. 



1. 
v.s. 



v.s. 

av. 

v.l. 



s 98-65 

131-31 

232-57 

233-04 

71-40 

266-38 

308-85 

73-65 

137-44 



« 27-47 

- 1-38 

15-41 

5-81 

-13-61 

6-46 
17-40 
30-99 
23-16 



49 
59 



185 

42 



290 

161 

53 

'159 



v.l. 
v. s. 



v.l. 
v.l. 



v.l. 



1 Largely professional criminals rather than settlers. 

' British Isles. 

3 For key to abbreviations see Table II, page 38. 



CHAPTER I 
ORIGINS OF THE POPULATION OF CANADA 

Canada is able to determine from time to time, within reasonable limits of accuracy, 
the proportions of the various origins which make up her population. A body of material 
is now available on the changing composition of the Canadian population which .gives 
a necessary perspective to a study of its structure. This is particularly desirable at the 
present time when Canada is entering upon a new expansion which may- bring a heavy 
flow of new citizens from various quarters of the earth. 

A nation composed of many diverse stocks presents a different problem from that of 
one with a small admixture of foreign elements. There is in the first place the biological 
aspect. In certain parts of the world, the problem of the half-caste or half-breed has 
assumed grave proportions. Canada's problems in this respect are largely potential. There 
are also the various cultural sides of intermingling. Peoples of different stocks have different 
educational, moral, economic, religious and political backgrounds. It is with the changing 
proportion of the different stocks in Canada since the beginning of the century that this, 
initial chapter is concerned. 
THE PROPORTION OF SPECIFIED ORIGINS IN THE POPULATION OF CANADA 

The proportion of the various stocks in Canada, in 1901, 1911 and 1921, is shown by 
principal origins in Table 7. Changes in these proportions are due to the joint operation 
of three main forces: first, immigration; secondly, emigration; and thirdly, natural increase. 

Attention is first drawn to the present composition of our population. Column 1 
shows that in 1921 somewhat over half of the population of Canada was of British stock, 
and over a quarter of the population, French. The other European origins combined con- 
stituted only 14.16 p.c. of the total, and the Asiatics less than 1 p.c. The Indians made 
up one and a quarter per cent, while the proportion of Negroes stood at a very low figure 
of less than one-quarber of one ip.c. All coloured peoples totalled slightly over 2 p.c. of the 
population. Thus the population of Canada, as a whole, is as yet predominantly of 
British and French stock; these two constituted over 83 p.c. of the people domiciled in 
Canada at the date of the last census. 

TABLE 7.— PROPORTION OF VARIOUS STOCKS IN THE POPULATION OF CANADA, 1921, AS 

COMPARED WITH 1911 AND 1901. 



Origins 



P.c. of total population 



1921 


1911 


1901 


55-iO 


U -08 


57-OS 


28-96 


25-30 


23-47 


12-60 


14-58 


18-41 


13-36 


13-85 


14-90 


0-48 


0-35 


0-25 


B7-91 


esse 


SO -70 


U-1S 


11-81 


8-51 


1-23 


0-59 


0-20 


0-23 


013 


006 


0-17 


0-08 


0-01 


0-10 


- 


- 


1-34 


0-76 


0-63 


0-24 


0-22 


0-05 


3-35 


5-46 


5-78 


0-06 


0-05 


0-01 


1-44 


105 


0-30 


0-14 


0-16 


0-03 


0-76 


0-63 


0-20 


0-61 


0-46 


0-12 


1-14 


0-60 


0-37 


1-90 


1-49 


0-58 


004 


- 


- 


015 


009 


007 



British 

English 

Irish 

Scotch 

Other 

French 

Other Europeans 

Austrian 

Belgian 

Bulgarian and Roumanian 

Czech (Bohemian and Moravian) 

Dutch 

Finnish 

German 

Greek 

Hebrew 

Hungarian 

Italian 

Polish 

Russian 

Scandinavian * 

Serbo Croatian 

Swiss 

43 



44 



ORIGINS OF- THE POPULATION OF CANADA 



TABLE 7.-PR0P0RTI0N OF VARIOUS STOCKS IN THE POPULATION OF CANADA, 1921, AS 
COMPARED WITH 1911 AND 1901- Concluded. 



Origins 



P.c. of total population 



1921 


1911 ' 


1901 


0-02 » 


014 


- 3 


0-28 


0-49 


011 


0-19 


0-41 


- 4 


0-73 


- 


- 


0-75 


0-60 


0-44 


0-45 


0-39 


0-32 


001 


0-03 


- 


0-18 


013 


0-09 


001 


- 


- 


0-09 


0-05 


0-03 


001 


- 


- 


1-26 


1 -46 


*•««» 


0-21 


0-2S 


0-S2 


0-11 


0-26 


0-OS 


0-24 


2-04 


0-69 



Ukrainian — 

Bukovinian 

Galician 

Ruthenian . 
Ukrainian.. 
Asiatic — 

Chinese 

Hindu 

Japanese 

Turkish 

Syrian 

Armenian 

Indian 

Negro 

Various 5 

Unspecified 



1 Includes: Danish, Norwegian, Icelandic, Swedish. 
8 Includes Half Breeds. 
3 Included with Austrians. 
* Included with Galicians. 

° Includes: Algerian, Arabian, Argentinian, Brazilian, Chilian, Egyptian, Eskimo, Hawaiian, Haytian, Jamaican, 
Korean, Malayan, Maltese, Maori, Mexican, Persian, Peruvian, Philippino, Portuguese and Spanish. 



THE NUMERICAL STRENGTH OF STOCKS IN CANADA 

The numerical strength of the various stocks of Canada in 1921 is shown in Table 8. 
The first eleven, arranged in descending order of magnitude, are as follows: — 



Origin 


Rank 


Origin 


Rank 




1 
2 
3 
4 
5 
6 


Dutch 


7 






8 


Scotch 




9 






10 






11 


Hebrew 







Each of the above numbered 100,000 or over in 1921. The number of English slightly 
exceeded the French, and the Scotch outnumbered those of Irish descent by a small margin. 
Of the non-British and non-French stocks, those of German origin were more than twice as 
numerous as those of any other. The Hebrews came next with 126,000, closely followed by 
the Dutoh, Austrians, Ukrainians and Russians in the order named. 

When the foreign stocks are grouped geographically and linguistically some interesting 
facts are brought to light. Tables 8 and 9 present this grouping for the European stocks. 
The North Western European stocks exceeded those from South, Eastern and Central 
Europe by about 20 p.c. in 1921. The former represent in the main the " old " immigration, 
and the latter the " new." How long the northern and western peoples will continue to 
constitute the bulk of the foreign stock in Canada, depends on the immigration of the 
future. During the past two decades, the South, Eastern and Central Europeans have been 
rapidly overtaking the North Western Europeans in Canada. 



GEOGRAPHICAL AND LINGUISTIC GROUPINGS OF ORIGINS 



45 



TABLE 8— POPULATION OF CANADA BY ORIGINS, 1921. 



Origin 


Number 


Origin 


Number 


Total 


8,788,483 




110,814 






66 769 




4,868 903 
2,545,496 
1,107,817 
1,173,637 
41,953 

2, 452; 751 

665 

107,671 

20.234 

1,765 

39,587 

8,840 

21,124 

117,506 

3,269 

21,494 

294,636 

5,740 

126.196 

13,181 

15,876 




15,868 






381 






1,970 






18,291 






68,856 




Polish 


53,403 






467 


M 




13,470 




100,064 






3,906 






2,208 






61 , 503 






12,837 






8,282 




Turkish 


313 






106,721 






1,616 






24,456 






16,861 






63,788 










21,249 






1,673 









TABLE 9.— NORTH WESTERN AND SOUTH, EASTERN AND CENTRAL EUROPEAN POPULATION 
OF CANADA, BY ORIGINS OTHER THAN BRITISH AND FRENCH, 1921. 



Origin 


Numher 


Origin 


Number 




20,234 
21,124 
117,506 
294,736 
15,876 
68,856 
61,503 
12,837 




21,494 






5,740 
13 181 






Dutch 










381 






1,970 

53,403 




Polish 










13,470 

100,064 

3,906 

2,208 

106,721 






Total 


612,572 










107,671 

1,765 
8,840 






Total 










508,050 







1 Includes Bukovinian, Galician, Ruthenian and Ukrainian 



TABLE 10.- 



-POPULATION OF CANADA, BY LINGUISTIC GROUPING OF ORIGINS, 
(BRITISH AND FRENCH NOT INCLUDED). 



1921 



Origin 


Number- 


Origin 


Number 


Scandinavian — 


21,124 
15,876 
68,856 
61,503 




13,470 










467 




Total 




88,654 




Slavic~ 


Total 


167,359 






107,671 
1 765 


Germanic — 


117,506 

20,234 

294,636 




Dutch : 


Czech 


8,840 

381 

1,970 

53,403 

100,064 

3,906 

106,721 












Polish 


Total 


432,376 








Latin and Greek — 


5,740 
66,679 






Total 




384,721 







'Includes Bukovinian, Galician, Ruthenian and Ukrainian. 



46 



ORIGINS OF THE POPULATION OF CANADA 



Further, when the stocks are grouped linguistically, the Germanic group ranks first, with 
the Slavs a close second. The Scandinavians rank third, with less than half the numerical 
strength of the Slavs, and the Latin and Greek group is the smallest of all. 

The following table arranges the principal stocks in each group in order of numerical 

strength : — 

TABLE 11 -NUMERICAL RANK OF PRINCIPAL STOCKS, OTHER THAN BRITISH AND FRENCH, 

BY SPECIFIED GROUPS, 1921. 



Origin 



North Western Europe — 

German 

Dutch 

Norwegian 

Swedish 

Scandinavian — 

Norwegian 

Swedish 

Danish 

Icelandic 

Latin and Greek — 

Italian 

Roumanian 

Greek 

Spanish 



Rank 



Origin 



South, Eastern and Central Europ< 

Austrian 

Ukrainian 

Russian 

Italian 

Polish 

Germanic — 

German 

Dutch 

Flemish 

Slavic- 1 - 

Austrian 

Ukrainian 

Russian 

Polish 



Rank 



CHANGES IN THE PROPORTION OF DIFFERENT STOCKS IN CANADA 

While the proportion of stocks other than British and French in Canada in 1921 
remains small, a comparison of the data for 1901 and 1911 with those of 1921 is significant. 
Both the British and French stocks show a smaller proportion in. 1921 than in 1901. For 
the French the decrease was continuous. While it was only to the extent of approximately 
3'p.c. in the twenty year period, it amounted to 2 p.c. in the decade 1901 to 1911, when 
immigration was at its highest. A decline at this rate, if continued for half a century, will 
produce material alteration. 

The decrease in the percentage of British stock was arrested in the last decade by Eng- 
lish immigration. The percentage of Irish and Scotch consistently declined over the twenty 
year period. 

On the other hand, the proportion of other European origins increased from 8-51 p.c. 
to 14-16 p.c. in the two decades. That the increase was not more rapid between 1911 and 
1921 was due mainly to the war. The previous decade saw the proportion of other Euro- 
pean stocks increase by approximately 50 p.c, a repetition of which for a few decades would 
have a profound effect on the structure of the Canadian population. 

Since 1900, the Asiatics have increased almost twice as rapidly as the population as- 
a whole. The Syrians, though small in numbers, constitute three times as large a percent- 
age as at the beginning of the century and the Japanese exactly twice the proportion. The 
Chinese have increased at a somewhat slower rate, though the fact that they have been 
increasing some 50 p.c. faster than the population as a whole, in spite of the heavy head 
tax, is an indication of the potential pressure of Oriental immigration. Practically the whole 
of this increase is accounted for by immigration; natural increase has been slight, owing to- 
the small proportion of Chinese women in the country. 

In contrast with the Orientals, the Indian and Negro stocks have failed to keep pace with, 
the growing population. Twenty years has seen the proportion of Indian stock cut in half, 
though this is partly due to the fact that 34,481 half-breeds were counted as Indians in 1901. 
In the same period the total population of Canada grew some 65 p.c. .Next to the Indians- 
the proportion of Negroes has declined most rapidly. In 1921 it was only two-thirds that 
of 1901, 

A somewhat different approach is suggested by Table 12 (p. 48) , which shows the num- 
bers of the principal stocks in Canada at the fast three census dates and the percentage- 
increase for each stock in the decades 1901 to 1911 and 1911 to 1921. The last two columns: 
present a striking comparison as to the actual rates of growth -of the various stocks. 



CHANGES IN THE PROPORTION OF DIFFERENT STOCKS 47 

The first point to note is the wide range of percentage increases. In the decade 1901-11 
they fluctuated between the limits of minus 17 p.c. for the Indians (partly due to change in 
census methods) to plus 1159 p.c. for a group of minor stocks specified in footnote three of 
the table. Such extreme fluctuations emphasize the plastic nature of our population. 

The second fact is the appearance of a group of stocks whose percentage increase is less 
than that for the total population of Canada. There were five in the decade 1901-1911, which 
when arranged in descending order of magnitude are as follows: — 

Per cent. 

British : .. 27-22 

French 24-59 

Greek 23-50 

Negro — 3-21 

Indian —17-45 

Though the English section of the British grew 10 p.c. faster than the population as a 
whole, the British group increased 7 p.c. less rapidly than the total population. The French 
showed an increase of only 24-59 p.c, as against 34-17 p.c. for Canada as a whole. 

The relative significance of various factors in bringing about these results cannot well be 
weighed. The smallness of French immigration as compared with that of other stocks and 
the high mortality rate, especially among infants, in French Canada probably account for the 
striking difference between the Dominion rate and that for the French. The magnitude of 
the difference is not so great in the following decade, but the unfavourable rate of growth in 
the French population persisted. 

That the rate for the Greeks was lower than that of the Dominion in 1901-1911 is offset 
by an increase nearly three times as great as the general increase for the Dominion in the 
next decade. Absolute decreases shown for the Negro and Indian stocks are turned into 
increases between 1911 and 1921, but the percentage increases are only a fraction of that for 
Canada as a whole, which confirms the tendency noted above, as to the decline of the pro- 
portion of those stocks in Canada. 

In the third place attention is drawn to the magnitude of the numerical and percentage 
increases for the Asiatic and European stocks (other than British and French). As a group, 
the other European stocks increased by four times as large a proportion as did the English 
and French. The rate was such as to more than double the European stocks in the one 
decade, and was much higher for specific origins. For example, the Belgians and Scandina- 
vians trebled; the Hebrews and Italians increased more than fourfold, and the Poles and 
Finns, respectively,' were numerically five and six times as strong in 1911 as in 1901. The 
Asiatics increased three times as rapidly as the British. 

These figures appear extremely large when compared with the increases of 27-22 p.c. for 
the British, 24-59' p.c. for the French and 34-17 p.c. for the population as a whole. It must 
not, of course, be inferred that such extreme differences are likely to be repeated or could 
possibly obtain for any length of time. Were the doors thrown open to Orientals, the rate of 
increase of these people in Canada would undoubtedly soar for some years, but such an event 
may be dismissed as beyond the range of probability. For Europe, however, the case is dif- 
ferent. Continental Europe has a more or less determinate surplus of population for emigra- 
tion each year. With the gradually declining birthrate, that surplus will grow smaller. 
But, as the numbers of the several stocks in Canada grow, larger and larger streams of' 
immigrants would be required to keep up these abnormally large percentage increases. 
Thus, such diversity in rates of growth among the various elements in our population as 
was witnessed in the first ten years of the century will not likely be repeated, and even if 
repeated in some subsequent decade, could not go on indefinitely. 

The decline of the immigration of European stocks, however, will not be as rapid as 
might be' expected. Hitherto Canada has been receiving only a portion of the excess popu- 
lation of Europe. Much larger numbers have gone to the United States. With that country 



48 



ORIGINS OF THE POPULATION OF CANADA 



on a strict quota system, the pressure of the surplus European population, which would have 
found its way there in the past, will be transferred in large measure bo Canada. Just how 
significant this will be is impossible to foresee, yet it will doubtless operate to keep the rates 
of increase of the foreign stocks in Canada from dropping to anything like the extent that 
otherwise would occur. 

Indeed, there is good reason' for the belief that though* the diversity in rates of growth 
may not be so large again, the natural tTend of unrestricted immigration would materially 
shift the balance of the stocks in our papulation in a few years. The cumulative effect of 
even a small differential rate is comparatively rapid, and even if the rate of growth of Euro- 
pean stocks were reduced to a quarter of that for the decade 1901 to 1911, it would still be 
sufficiently higher than the percentage increases for either the French or British to overtake 
these stocks numerically in the long run. Further, there is no probability that any such 
radical reduction in the growth of European stocks will take place in the near future. 

This raises a fourth point. If the rates of increase for the first and second decades are 
compared, in all except five cases a lower figure appears in 1911-1921. These five are the 
Bulgarian' and Roumanian groups, the Greeks, the Swiss, the Negroes and the Indians. In 
the first three cases, the rate of increase was positive, but more rapid in the latter decade. 
In the two latter cases an actual numerical decline was changed to a moderate growth. The 
increase in the first group is accounted for by extensive immigration in the first half of the 
decade, as compared with the previous ten-year period. For example, only one Bulgarian 
immigrant arrived in Canada in 1901, 40 in 1902, 5 in 1903, etc., but 4,616 came to Canada in 
the fiscal year 1912-13. The Greeks show the greatest proportionate increase in rate; the 
increase for the Swiss is slight. Yet while declining percentage increase was universal with 
these minor exceptions, all but a very few stocks increased much more rapidly than either 
the British or French. 

TABLE 12.— NUMBER OF VARIOUS STOCKS IN CANADA 1901, 1911. 1921, AND PERCENTAGE 
INCREASES FOR DECADES, 1901 TO 1911 AND 1911 TO 1921. 



Stocks 



Number 



1911 



P.c. increase 



1901-1911 1911-1921 



British 

English 

Irish 

Scotch 

Other 

French 

European 

Belgian 

Bulgarian and Roumanian. 

Finnish 

Greek 

Hebrew 

Italian 

Polish 

Scandinavian * 

Swiss 

Other European 2 

Asiatic 

Chinese 

Hindu 

Japanese 

Turkish 

Syrian 

Armenian 

Indian 

Negro 

Various 

Unspecified 



3.063,195 

1,260,899 

988,721 

800, 154 

13,421 

1,649,371 

456, 647 

2,994 

354 

2,502 

291 

16,131 

10,834 

6,285 

31,042 

3,865 

382,349 

23,731 

17,312 

4,738 

1,681 

127, 941 1 

• 17,437 

1,454 

31,539 



Total 5, 371, 315 



3,896,985 

1,823,150 

1,050,384 

997,880 

25,571 

2,054,890 

923,727 

9,593 

5,875 

15,497 

3,594 

75,681 

45,411 

33,365 

107,535 

6,625 

620,551 

43,017 

27,774 

2,342 

9,021 

3,880 

105,492 
16,877 
18,310 

147,345 



4,868,903 

2,545,496 

1,107,817 

1.173,637 

41,953 

2,452,751 

1,244,151 

20,234 

15,235 

21,494 

5,740 

126,196 

66,769 

53,403 

167,359 

12,837 

754,884 

65,731 

39,587 

1,016 

15,868 

313 

8,282 

665 

110,814 

18,291 

6.593 1 

21,249 



27-22 

44-59 

6-23 

24-71 

90-53 

24-59 

102-28 

220-41 

65-96 

519-38 

23-50 

369-17 

319-15 

430-87 

246-42 

71-41 

62-30 

81-27 

60-43 

90-40 

130-81 

-17-45 

- 3-21 

1,159-28 

367-18 



7,206,643 



8,788,483 



3417 



24-94 
39-62 
5-47 
17-61 
64-06 
19-36 
34-69 
110-92 
159-31 
38-70 
59-71 
66-75 
4703 
60-05 
55 -e3 
93-77 
21-65 
52-80 
42-53 
-56-60 
75-90 

113-45 

5 04 

8-38 

-6400 

-85-56 



21-95 



1 Includes: Danish, Norwegian, Icelandic, Swedish. 

s Includes: Austrian, German, Bukovinian, Dutch, Galician, Hungarian, Russian, Ruthenian, Bohemian, Moravian, 
Serbo-Croatian, Lithuanian, Lettish, Ukrainian, Laplander. 

8 Includes: Algerian, Arabian, Argentinian, Brazilian, Chilian, Egyptian, Eskimo, Hawaiian, Haytian, Jamaican, 
Korean, Malayan, Maltese, Maori, Mexican, Persian, Peruvian, Philippino, Portuguese, and Spanish. 

* Includes: 34,481 "half-breeds". 



CHAPTER II 

DISTRIBUTION OF VARIOUS STOCKS AND OF FOREIGN BORN 
ACCORDING TO LENGTH OF RESIDENCE 

THE PROPORTION OF DIFFERENT STOCKS CANADIAN BORN, UNITED STATES 
BORN AND BORN IN COUNTRIES OTHER THAN THE UNITED STATES 



Table 13 shows the numerical •distribution of the population by origins as between 
Canadian born, United States born and immigrants born in countries other than the 
United States. Tables 14 and 15 group the Europeans in Table 13 by rough geographical 
and linguistic classes, and Tables 16, 17, 18 and 19 express the same data in percentages. 
A summary appears in Table 20. 

From the figures of Table -13 it may be deduced that in 1921 77.75 p.c. .of the popula- 
tion of Canada were Canadian born, and 4.25 p.c. United States born. As respects the 
remaining 18 p.c. or 1,581,712, 12.12 p.c. or over two-thirds, or 1,065,454, were British born, 
leaving 5.88 p.c. of the total population, or 516,258 persons, as the foreign born other than 
United States born. The origins of these . half million persons are analyzed as far as 
possible in the following tables. The 1,054,982 persons of British origins born in countries 
other than Canada and the United States correspond fairly well with the 1,065,454 persons 
Empire born outside of Canada— -a proof that our British born persons (other than Cana- 
dians) are practically all of British origins, and may consequently be considered as adding 
not at all to the problems which confront us. Of course some few may have hpon 
of other than British stocks, and conversely some few of those born in foreign countries 
other than the United States may have been of British stocks. But the numbers of such 
persons must be comparatively negligible. 

Number Born in the United States. — In the first place it is evident from Table 13 that 
a very considerable number of our people have been born outside Canada — almost two 
million. Of those, 375,000 were of United States birth, or a little less than a fifth. The 
British stocks account for 205,000 or 55 p,c. of the immigrants born in the United States 
and the French for 50,000 or 13 p.c. Thus nearly 70 p.c. of those born' in the United States 
and resident in Canada in 1921 were either of British or of French stock. Figures for the 
other principal stocks, arranged in order of importance, are as follows :> — 



Stock 


Number 


Per cent of 

total U.S. 

born 




40,009 
22,186 
" 11,625 
10,176 
6,158 
4,851 
3,099 


11 
6 






Dutch 


3 










1 





That so large a percentage of those immigrants born across the line are of the dominant 
Canadian stocks and that the bulk of the remainder are of either Germanic or Scandinavian 
origin are facts fraught with great significance. The British, French, German and 
Scandinavians accounted for nearly 95 p.c. of the total United States born residents of 
Canada in 1921. 

■The Southern, Eastern and Central European stocks are conspicuous for the extremely 
small numbers appearing among the immigrants of United States birth in Canada. The 

49 
74422—1 



50 



DISTRIBUTION OF STOCKS BY LENGTH OF RESIDENCE 



Russians lead numerically and the Hebrews come a close second, but their proportions of 
the whole are comparatively insignificant. To a much greater extent is that true of the 
other Southern, Eastern and Central Europeans. 

TABLE 13— CANADIAN BORN, UNITED STATES BORN, AND ELSEWHERE BORN, BY ORIGINS, IN 

CANADA, 1921. 



Origins 



(1) 

Total 
population 



(2) 

Canadian 
born 



13) 

United 
States 
born 



(4) 
Born in 
countries 
other than 
Canada 
and U.S. 



Total 

British 

English. 

Irish 

Scotch.. 

Others. . 

French 

Armenian 

Austrian 

Belgian 

Bulgarian 

Chinese 

Czech 

Danish 

Dutch 

Eskimo 

Finnish 

German 

Greek 

Hebrew 

Hungarian... 

Icelandic 

Indian 

Italian 



Lettish 

Lithuanian 

Negro 

Norwegian 

Polish 

Portuguese 

Roumanian 

Russian 

Serbo-Croatian . . 

Spanish 

Swedish 

Swiss 

Syrian 

Turkish 

Ukrainian 

Bukovinian. 

Galician 

Ruthenian.. 

Ukrainian... 

Unspecified 

Various 



788,483 

868, 903 

545,496 

107,817 

173,637 

41,953 

452..751 

665 

107,671 

20,234 

1,765 

39,587 

8,840 

21,124 

117,506 

3,269 

21,494 

294,636 

5,740 

126,196 

13,181 

15,876 

110,814 

66, 769 

15,868 

381 

1,870 

18,291 

68,856 

53,403 

467 

13,470 

100,064 

3,906 

2,208 

61,503 

12,837 

8,282 

313 

106,721 

1,616 

24,456 

16,861 

63,788 

21,249 

1,673 



6,832,747 

3,608,732 

1,739,467 

946,979 

898, 670 

23,616 

2,379,636 

179 

56, 101 

6,761 

264 

2,966 

3,890 

8,910 

97,262 

3,267 

7,944 

211,374 

1,759 

50,892 

6,592 

8,741 

109,828 

28,732 

4,334 

150 

820 

13,685 

23,568 

27,650 

340 

6,028 

49,678 

1,419 

990 

21,727 

7,942 

4,122 

131 

57, 792 

849 

12,768 

9,484 

34,691 

18,281 

252 



374,024 

205,189 

108,008 

51,642 

41,948 

3,591 

50, 630 

10 

1,402 

734 

11 

35 

1,044 

4,122 

10,176 

1,427 

40,009 

122 

4,851 

575 

1,008 

663 

1,912 

16 

6 

44 

3,099 

22,186 

1,507 

34 

144 

6,158 

234 

309 

11,625 

1,690 

253 

7 

297 

8 

100 

24 

165 

2,472 

23 



1,581,712 

1,054,982 

698,021 

109,196 

233,019 

14,746 

22,485 

476 

50,16 

12,739 

1,490 

36,586 

3,906 

8,092 

10,068 

2 

12,123 

43,253 

3.859 

70,453 

6,014 

6,127 



36,125 


11,518 


225 


1,106 


1,507 


23, 102 


24,246 


93 


7,298 


44,228 


2,253 


909 


28, 151 


3,205 


3,907 


175 


48, 632 


759 


11,588 


7,353 


28, 932 


496 


1,398 



The numbers of the European stocks (other than British and French) born in the 
United States and resident in Canada, are shown by geographical and linguistic groups in 
Tables 14 and 15. 



CANADIAN, UNITED STATES AND ELSEWHERE BORN 



51 



TABLE 14.-NUMBER CANADIAN BORN, UNITED STATES BORN AND ELSEWHERE BORN OF 
PRINCIPAL EUROPEAN ORIGINS IN CANADA, BY GEOGRAPHICAL GROUPS (FRENCH AND 
BRITISH EXCEPTED), 1921. 



Origins 


Canadian 
born 


United 
States 
bora 


Born 

elsewhere 

than in 

Canada 

or U.S. 


Total 


North Western European — 


No. 

6,761 

8,910 

97,262 

211,374 

. 8,741 

23,568 

21,727 

7,942 


No. 

734 

4,122 

10,176 

40,009 

1,008 

22, 186 

11,625 

1,690 


No. 

12,739 
8,092 
10,068 
43,253 
6,127 
23,102 
28,151 
3,205 


No. 

20,234 
21,124 
117,606 
294,636 
15,876 
68,856 
61,503 
12,837 




Dutch 














Total 


386,285 


91,550 


134,737 


612,572 






63-06 


14-95 


21,99 


100-00 




South, Eastern and Central European — 


56,109 

264 

3,890 

7,944 

1,759 

6,592 

28, 732 

150 

820 

27,650 

340 

6,028 

49,678 

1,419 

990 

57, 792 


1,402 

11 

1,044 

• 1,427 

122 

575 

1,912 

6 

44 

1,507 

34 

144 

6,158 

234 

309 

297 


50,160 
1,490 
3,906 

12,123 
3,869 
6,014 

36,125 

225 

1,106 

24,246 

93 

7,298 

44,228 

2,253 

909 

48,632 


107,671 

1,765 

8,840 

21,494 

5,740 

13,181 

66, 769 

381 

1,970 

53,403 

467 

13,470 

100,064 

3,906 

2,208 

106,721 


















Polish 
















Total , 


250, 157 


15,226 


242,667 


508,050 






49-24 


30 


47-76 


100-0 





includes Bukovinian, Galician, Ruthenian and Ukrainian. 



Thus, while the total of North Western European stocks is 612,572 as compared with 
508,050 of South, Eastern and Central European stocks, the excess of the former is due to 
the larger number of Canadian and United States born among the races of the " older 
immigration." The number of these "preferred" stocks born outside of North America 
was only 134,737 as compared with 242,667 born outside of North America among the' stocks 
of the " newer immigration," or but little more than half as many. 



74422— 4J 



52 



DISTRIBUTION OF STOCKS BY LENGTH OF RESIDENCE 



TABLE 15 -NUMBER CANADIAN BOEN, UNITED STATES BORN, AND ELSEWHERE BORN OF 
PRINCIPAL EUROPEAN ORIGINS IN CANADA, BY LINGUISTIC GROUPS (FRENCH AND 
BRITISH EXCEPTED), 1921. 



Origins 


Canadian 
born 


United 
States 
born 


Elsewhere 

born 

(other than 

U.S.A.) 


Total 


Scandinavian— 


No. 

8,910 
8,741 
23,568 
21,727 


No. 

4,122 

1,008 

22,186 

11,625 


No. 

8,092 

6,127 

23,102 

28, 151 


No. 
21,124 




15,876 




68,856 




61,503 




62,946 


38,941 


65,472 


167,359 




37-61 


23-27 


39-12 


100-0 


Germanic — 


97,262 

6,761 

211,374 


10,176 

734 

40,009 


10,068 
12,739 
43,253 


117,506 




20,234 




294,636 




315,397 


50,919 


66,060 


432,376 




72-95 


11-78 


15-28 


100-0 


Latin and Greek — 


1,759 
28,732 

6,028 
990 
340 


122 

1,912 

144 

309 

34 


3,859 

36,125 

7,298 

909 

93 


5,740 




66, 769 




13,470 




2,208 




467 




37,849 


2,521 


48,284 


88,654 




42-69 


2-84 


54-46. 


100-0 


Slavic — 


56,109 

264 

3,890 

150 

820 

27,650 

49,678 

1,419 

57, 792 


1,402 

11 

1,044 

6 

44 

1,507 

6,158 

234 

297 


50,160 

1,490 

3,906 

225 

1,106 

24,246 

44,228 
2,253 

48,632 


107,671 




1,765 




8,840 




381 




1,970 




53,403 




100,064 




3,906 




106,721 




197,772 


10,703 


176,246 


384,721 




51-41 


2-78 


45-81 


100-0 







1 Includes Bukovinian, Galician, Ruthenian and Ukrainian. 



Proportions oj Stocks Born in Canada, United Stales and Countries other than the 
United States.— Tables 16, 17, 18, 19 and 20 show the percentages of the respective stocks 
born in Canada, the United States and countries other than the United States, by various 
groupings. For purposes of distinguishing those bom on the American continent from all 
others, as in the previous tables, the British born, other than Canadian, are included with 
the other immigrant born in the third column in each table. 

The first significant fact is the wide range of proportions shown as of Canadian birth. 
Neglecting the Eskimos and the Indians, the French show the highest percentage with 
97.02 p.c. Canadian born, and the Chinese the lowest with only 7.49 p.c- Table 17 arranges 
in rank the percentages Canadian and elsewhere born (other than in the United States). 
Those stocks of whom large percentages have come to Canada in earlier years appear at 
the top of the first column showing the rank of the stocks by percentages of Canadian birth. 
Those of more recent immigration appear in the 'lower portion of that column. The reverse 
holds 'true of the .percentages elsewhere born in the second column. 

On examination, these tables show that three-fourths of the British are Canadian born; 
the Irish show the high proportion of 85.48 p.c, the Scotch and English follow with 
76.57 p.c. and 68.34 p.c, respectively. Of the British' immigration, then, the proportion of 
English who have come in recent years is the highest. While those of British stock form 
over half the total immigration from the United States, it must be kept in mind that the 
United States born British stock in Canada is only a little over 4 p,c of all British stock 
in Canada. 



PROPORTIONS CANADIAN, UNITED STATES AND ELSEWHERE BORN 53 

Attention has been called to the very high percentage of French born in Canada. Less 
than 3 p.c. of those of French origin were born outside Canada. Of those, two-thirds came 
from United States and one-third from Europe. 

The Asiatics, as will be seen in Table 20, show very small percentages Canadian born 
with the exception of the Syrians, of whom about 50 p.c. were native Canadians. 

The Europeans are grouped geographically and linguistically in Tables 18 and 19. Con- 
siderable variation is shown in the geographical groups. Among the Northern Europeans, 
the Dutch show the largest percentage Canadian bom and the smallest foreign born. The 
Germans are the second, then the Swiss and Icelanders in the order named. The Belgians 
have the lowest, percentage born in Canada and the highest proportion foreign born 
outside of the United States. Even greater variation characterizes the South, Eastern 
and Central Europeans. In this group the Portuguese have the smallest proportion foreign 
born. Their numbers, however, are very small and consequently not important from the 
standpoint of the composition of the Canadian population. The Bulgarians, even fewer in 
numbers, are at the foot of the list in respect to percentage of Canadian birth. The others 
range around 45 p.c. Canadian born as a median value. 

TABLE 16.— PER CENT CANADIAN BORN, UNITED STATES BORN, AND ELSEWHERE BORN, 

BY ORIGINS, 1921. 



Origins 



P.c. 

Canadian 
born 



P.c. 
United 

States 
born 



Elsewhere 

born 
(other than 

U.S.) 



Total 

British 

English 

Irish 

Scotch 

Others 

French 

Armenian 

Austrian 

Belgian 

Bulgarian 

Chinese 

Czech 

Danish 

Dutch 

Eskimo 

Finnish 

Gei man 

Greek 

Hebrew 

Hungarian 

Icelandic 

Indian 

Italian 

Japanese 

Lettish 

Lithuanian 

Negro 

Norwegian 

Polish 

Portuguese 

Roumanian 

Russian 

Serbo-Croatian. 

Spanish 

Swedish 

Swiss 

Syrian 

Turkish 

Ukrainian 

Bukovinian 

Galician 

Ruthenian., 
Ukrainian.. 

Unspecified 

Various 



p.c 
4 



p.c. 



18-00 



21-67 
27-42 



54 



DISTRIBUTION OF STOCKS BY LENGTH OF RESIDENCE 



TABLE 17.— PERICENTIAND RANK OF U) CANADIAN BORN AND (2) ELSEWHERE BORN (OTHER THAN 

IN U.S.) BY ORIGINS, 1921. 



Origins 


P.O. 

Canadian 
born 


Rank 
U) 


Origins 


P.O. 

elsewhere 
born (other 
than U.S.) 


Rank 
(2) 




99-94 
9911 
97-02 
86-03 
85-48 
82-77 
76-57 
74-82 
72-81 
71-74 
68-34 
61-87 
56-25 
55-06 
54-38 
52-54 
52-21 
52-11 
51-78 
50 01 
49-77 
49-65 
44-84 
44-75 
44-00 
43 03 
42-18 
41-85 
41-62 
40-33 
39-37 
36-96 
36-33 
35-33 
34-23 
33-41 
30-64 
27-31 
26-92 
14-96 
7-49 


1 

2 
3 
4 
5 
6 
7 
8 
9 
10 
11 
12 
13 
14 
15 
16 
17 
18 
19 
20 
21 
22 
23 
24 
25 
26 
27 
28 
29 
30 
31 
32 
33 
34 
35 
36 
37 
38 
39 
40 
41 




92-42 
84^42 
72-59 
71-58 
67-23 
62-96 
69-06 
57-68 
56-40 
56- 14 
55-91 
55-83 
54-18 
5411 
47-38 
4717 
46-97 
46-58 
45-77 
45-63 
45-40 
45-36 
44-20 
44-19 
43-61 
4117 
38-69 
38-31 
33-55 
27-42 
24-97 
19-91 
19-85 
14-68 
11-63 
9-86 
8-57 
8-24 
0-92 
0-29 
0-06 


1 






2 






3 






4 






5 






6 






7 






8 






9 






10 




Turkish 


11 






12 






13 






14 






15 






16 






17 






18 






19 






20 




Polish 


21 






22 






23 






24 






25 






26 






27 






28 






29 




English 


30 






31 






32 






33 






34 






35 






36 




Dutch 


37 






38 






39 






40 






41 









THE OLD AND THE NEW IMMIGRATION 

The North Western Europeans are often regarded as constituting the so-called " old " 
immigration and the South, Eastern and Central European group, the " new ". For the 
groups, this distinction is valid. The percentage of the former group born in Canada is seen 
to be 63.06 as against 49.24 for the latter (Table 18). But an examination of the percent- 
ages for the separate stocks shows that some of the North Western- European stocks appar- 
ently should be classed as among the new arrivals and certain of the South, Eastern and 
Central group as of the older immigration. The extent of this overlapping is presented 
graphically in Chart 17. While the Dutch, Germans, Swiss and Icelanders are well above 
the mid-value of the Eastern group, it is also true that the Ukrainians, Austrians, Poles, 
Hungarians and' Russians show higher percentages Canadian bom than the lower four North 
Western continental stocks. Further, the proportions Canadian born for three of the, 
Scandinavian stocks, viz., the Danish, Norwegian and Swedish, are considerably below that 
for the South, Eastern and Central Europeans as a class. 

Additional light is thrown on the situation by Table 19 (p. 57), giving the source of our 
immigration by linguistic groups. It is seen that while only 37.61 p.c. of the Scandinavians 
are Canadian born, an additional 23.27 p.c. were born in the United States and are thus 
of the second generation on this continent. Almost as many Norwegian residents of Canada 
were born in the United States as in Norway; almost half as many Danes as were born in 
Denmark and more than a third as many Swedes as were born in Sweden. Only 39.12 p.c. 
of this group were born in foreign countries other than the United States. Thus, in the 
case of none of the Scandinavian stocks is the percentage born outside this continent as 
great as that for the Slavs as a group. Now while in some respects there is a radical 
difference between Scandinavians born in Canada, the United States and the Mother Lands, 



PERCENTAGE CANADIAN BORN OF SPECIFIED ORIGINS 



55 



Chart XVII 





SHOWING PERCENTAGE CANADIAN BORN of SPECIFIED 
ORIGINS other th*n BRITISH and FRENCH in 19 21 






N. Western European 


% 


S.,Eajtern andCcnt. European 


■ 


DUTCH 


80 










GERMAN 


70 


PORTUGUESE 


SWISS 


60 




ICELANDIC 


55 






50 


UKRAINIAN-HUNGARIAN 
AUSTRIAN AND POLISH 








DANISH 


40 


Czech— Roumanian and Spanish 
Italian— Lithuanian 


SWEDISH 


35 


Lettish 

Finnish— Serbo-Croatian 


Norwegian 
Be loan 


30 


GREEK 














i 


15 


BULGARIAN 



from the standpoint of linguistic, economic and educational assimilation the United States 
born and Canadian born are very similar. Consequently there are real grounds for regarding 
the Scandinavians as among the earlier immigrants, though a smaller percentage were 
Canadian born than was the case for the Slavs or Latins and Greeks. Over 60 p.c. of the 
Scandinavians were born on this continent, as opposed to 54 p.c. of the Slavs and 45 p.c. 
of the Latins and Greeks. 

A considerable proportion of United States born also characterizes the Dutch and 
Germans in this country. While 83 p.c. of the Dutch and 72 p.c. of the Germans were 
born in Canada, over 91 p.c. of the former and 85 p.c. of the latter were born on the 
American continent and brought up under the more or less similar cultures of the two 
English-speaking North American nations. 

Portuguese should also be classed among the older immigrants because of the proportion 
born in Canada; on similar grounds to those mentioned above, the Spanish with a total of 
60 p.c. North American born, are not to be thought of as among the new arrivals. Canadian 
residents of these origins, however, are comparatively few. 

The Belgians, on the other hand, with 33.41 p.c. Canadian born and 3.63 p.c. born in 
the United States, though from Northern Europe, are among the new comers to this 
continent. The Latins and Greeks show less than 46 p.c. North American born, a percentage 



56 



DISTRIBUTION OF STOCKS BY. LENGTH OF RESIDENCE 



much lower than the 54 p.c. for the Slavic group. Indeed, as a group, the Latins and 
Greeks, the Portuguese and Spanish excepted, show the largest percentage born across the 
seas, the Slavs ranking second. The proportions of these latter groups born in the 
United States are very small. There is one exception, however, among the Slavs, 
viz., the Czechs, of whom 44 p.c. were Canadian born and 11.81 p.c. were born in the 
United States, making a total of nearly 56 p.c. born on this continent. Almost twice as 
large a proportion of the Czechs as of any other Slavic people have come from the United 
States. The Russians and Serbo-Croatians are the only Slavic peoples beside the Czechs 
who show anything but an insignificant proportion of United States birth. 

There are grounds, therefore, for a general distinction between the groups of origins 
on the basis of the time of coming to this continent, though no clear demarcation 
on the basis of Canadian birth alone seems justifiable. The Scandinavian and Germanic 
stocks and those from the north and west of Europe generally, constitute the older settlers, 
while the Latin, Greek and Slavic peoples and those from the south, centre and east of 
Europe, are on the whole more recent arrivals. It must be kept in mind, however, that 
even on this broader basis there are exceptions. The Belgians are decidedly of the new 
immigration, the few Spanish and Portuguese are of the old, and certain Slavic stocks, such 
as the Czechs, Russians, Poles and Austrians, show almost as small a percentage born 
outside Canada and the United States as some of those classed among the older immigrants. 

The Asiatic group is unique with 18-04 p.c. Canadian born, -05 p.c. United States born 
and 81-48 p.c. born in the East. It shows much the smallest proportion Canadian and 
United States born of any group and by far the largest percentage born in foreign lands. 

TAB ^Jfc£ E - I i C 5$! T CANADIAN BORN, UNITED STATES BORN, AND ELSEWHERE BORN, OF 
S5K?P- A £, E ry,?cP PEAN ST0CK S IN CANADA (FRENCH AND BRITISH EXCEPTED), BY GEOGRA- ■ 
IMiICAJj GROUPS, 1921. 



Groups of Origins 


P.c. 

Canadian 

born 


P.c. 

United 
States 
born 


P.c. 
elsewhere 

born 

(other than 

in U.S.) 


North Western European- 


33-41 

42-18 
82-77 
71-74 
55-06 
34-23 
35-33 
61-87 


3-63 
19-51 

8-66 
13-58 

6-35 
32-22 
18-90 
13-16 


62-96 
38-31 
8-57 
14-68 
38-59 
33-55 
45-77 
24-97 






German 












Total 


63-06 


14-95 


21-99 




South, Eastern and Central European — 


52-11 
14-96 
44-00 
36-96 
30-64 
50-01 
43-03 
39-37 
41-62 
51-78 
72-81 
44-75 
49-65 
36-33 
44-84 
54-15 


1-30 
0-62 

11-81 
6-64 
2-13 
4-36 
2-86 
1-57 
2-23 
2-82 
7-28 
1-07 
6-15 
5-99 

13-99 
0-28 


46-58. 
84-42 
44-19 
56-40 
67-23 
45-63 
5411 
59-06 
56-14 
45-40 
19-91 
0418. 
44-20 
57-68 


















Polish 














45-57 




Total 


49-24 


3-00 


47-76. 





PERCENTAGE CANADIAN, UNITED STATES AND ELSEWHERE BORN 57 

TABLE 19— PER CENT CANADIAN BORN, UNITED STATES BORN, AND ELSEWHERE BORN, OF PRIN- 
CIPAL EUROPEAN STOCKS IN CANADA, BY LINGUISTIC GROUPS (FRENCH AND BRITISH 
EXCEPTED), 1921. 



Groups of Origins 


P.c. 

Canadian 

born 


P.c. 
United 
States 

born 


P.c. 
elsewhere 

born 

(other than 

in U.S.) 


Scandinavian — 


42-18 
55-06 
34-23 
35-33 


19-51 

6-35 

32-22 

18-90 














45-77 






Total 


37-61 


23-27 








Germanic — 

Dutch 


62-77 
33-41 
71-74 


8-66 
3-63 
13-58 
















Total 


72-95 


11-78 








Latin and Greek — 


30-64 
43-03 
72-81 
44-75 
44-84 


2-13 
2-86 
7-28 
1-07 
13-99 
























Total 


42-69 


2-84 








Slavic — 


52-12 
14-96 
44-00 
39-37 
41-63 
51-78 
49-65 
36-33 
54-15 


1-30 
0-62 
11-81 
1-57 
2-23 
2-82 
615 
5-99 
0-28 


















56-14 


Polish 


















Total 


51-41 


2-78 


45-81 





TABLE 20— SUMMARY TABLE OF PER CENT CANADIAN BORN, UNITED STATES BORN AND ELSE- 
■ WHERE BORN, OF CERTAIN STOCKS, IN CANADA, BY SPECIFIED GROUPS, 1921. 



Groups of Origins 


P.c. 

Canadian 

born 


P.c. 
United 
States 

born 


P.c. 
elsewhere 

born 

(other than 

in U.S.) 


Total 


77-75 
56-71 
63-06 
49-24 
37-61 
72-95 
42-69 
51-41 
18-04 


4-25 
9-47 
14-95 
3-00 
23-27 
11-78 
2-84 
2-78 
0-05 






























45-81 
81-48 







The data in Table 20 are represented diagramaticaMy in Chart 18. 



68 



DISTRIBUTION OF STOCKS BY LENGTH OF RESIDENCE 



Chart XVIII 



PERCENTAGES or SPECIFIED ORIGIN GROUPS. CANADIAN 
BORN, UNITED STATES BORN and ELSEWHERE BORN, 

1921. %0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100% 

Total Population or Dominion 

TotalContinental European 

N .Western European 

S,,Eastern and Cent. European 

Scandinavian 

Germanic 

Latin and Greek 

Slavic 



As 



IATIC 




Legend 



CANADIAN BORN I 



[ UNITED STATE! BORN I 



ELSEWHERE BORN I 



THE CHANGING PROPORTIONS OF CANADIAN BORN AND ELSEWHERE BORN 

Hitherto attention has been focussed on the birthplace of the various stocks in Canada 
in 1921. We now turn to the changing percentage of the population born outside of Canada, 
with a view to studying more specifically the recent inflow of immigrant races. Table 21 
shows the nativity of the population in the three census years 1901, 1911 and 1921. The 
first point to note is the. decreasing proportion of the population born in Canada. Those 
of Canadian nativity constituted 86-98 p.c. of the population in 1901 and only 77-98 p.c. 
in 1911 — a decline of 9 p.c. in the proportion in a decade. Owing to arrested immigration 
during the war the decrease in the second decade was almost negligible. 

In the second place, compensating increases occurred in the percentage of the total 
population born in foreign countries and the British Isles. The proportion of our popula- 
tion born in Europe more than doubled between 1901 and 1911, and then remained station- 
ary for ten years. The proportion born in North Western Europe increased about 76 p.c, 
while the percentage born in South, Eastern and Central Europe almost trebled in the first 
decade of the century. In both cases, however, decreases occur in the second decade. The 
falling off in the North Western group is more marked than for the South, Eastern and 
Central European countries. There has been a steadier and more gradual growth of the 
proportion of United States birth in Canada. The same holds true of the Asiatics. The 
war is undoubtedly the chief explanation of these differences. 

In passing, it is worth noting that throughout the period 1901-1921 over half of those 
born outside of Canada came from the British Isles. In 1901, about the same proportion were 
born in the United States as in Europe. But by 1921, the United States born had fallen 
behind the European born by approximately 20 p.c. Further, since the beginning of the 
century, the proportion born in North Western Europe has not been as great as the percent- 
age born in the South, East and Centre. The disparity between the two groups has becomp 
progressively more marked. 



CHANGING PROPORTIONS OF CANADIAN AND ELSEWHERE BORN 59 



TABLE No. 21.— PROPORTION OF POPULATION CANADIAN AND ELSEWHERE BORN, BY COUNTRY 

OF BIRTH, 1901, 1911, 1921. 



Country of Birth 



P.c. of total population born in speci- 
fied country 



1901. 


1911. 


1921. 


p.c. 


p.c. 


p.c. 


86-98 


77-98 


77-75 


14-02 


22-02 


22-25 


7-54 


11-16 


11-66 


0-29 


0-41 


0-45 


2-34 


5-62 


5-23 


0-53 


0-94 


0-65 


0-04 


011 


015 


002 


0-28 


0-01 


- 


0-02 


005 


0-04 


0-07 


008 


- 


0-15 


0-14 


0-15 


0-24 


0-22 


- 


0-44 


0-41 


0-51 


0-55 


0-29 


- 


0-04 


0-04 


001 


0-05 


0-07 


I 1 ) 


• 0-15 


0-09 


0-11 


0-10 


0-08 


0-13 


0-48 


0-40 


- 


- 


0-02 


l ! ) 


0-29 


0-26 


V") 


- 


0-33 


i 4 ) 


- 


0-26 


0-58 


1-25 


115 


0-19 


0-39 


0-32 


- 


- 


004 


- 


- 


013 


0-03 


0-07 


0-04 


0-44 


0-57 


0-61 


0-32 


0-37 


0-42 


0-09 


0-12 


0-13 


0-02 


0-04 


0-04 


0-01 


0-03 


0-03 


2-38 


4-21 


4-25 


1-05 


1-81 


1-46 


1-20 


3-74 


3-54 



Canada 

Other Countries {including British).. 

British hies 

British Possessions 



Europe 

Austria 

Belgium 

Bulgaria 

Czechoslovakia . 

Denmark 

Finland 

France 

Galicia 

Germany 

Greece 

Holland 

Hungary 

Iceland 

Italy 

Jugo-Slavia 

Norway 

Poland 

Roumania 

Russia 

Sweden 

Switzerland 

Ukraine 

Others 



Asia 

China..., 
Japan.... 

Syria 

Turkey.. 
Others... 



United States 

North Western Europe 

South, Eastern and Central Europe . 



t 1 ) Included with Austria. 
( 2 ) Included with Sweden. 
( 9 ) Included with Russia. 
( A ) Included with Bulgaria. 

Tables 22 and 23 ori .p. 61 show the numbers of European foreign born in Canada in 
1901, 1911 and 1921, as far as possible, by country of birth and geographical and linguistic 
classifications. It has been impossible to separate, for example, the Austrians from the 
Hungarians for 1901 — and so with all cases where the numbers and percentages are omitted. 

There are several significant points brought out in this table. First, however, a word 
is required as to the meaning of percentage increases and decreases. Take for example the 
Belgians. In 1901-1911 the number of European born Belgians in Canada increased 240-78 
p.c; that is, at an average rate of 25 p.c. per year over the 1901 total. The influx of Bel- 
gians was therefore enough to offset any emigration that occurred in the period, to neutralize 
the death rate of Belgian immigrants to Canada, and to show by the end of the decade two 
and a hall times the number of Belgian born immigrants resident in the Dominion in 1901. 
In the second ten years of the century the increase was only 66*47 p.c. During those years 
immigration was smaller, emigration was more marked and the mortality rate among the 
Belgian born was probably higher, owing to the higher average age of Belgian residents in 
Canada. The actual percentages shown are thus the result of three or more less independent 
factors which vary in importance from time to time and between one stock and another. 

There is a fourth consideration, however, which is necessary to explain a given percent- 
age increase. A very large proportionate increase may be due not to any great volume of 
immigration so much as to its recency. Take for example the Greeks. In 1901 there were 
213 Canadian residents born in Greece; in 1911, 2,640 — an increase of 2,327 in numbers but 
of 1,139-44 p.c. Between 1911 and 1921 the number of native Greeks in Canada increased 



60 DISTRIBUTION OF STOCKS BY LENGTH OF RESIDENCE 

by 1,129, but this amounted only to 42-77 p.c. of the natives of Greece resident in Canada 
in 1911. When people from a given country commence coming to Canada on a considerable 
scale the percentage increases of the foreign born are usually high merely because of the 
small number of those who had previously come, which number is used as a base for com- 
puting the proportionate increase. 

Though not so determining a factor, the death rate is usually lower for the " newer " 
immigration than for the " old." On the whole, the age distribution of the former is more 
favourable to low 'mortality. Few of the young men and women immigrating to Canada 
in the prime of life have had time to grow old in the case of the stocks who have come to 
Canada in recent years in large numbers. While differences due to this cause may.be of 
comparatively minor importance in comparison with the other factors mentioned above, 
that such differences do exist must be pointed out if attention is to be drawn to all aspects 
of the problem. Thus considerable care should be taken in using and interpreting the data 
given in these tables. To analyze them in detail is beyond the scope of this report. A few 
comments may be offered. 

First, as is brought out clearly in Table 24 (p. 62), there was an actual decline in ■ 
the number of foreign born from the north of Europe and notably from Germanic countries 
during the past decade. Neither the comparative cessation of immigration during the war 
nor the rather high death rate among the German born because of their longer residence in 
this country, are adequate to account for this phenomenon. With the Germans, one deter- 
mining factor is undoubtedly emigration. According to the census there were 14,311 fewer 
native born Germans in Canada in 1921 than in 1911, in spite of the fact that just over 
20,000 new immigrants of German nationality arrived during the decade. High emigration 
just before and early in the war probably accounts for a very considerable percentage of the 
decrease. To emigration and death there must be added, in explaining so large a discrepancy, 
the fact that there is certain evidence to substantiate the statement that in 1921 wrong birth 
places were reported in many cases. After the war many of the German born claimed to 
be of Dutch or Swiss birth. How far this was the case cannot be stated without further 
research, but it was undoubtedly a contributory factor in explaining the phenomenal decline 
in the numbers of foreign born Germans recorded in the census. 

In the last decade there were among the Northern Europeans two other cases of actual 
decline in numbers born in the Mother Country and domiciled in Canada, viz., the Ice- 
landers and the Swedes. It is difficult to determine without further investigation the relative 
importance of the various forces responsible for those decreases. However, the combined 
effect of decreases in the three cases mentioned, viz., the Germane, Icelanders and Swedes,, 
was to make a slight reduction in the numbers of North Western European birth resident 
in Camaxia in 1921 as against the numbers here in 1911. In this decade a net decline of 
1.39 p.c. appears in the figures for North Western' Europe, as contrasted with an increase' 
of 131.31 p.c. in the previous ten years. 

The figures for the South, Central and Eastern sections of Europe show an actual 
increase, though a relative decline, as against the previous decade. The high rate of growth 
of the Czechoslovaks is worthy of note, also the absolute decrease of 14.77 ,p.c. and. 
29.22 p.c. for the Austrians and Hungarians, respectively. The Austrians and Hungarians, 
like the Germans, were enemy peoples during the war, and what was said of the Germans 
probably applies to them with similar force. Immigration from Greece commenced very 
energetically in the decade 1901-1911, and while the percentage increase dropped greatly 
in the second decade, it was still high as compared with the average rate of increase of 
the other stocks in the South, Central and Eastern groups. 

Turning to the. linguistic groups, among the Scandinavians the increase in the numbers 
born in Norway and Sweden was very marked in the first ten years of the century, and 
the Danes also came in relatively large numbers. On the other hand, the increase in the 
percentage of Icelanders born overseas in the first decade of the century was not only the- 
lowest among the Scandinavians but was less than that of any stock from any other part 
of the world. For that decade it was less than half as great as the increase of German 
born, which was the next lowest. Between 1911 and .1921, as has been pointed out, there-; 
was an actual decrease in the number born in Iceland who were resident in Canada. 



GROWTH OF EUROPEAN BORN SINCE 1901 



61 



The outstanding feature of the Latin and Greek group is the rapid growth of the 
percentage of foreign born in the first ten years of the century. In the case of the Italians, 
this growth was sharply checked in the second ten years owing principally no doubt to the 
war; a considerable number of Italian immigrants who arrived in Canada in the few years 
preceding the war returned to Italy in 1915 to serve in the war, but the Greeks shewed 
a high percentage increase even in the last decade. 

TABLE 22.-NUMBER OF CONTINENTAL EUROPEAN BORN IN CANADA IN 1901, 1911 AND 1921, AND 
PER CENT INCREASE 1901-1911 AND 1911-1921, BY GEOGRAPHICAL GROUPING OF COUNTRIES OF 
BIRTH. 



Country of Birth 


No. 
1901 


No. 
1911 


No. 
1921 


P.c. 
increase 
1901-1911 


P.c. 

increase 
1911-1921 




2,280 
2,075 
7.944 

27,300 

385 

6,057 

< ! ) 

10,256 


7,975 

4,937 

17,619 

39,577 

3,808 

7,109 

20,968 

28,226 


13,276 

7,192 

19,249 

25,266 

5,828 

6,776 

23,127 

27,700 


34-17 

249-78 
137-93 

121-79 
44-97 

889-09 
17-37 

379 -66\ 


21-95 


North Western Europe — 


66-47 




45-68 




9-25 




-36-16 


Holland 


53-05 




-4-68 




10-30 




• -1-86 


Total 


56,297 


130,219 


128,414 


131-31 


-1-39 






Central, South Eastern Europe — 


28,407 
1,066 

213 
(>) 

6,854 
( J ) 
(«) 
31,231 


67,502 
19,937 

1,689 
10,987 
31,373 

2,640 
10,586 
34,739 

89,984 


57,535 

1,005 

4,322 

12,156 

36,025 

3,769 

7,493 

35,431 

29,279 

22,779 

101,055 


1,139-44 
406-84 


-14-77 




- 




155-89 




10-64 




14-83 




■i, 42-77 




-29-22 


Italy 


2-28 


Poland 


- 




- 




- 






Total 


I s ) 67,771 


( s )225,388 


0310,949 


232-57 


15-41 








- 


(«)269,437 


- 


- 


- 



f, 1 ) Included with Austria. 
(') Included with Sweden. 

( 3 ) Included with Russia. 

( 4 ) Included with Bulgaria. 

(») Includes Austria, Bulgaria, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Poland, Russia. 
( 8 ) Includes Austria, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Galicia, Greece, Hungary. 
Negative sign denotes a decrease. 

TABLE 23.— NUMBER OF CONTINENTAL EUROPEAN BORN IN CANADA IN 1901, 1911 AND 1921, 
AND PER CENT INCREASE 1901-1911 AND 1911-1921, BY LINGUISTIC GROUPING OF COUNTRIES 

OF BIRTH. 



Country of birth 


No. 
1901 


No. 
1911 


No. 
1921 


P.c. 
increase 
1901-11 


P.c. 

increase 
1911-21 




2,075 

6,057 

i 

10,256 


4,937 

7,109 

20, 968 

28,226 


7,192 

6,776 

23,127 

27, 700 


34-17 

137-93 
17-37 

379-66/ 


21-95 


Scandinavian — 


45-68 




- 4-68 




10-30 




- 1-86 


Total 


18,388 


61,240 


64,795 


233-04 


5-81 


Germanic — 


2,280 

27,300 

385 


7,975 

39,577 

3,808 


13,276 
25,266 
5,828 


249-78 
44-97 
889-09 


66-47 




-36-16 




53-05 


Total 


29,965 


51,360 


44,370 


71-40 


-13-61 


Latin and Greek — 


7,944 

213 

6,854 


17,619 

2,640 

34,739 


19,249 

3,769 

35,531 


121-79 

1,139-44 

406-84 


9-25 




42-77 




2-28 


Total 


15,011 


54,998 


58,549 


266-38 


6-46 







1 Included with Sweden. 



62 



DISTRIBUTION OF STOCKS BY LENGTH OF RESIDENCE 



Owing to changes in national boundaries, referred to above, and the consequent 
difficulties of getting separate statistics on countries of birth corresponding to present 
political divisions, only a very small proportion of the Slavs appearing in earlier census 
enumerations could be allocated to their present national groups. It was thus considered 
impracticable to attempt a Slavic classification. 

Finally, turning to Table 24, giving a summary by specified groups of countries of birth, 
several general points of comparison are worthy of emphasis. 

First, between 1901 and 1911 the percentage increase of those born in South, Eastern 
and Central Europe was twice as great as that for the group of nations of the north and 
western .parts of the continent. ■ The percentage increases for both the Slavic and • Latin 
and Greek groups were marked and made a very high total increase for the South, Eastern 
and Central European bom. While the rate of increase of the foreign born Scandinavians 
in that decade was almost twice as great as that Tor North Western Europeans as a whole, 
the addition to the foreign born 'Germanic people in Canada was only a little more than 
half the .proportion for the North Western Europeans. The United States born increased 
about as rapidly as the North Western Europeans in the first ten years of the century. 

In the second decade the rates of growth show heavy declines. The United States born 
registered, an advance of -23-16 p.c.; the South, Central, and Eastern European showed 
a 15-41 p.c. increase, and the Latins and Greeks and Scandinavians came next in ord'er 
with increases of 6-46 and 5-81 p.c, respectively. Mention has been made of the actual 
decline in the numbers of the North Western European and Germanic groups in this period. 

In conclusion, a striking comparison is presented by referring these percentage changes 
in foreign born to the rate of population growth in the country as a whole. Between 1901 
and 1911 the number of foreign born Latins and Greeks resident in Canada increased over 
8 times, as rapidly as the total population; the foreign born South, Eastern and Central 
Europeans and the foreign born Scandinavians 7 times as rapidly, the North Western 
European and United States born at nearly four times the rate, while those born in Germanic 
and Asiatic countries showed over twice the percentage increase. In the decade 1911-1921 
the situation was entirely changed. Only the increase in the United States and Asiatic 
born was as great as the increase in the population as a whole. In many cases the number 
foreign born actually declined. 

^ftimTTrnW^.S?, 1 ; 15 »! H ?IW G JEECENTAGE INCREASE OF THE IMMIGRANT 
ANIMM™21 CANADA . B Y SPECIFIED NATIVITY GROUPS, FOR THE DECADES 1901-1911 



Country of birth 



Total population 

British Isles 

British Possessions 

Europe 

Asia 

United States 

North Western Europe 

South, Eastern and Central Europe 

Scandinavian Countries 

Germanic Countries 

Latin and Greek Countries 



P.c. increase by decades. 



1901-1911 1911-1921 



p.c. 
3417 

98-65 

83-99 
222-54 

73-65 
137-44 
131-31 
232-57 
233-04 

71-40 
266-38 



21-95 

27-47 

35-95 

13-43 

30-99 

23-16 

-1-39 

15-41 

5-81 

-13-61 

6-46 



PRINCIPAL COUNTRIES OP BIRTH OF RECENT IMMIGRANTS FROM 

CONTINENTAL EUROPE 

Table 25 shows those countries which the largest number of European born residents of 
Canada in 1921 reported as their respective countries of birth. The Russians were the 
most numerous of those reporting at the census as having come to Canada before 1901. 
Indeed, for every period except the years 1919 and 1920, Russia heads the list. This fact 
seems to indicate that during the last generation Russia has sent a larger number of 
permanent settlers to Canada than any other European continental country. Austria ds 
well up among the first seven countries until the period of the war, and by 1921 reappears 



COUNTRIES OF BIRTH OF RECENT IMMIGRANTS 



63 



in the list. The same applies to Galicia, with the difference that by 1921 the Galicians 
had not yet resumed their exodus to this country in great numbers. In the decade 1900-1910, 
Poland appeared for the first time among the first seven countries, and except for the war 
years has continuously maintained a' place of high importance as a source of Canadian 
immigration. These four are predominantly Slavic countries (Galicia is now included in 
Poland). 

It is worthy of note that while Italy does not appear in the list before 1900, in the 
decade 1900-1910 it stood fifth and ranked between first and third from that time to the 
taking of the last Census. This fact shows that immigration from Southern Europe as well 
as from Eastern and Central Europe has been coming to the fore. Of the Scandinavian 
peoples, the Swedes appeared among the first seven until 1921, and the Norwegians from 
1900 until just after the war. While Iceland was among the seven countries which sent 
the largest number of immigrants to Canada before 1900, it has never since reappeared 
among that group. The same applies to Germany. France also ranked among the first 
seven prior to 1900, but since then has appeared in the list only in 1919 and 1920, when 
the volume of immigration was practically negligible owing to the war. Further, of the 
French who came in 1919 65 p.c. were women, which suggests that among their number 
were included many who had married Canadian soldiers or were about to do so. That 
France should temporaril}' occupy a high place under such unusual circumstances is not 
indicative of an increasing volume of French immigration as compared with pre-war years. 
Indeed, as in the case of Germany and Iceland, the importance of immigration from France 
has continuously declined 1 since the beginning of the century. 

Careful study of this table will show the gradual shifting of the weight of immigration 
from the North West of Europe and the Scandinavian and Germanic groups to the South, 
Eastern and Central nations and the Slavic and Latin and Greek peoples. 



TABLE 25.— PRINCIPAL COUNTRIES OF BIRTH OF CONTINENTAL EUROPEAN IMMIGRANTS TO 

CANADA IN SPECIFIED PERIODS. 



Rank 


Country 


Rank 


Country 


Rank i Country 


Rank 


Country 


Before 1900 


1900-1910 


1911-1914 


1915-1918 


1 


Russia. 


1 


Russia. 


1 


Russia. 


1 


Russia. 


2 


Germany 


2 


Austria 


2 


Austria 


2 


Norway 


3 


Austria 


3 


Galicia 


3 


Italy 


3 


Italy 


4 


Galicia 


4 


Sweden 


4 


Poland 


4 


Sweden 


5 


France 


5 


Italy 


5 


Galicia 


5 


Finland 


6 


Iceland 


6 


Norway 


6 


Sweden 


6 


France 


7 


Sweden 


7 


Poland 


7 


Norway 


7 


Belgiim 


1919 


1920 


1921 (5 months) 






1 


France 


1 


Italy 


1 


Russia 




2 


Belgium 


2 


Belgium 


2 


Italy 






3 


Italy 


3 


Poland 


3 


Poland 






4 


Russia 


4 


Russia 


4 


Belgium 






5 


Sweden 


5 


France 


5 


Austria 






6 


Norway 


6 


Sweden 


6 


Denmark 






7 


Poland 


6 


Finland 


7. 


Roumania 







Length oj Residence oj the Foreign Born in Canada.— Table 26 shows the total number 
of foreign born in Canada in 1921 Iby country of birth and the number and percentage of 
each nationality who arrived prior . to 1901. Table 27 groups the percentages for the 
European born by territorial and linguistic classes. 

A few interesting points are brought out in these tables. First, those of Icelandic birth 
show the largest percentage in Canada before 1901, while the Bulgarians, with only 2.2 p.c. 
in Canada before that date, showed the smallest. There is considerable variation in the 
proportions within both the geographical and linguistic groups. Of the North Western 
Europeans, for example, the smallest percentage arriving 'before 1901 appears in the case of 
immigrants from Holland; only 5 p.c. of those born in that country and resident in Canada 
in 1921 had arrived before the beginning of the century. At the other extreme stands 
Iceland, with almost 60 p.c. of the immigrants of Icelandic birth in Canada arriving before 
1901. •> 



64 



DISTRIBUTION OF STOCKS BY LENGTH OF RESIDENCE 



The total for the North Western European group was 21.20 p.c, while that for the 
South, Eastern and Central Europeans was 14.35 p.c. Thus, from the standpoint of the per- 
centage of the foreign bom in Canada who had arrived prior to 1901, confirmation is 
given to the previous conclusion that the North Western Europeans as a group were older 
immigrants than those from the South, Eastern and Central parts of Europe. While such 
a generalization may be true as applying to the broad sections of Europe, among the 
Boutih, eastern and central peoples, there were several oo-umbries with larger percentages. Of 
the foreign born Galicians of Canada, 16 .p.c. arrived before 1901, of the Austrians and 
Russians over 17 pjc. and of the Czeobosiovakians, 12 p.c. The percentage of the Poles 
arriving before 1901 was considerably lower than that of the other important Slavic 
peoples. 

Totals for the linguistic groups show that a larger percentage of the European born 
Germanic peoples had arrived in Canada prior to 1901 than obtained for the Scandinavian 
group. The percentages for both of these groups, however, were higher than those for 
either the Slavs or the Latins and Creeks. 'From the proportions of the foreign born 
who had arrived prior to 1901, one is justified in concluding that of the immigrants of this 
generation the Germanic peoples were earlier arrivals than the Scandinavians, and the Slavs 
than the Latin and Greeks. A detailed examination of these two tables will reveal many 
other interesting facts. 

TABLE 26.-NUMBER AND PERCENTAGE OF IMMIGRANT POPULATION IN CANADA IN 1921, 
WHO ARRIVED BEFORE 1901, CLASSIFIED BY COUNTRY OF BIRTH. 



Birthplace 



British bom 

Foreign born... 

Europe 

Austria 

Belgium 

Bulgaria 

Czechoslovakia 

Denmark 

Finland 

France 

Galicia 

Germany 

Greece 

Holland 

Hungary 

Iceland 

Italy 

Jugo-Slavia 

Norway 

Poland 

Roumania 

Russia 

Sweden 

Switzerland 

Ukraine 

Others..., 

Asia 

China 

Japan 

Syria 

Turkey 

Others 

United States.. 

West Indies 

Other countries. 

At sea 



(1) 


(2) 




Number 


Total 


who arrived 




before 




' 1901 


1,065,454 


195,239 


890,282 


136,834 


459,328 


74.721 


57,525 


9,846 


13,276 


1,410 


1,005 


22 


4,322 


520 


7,192 


1,247 


12,156 


1,090 


19,249 


4,146 


36,025 


5,769 


25,266 


10,384 


3,769 


200 


5,828 


286 


7,493 


846 


6,776 


4,010 


35,531 


3,065 


1,946 


98 


23,127 


1,847 


29,279 


3,069 


22,779 


2,997 


101,055 


17,689 


27, 700 


3,965 


3,479 


660 


11,357 


1,320 


3,183 


235 


53,636 


8,573 


36,924 


6,109 


11,650 


1,426 


3,879 


. 902 


401 


54 


784 


82 


374,024 


53,109 


123 


8 


3,171 


423 


653 


312 



(3) 

P.c. 

who arrived 

before 

1901 



18-32 

15-37 

16-27 

1711 

10-62 

219 

1203 

17-34 

8-97 

21-54 

16-01 

41-10 

5-31 

4-91 

11-29 

69 18 

8,63 

504 

7-99 

10-48 

13-16 

17-50 

14-31 

18-97 

11-62 

7-38 

15-98 

16-54 
12-24 
23-25 
13-47 
10-49 

14-20 

6-50 

13-34 

47-78 



PERCENTAGE OF EUROPEAN BORN ARRIVED BEFORE 1901 



65 



TABLE 27— PERCENTAGE OF CONTINENTAL EUROPEAN BORN POPULATION OF CANADA IN 
1921 WHO ARRIVED BEFORE 1901, BY SPECIFIED GROUPINGS OF COUNTRIES OF BIRTH. 



Birthplace 


P.c. who 

arrived 

before 1901 


Birthplace 


P.c. who 

arrived 

before 1901 


North Western Europe — 


10-62 
17-34 
21-54 
41-10 

4-91 
59-18 

7-99 
14-31 
18-97 


Scandinavian — 


17-34 






69-18 






7-99 




Total 


14-31 








17-08 




Germanic— 










10-62 








Total 


21-20 


Holland 


4-91 




Total 






17 -'11 
2-19 
12-03 
8-97 
16-01 
5-31 
11-29 
8-63 
5-04 
10-48 
13-16 
17-50 
11-62 


27-23 




Latins and Greeks — 




South, Eastern and Central Europe- 


5-31 




Italy 


8-03 






13-16 






21-54 




Total 






12-80 




Slavic — 




Italy i 






17-11 






2-19 






12-03 






1601 




Poland 


10-48 










14-35 




17-50 












Total 






15-81 









Table 28 shows the percentage of the foreign born in Canada in 1921 who had arrived 
prior to 1901, and the average number of years which the immigrants arriving in Canada 
subsequent to that date had been resident in this country. Considerable care was taken 
in preparing the figures in column number 2. The census tabulated the number of 
immigrants by specified periods of arrival and the calculation was based on that tabu- 
lation. The immigration figures for separate countries of birth were used to determine 
the average length of time which the immigrants of 1901 to 1910 and 1911 to 1914- had 
been in Canada, and for the later periods, the chronological centre was arbitrarily used for 
all nativity groups. While an error was thus introduced in certain cases, it was not 
considered to invalidate seriously the final result, as the numbers immigrating to Canada 
during the latter years of the last decade were exceedingly small. 

By making use of the two columns in Table 28 a more accurate idea of the length of 
residence of the various immigrant peoples in Canada may be obtained. For example, nearly 
60 p.c. of those of Icelandic birth resident in Canada in 1921 came to this country before 
1901, and of the remaining 40 p.c. who came after ttoaifc date, the great 'bulk arrived early in 
the present century. As contrasted with the Icelanders only a little over 5 p.c. of the 
Greeks in Canada at bhe date of the census arrived before 1901, and of the 95 p.c. who 
came after 1901 the average length of residence was only 9.5 years, as opposed to 14 
years for' those of Icelandic birth. The distribution of the Germans tends to be similar 
to that of the Icelanders, while that of the Italians and Bulgarians approximates tn that 
of the Greeks. 

Now there aire four causes which might combine to explain such differences. First, 
immigration from one country may have been earlier than from another. Second, the 
death rate among older immigrants may have been higher for one country of birth than 
for another. Third, in certain cases large numbers of the earlier immigrants have returned 
to their homeland or emigrated to some other part of the world, leaving only the more 
Tecent arrivals, while the majority of immigrants from certain other countries have settled 
in Canada for life. In the fourth place, the average number of years of residence would 

74422—5 



66 



DISTRIBUTION OF STOCKS BY LENGTH OF RESIDENCE 



be increased by the slowing down of immigration in the latter part of the period. Thus, 
given an early start, a fairly long average life and a disposition to make Canada a permanent 
home, a large percentage will appear as having arrived before 1901, and the average num- 
ber of years of residence of those who arrived since 1901 waM be relatively great. On 
the other hand, a late start, a high mortality rate or a constant stream of emigrants 
returning to their native land will make for small figures in both columns, and their com- 
bined influence will >be intensified if immigration during the latter part of the period is 
very much greater than in the earlier part. 

Space does not permit of a detailed analysis of the data in the light of the foregoing 
explanations. The table is inserted so that a more accurate idea of the date of arrival 
of the various immigrant peoples may be obtained and an opportunity given to those who 
are interested to make further investigation. 



TABLE 28— THE AVERAGE NUMBER OF YEARS FOREIGN BORN PERSONS IMMIGRATING SINCE 
JANUARY 1, 1901 HAVE BEEN IN CANADA, BY SPECIFIED COUNTRIES OF BIRTH, AND THE 
PERCENTAGE OF THE FOREIGN BORN FROM EACH COUNTRY WHO ARRIVED PRIOR TO 
1901. 



Birthplace 


Average 
number 
of years 
immigrants 
since 1901 
have been 
resident 
in Canada 


P.c.of 
foreign 
born who 
arrived 
before 
1901 


P.c.of 
corre- 
sponding 

origin 

Canadian 

born 




yrs. 

11-9 

8-5 

. 9-6 

9-7 

10-9 

10-3 

12-3 

9-5 

9-5 

12-6 

14-8 

9-5 

11-6 

10-3 

12-0 

10-9 

11-9 

9-3 

8-9 

9-3 

12-2 

9-3 


PC 

1711 

10-62 

2-19 

17-34 

8-97 

21-54 

41-10 

5-31 

4-91 

11-29 

59 18 

8-63 

7-99 

10-48 

13-16 

17-50 

14-31 

18-97 

16-54 

12-24 

23-25 

13-47 


p.c. 
52-12 




33-41 




14-96 




42-18 




36-96 




97-02 




71-74 




30-64 


Holland 


82-77 




60-01 




55-06 




43-03 




34-23 




51-78 




44-75 




49-65 




35-33 




61-87 




7-49 




27-31 




49-77 




- 







CHAPTER III 

COMPOSITION OF THE POPULATION OF VARIOUS STOCKS IN 
RESPECT OF SEX, CONJUGAL CONDITION AND AGE 



SEX COMPOSITION OF THE POPULATION OP VARIOUS ORIGINS 

For many reasons it is of value to know the relative numbers of males and females 
of the different origins and of the immigrants who have come from various parts of the 
world. This is especially true in a new country like Canada. Only in the light of the 
relative numbers of the sexes can an adequate understanding be arrived at as to the 
relation between origin and intermarriage, naturalization, crime, occupational and terri- 
torial distribution, the learning of the languages of Canada and many other related problems. 
It is also of interest to know with some precision which stocks send whole families to the 
country as permanent settlers, and those where the men come to Canada for only a few 
years, looking forward to returning to the homeland. Tables 29, 30 and 31 present the 
population of Canada by origins, male and female, and show the numbers and percentages 
of male surplus. 1 

In 1921 there were approximately 6 p.c. more males than females in Canada. The 
French and Icelandic stocks showed the smallest disparity in numbers of the sexes, with a 
surplus of males of only 1 p.c. each. The British, the French, the Jews and the aboriginal 
Indians had surpluses ranging from 2 p.c. up to 6 p.c, . the average for Canada. 
The figures for the other stocks fluctuated from 8 p.c. surplus (for the Germans, Dutch and 
Negroes) to nearly 100 p.c. Indeed,, there are two outstanding cases where the numbers of 
males were more than double those of females; first, the Chinese, where there were 15 times 
as many males, and second, the Greeks, whose males in Canada exceeded the females by 
161 p.c. 

It may be added that the surplus of males which appears in every case in the tables is 
mainly a surplus of men in the prime of life, a fact which is made clear -by reference either 
to Table 35 or to the age distribution of the various stocks in Canada, discussed in 
another part of this chapter. 

The surplus of males for the North Western European group was 15 p.c, while that 
for the South, Eastern and Central Europeans stood at the much higher figure of 26 p.c. 
Just how far length of residence enters as a causal factor in these differences is not 
subject to' quantitative measurement, but that it exerts an influence is readily seen. 
Many male immigrants come to. this country with the expectation of sending for their 
families. As the wives and children arrive in Canada, the surplus of males declines; further, 
since the various stocks do not differ materially as to the number of male and female 
children, the larger the number of families of a given stock in the country, the smaller 
the percentage surplus of males appears. Reference will be made again to this difference 
between the North Western European stocks and the South, Eastern and Central group. 

J The term percentage surplus as used in. this chapter and throughout the report refers' to 
the surplus males per 100 females. 

67 
74422 — 54 ■ 



ti8 SEX, CONJUGAL CONDITION, AGE COMPOSITION OF VARIOUS STOCKS 



TABLE 29. 



-POPULATION BY ORIGIN AND SEX IN CANADA, 1921, WITH PERCENTAGE OF MALES 
TO FEMALES FOR EACH ORIGIN. 



Origins 


Total population 


Males as 
per cent 

tO 

females 


Number 
Male 


Number 
Female 




1,297,133 

665,402 

602,810 

23,111 

2,488,456 

1,233,637 

417 

59,280 

11,028 

1.453 

37,163 

4,815 

12,163 

61,062 

12,033 

153,606 

4,150 

6,942 

8.024 

56,338 

39,722 

10,520 

64,029 

9.498 

38,937 

29,127 

7*866 

55,156 

2,527 

35,707 

6,986 

4,595 

57,854 

893 

13,392 

9,010 

34,559 

10,765 

5,992 


1,248,363 

542.415 

570,827 

18,842 

2,380,447 

1,219,114 

248 

48,392 

9,206 

312 

2,424 

4,025 

8,961 

56,444 

9,461 

141,033 

1,590 

6,239 

7,852 

54,476 

27,047 

5.348 

62,167 

8,793 

29,919 

24,276 

5,604 

44,908 

1,379 

25,796 

5,851 

3,687 

48,867 

723 

11,004 

7,851 

29,229 

10.484 

4,189 


p.c. 

104 




104 




,1.5 




' 3 




105 




101 




168 




123 




120 




466 




1,533 




120 




136 




108 




127 




109 




261 




111 




102 




103 




147 




197 




103 




108 




130 




120 




140 




123 




183 




138 




119 




125 




118 




124 




121 




115 




118 




103 




143 








4,529,945 


4,258,538 


106 







1 1'jie ugures tor cue i^rencn in cue Registration Area, of 1921, alone are as follows: iu = 292,082; F = i:71,385; Male to 
female 108 p.c. or 8 p.c. surplus males. 

Table 31, classifying the data by linguistic groups, presents some interesting facts. The 
Germanic group had a surplus of 9 p.c. males, the Slavic of 22 p.c, the Scandinavian of 31 
p.c. and the Latin and Greek group of 51 p.c. It would seem clear from these figures that 
we are confronted with a somewhat unique alignment of groups in respect to sex distribu- 
tion. The German, Dutch and Flemish people and the Slavs appear to have come to this 
country and brought their families, while the Scandinavians, the Icelanders excepted, have 
sent large numbers of their surplus men. The latter tendency seems to be even more 
marked in the Latins and Greeks. 

The differences in sex distribution are seen in sharper contrast when we consider only 
those people of foreign stock who have been born in foreign countries. Unfortunately, the 
data for the foreign born are available only by countries of birth; consequently, the figures 
in many cases are not comparable with those for origin. Notable among the countries from 
which immigrants of several origins come are Russia, which sends to Canada a large number 
of Jews, and Austria, from which large numbers of Germans come and also a certain pro- 
portion of immigrants of Jewish extraction. Though immigrants from the Ukraine are prin- 
cipally of Slavic origin, there is a considerable admixture of other stocks. The bulk of 
the immigrants from Belgium are Flemish, but large numbers of Walloons also come from 
that country. While the Latins and Greeks predominate in the immigration from Rou- 
mania, many Slavs and some Jews also come from that country, and similarly with a 
number of other countries. 

However, in certain cases, such as the British Isles, Asia, and the. Scandinavian Penin- 
sula, no great error is introduced in identifying origin with country of birth> The same 
applies to the larger territorial groups of Europeans. Few of North Western European 



SEX COMPOSITION OF VARIOUS EUROPEAN STOCKS 



69 



extraction come from South, Eastern and Central European countries, and the numbers of 
South, Eastern and Central Europeans coming to Canada from North Western Europe are 
small when compared with the total immigration thence. With the linguistic groups the 
same applies in the case of the Scandinavian, and to a less degree with the Germanic and 
Latin and Greek groups. From the Slavic countries, on the other hand, large numbers of 
Germans, Jews and other stocks emigrate, so that less reliance should be placed on any com- 
parison between the characteristics of those of Slavic origin and of those coming from Slavic 
countries. 



TABLE 30— POPULATION OF EUROPEAN ORIGIN (OTHER THAN BRITISH AND FRENCH) 
IN CANADA, BY SEX WITH PERCENTAGE SURPLUS OF MALES, 1921. 



Origin 


Males 


Females 


Percentage 
surplus 
of males 


North Western European — 


11,028 
12.163 
,61.062 
153,606 
8,024 
38,937 
35,707 
6,986 


9,206 

8,961 
56,444 
141,033 

7,852 
29,919 
25,790 

5,851 


20 




36 


Dutch 


9 




9 




2 




30 




38 




19 






Total 


327,513 


285,062 


15 






South, Eastern and Central European — 


59,280 
4,815 
4,150 

12,033 
6,942 

39,722 

29,127 
7,866 

55,156 
2,527 

57,854 


48,391 
4,025 
1,590 
9,461 
6,239 

27,047 

24,276 
5,604 

44,908 
1,379 

48,867 


23 




20 




161 




27 








47 


Polish ■ 


20 




40 




23 




83 




18 






Total 


279.472 


221'. 787 


26 



1 Including Bukovinian, Galician, Ruthenian and Ukrainian. 

TABLE 31— POPULATION OF EUROPEAN ORIGIN (OTHER THAN BRITISH AND FRENCH), 
ARRANGED BY PRINCIPAL LINGUISTIC DIVISIONS, BY SEX, WITH PERCENTAGE SURPLUS 
OF MALES, 1921. 



Origin 


Males 


Females 


Percentage 
surplus 
of males 


Scandinavian — 


12,163 

8,024 

38,937 

35,707 


8,961 

7,852 

29,919 

25,796 


36 




2 




30 




38 






Total . 


94,831 


72,528 


31 






Germanic — 

Dutch 


61,062 
11,028 
153,606 


56,444 

9,206 

141,033 


8 




20 




9 






Total 


225,696 


206, 683 


9 






Latin and Greek — 


4,150 

39,722 

7,866 


1,590 
27,047 
5,604 


161 




47 




40 






Total 


51,738 


34,241 


51 






Slavic — 


59,280 
1,453 
4,815 

29,127 

55,156 
2,527 

57,854 


48,391 
312 

4,025 
24,276 
44,908 

1,379 
48,867 


23 




366 




20 


Polish 


20 




25 




83 




18 






Total 


210.212 


172.158 


22 


1 Ukrainian includes Bukovinian, Galician, Ruthenian and Ukrainian. 









70 SEX, CONJUGAL CONDITION, AGE COMPOSITION OF VARIOUS STOCKS 

Table 32 presents the numbers and percentages of males and females for the immigrant 
population by country of birth, and the percentage surplus of males over females. A cur- 
sory glance will reveal two facts. • First, fchait the surpluses of males are much larger than in 
the case of the former tables showing males and females by origin; secondly, that, on the 
whole, large percentages of surplus men come from countries where the corresponding origin 
figures show large surpluses and vice versa. 

For the immigrants born in North Western Europe, there was a 50 p.c. surplus of men, 
as opposed to a 15 p.c. surplus for the total population of North Western European origin 
in Canada. The figures for South, Eastern and Central Europe are 46 p.c. and 26 p.c. respect- 
ively. For the Scandinavians, the respective surpluses are 75 p.c. and 31 p.c, for the Ger- 
manic group 33 p.c. and' 9 p.c, for the Latins and Greeks 88 ;p.c and 51 p.c, and for the 
Slavs 38 p.c. and 22 p.c In all cases the surplus of males is larger among the immigrants. 

Reverting to the figures for origin, the surplus of males in the Germanic group was only 
9 p.c. Those of Germanic stock have, as we have seen, been longer in the country than 
settlers of any other origin, except British and French. The longer a stock is resident in a 
given area the more equal the numbers of males and females normally tend to become. This 
is brought about in .two ways; first, the surplus men tend to marry either natives of the 
adopted country or wives brought from the motherland. Then the numbers of the stock 
increase with the birth of children and the surplus males already in the population consti- 
tutes a smaller percentage of the whole. Likewise the surplus of males in subsequent immi- 
gration tends to form a smaller percentage of the total population, for it also is compared 
with an increasing volume of native stock of the same origin. Of course for a time the 
volume' of immigration may increase with abnormal rapidity as compared with the numbers 
already resident, but sooner or later it will form a decreasing percentage of the total number 
of a given extraction in the adopted country. All the above factors associated with length 
of residence co-operate to reduce the percentage surplus of males among the Germans in 
Canada, but there is 'one further influence which is of considerable importance, viz., the sex 
distribution of the current immigration. The surplus of males among the Germanic immi- 
grants is smaller than that in any other linguistic group. 

- Among' the' Slavs we have not "only a slightly larger percentage of unattached males in 
recent immigration, but as a group the Slavs are of much more recent arrival, with the result 
that the proportionate surplus of males for the people of Slavic extraction is over twice as 
large as for the Germanic stocks. 

The Scandinavians in Canada show a surplus of 31 p.c of males over females, while as a 
group, though somewhat earlier on this continent than the Slavs, they show a smaller per- 
centage of Canadian born on account of such large numbers coming from the United States. 
Besides, the recent immigration from the Scandinavian countries has twice as large a per- 
centage of surplus males as immigration from the Slavic group of countries. To be explicit, 
there were 75 p.c. more males than females of Scandinavian birth in Canada in 1921. The 
figure for the Scandinavians is thus explained on the basis of length of residence in Canada 
and the sex distribution of the immigration of these stocks. 

Finally, the Latin and Greek stocks, the most recent arrivals, sihow a surplus of 51 p.c 
males. Immigration from those countries has increased in recent years at an abnormally 
rapid rate, and of all immigrants from Europe the surplus of males is the greatest aimong 
the immigrants from the southern countries. There were almost twice as many foreign 
born males as females from Latin and Greek countries at the time of the last census. 

While it is important to understand the cause of the differences between the numbers 
of males and females of the various stocks in Canada, it is of greater importance to appre- 
ciate the fact that there are differences and very marked differences in respect to sex dis- 
tribution between immigration from the various countries, and, further, that such differences 
are of vital importance to the building up of the Canadian people. If the surplus males 
represent a floating population which will never settle down or which expects to return to 
the motherland after having made a competence, Canada derives comparatively little benefit 
from such immigration and incurs all the evils and risks of having in the population a large 
body of more or less nomadic males who do not feel the same obligations or loyalty to the 
country as do men who, with their -families,- make permanent homes here. If the surplus 
of males, on the other hand, consists of men who in due course marry into the population 



SEX COMPOSITION OF IMMIGRANT POPULATION 



71 



already in the country or are merely getting established before bringing their wives and 
families to the new land, the case is entirely different. 

With this consideration in mind attention is drawn to a few of the figures in Tables 
32, 33 and 34. Of all immigrants, the Chinese have the largest surplus of males; the inas- 
similability of this stock has dictated legal expedients which have made this inevitable; but 
it does not alter the fact that immigration which consists of almost 30 times as many males 
as females involves serious social risks. The Bulgarians, though few in number, had over 
seven times as many male as female immigrants in Canada in 1921 ; the Greeks showed a 
surplus of nearly 400 p.c. There were six other cases where over twice as many males as 
females have come to this country. The countries from which these immigrants come rank 
as follows: — ' 



Rank 


- 


Country of Birth 


P.c. surplus 
of Males 






189 






148 ' 






140 






118 






114 






104 













At the other extreme there are the few West Indian born immigrants with a consider- 
able surplus of females and the immigrants from Newfoundland and Iceland, where the 
female surplus is very slight. Immigration from the United States, the British Isles, the 
British Possessions, France and Hungary all show an excess of males less than the average 
for all immigrants. In this group of countries settlers from the United States show the 
smallest surplus and settlers from Hungary the largest. It is curious to note that the Welsh, 
with 33 p.c. more male immigrants than females, differ so radically in sex distribution from 
the other stocks of British origin. 



TABLE 32— NUMBER AND PERCENTAGE OF IMMIGRANT MALES AND FEMALES IN 
CANADA, BY BIRTHPLACE, 1921. 


Birthplace 


Total 
Number 


Males 


P.c. 

Males 


P.c. 

Females 


P.c. 

Surplus 
of Males 




1,955,736 

1,065,454 

1,025,121 

686,663 

93,301 

226,483 

13,779 

4,807 

88 

39,680 

2,855 

3,848 

23,107 

1,085 

1,760 

4,270 

2,755 

890,282 

459,328 

57,535 

13,276 

1,005 

4,322 

7,192 

' 12,156 

19,249 

36,025 

25,266 

3,769 

5,828 

7,493 

6,776 

35,531 

1,946 

23,127 

29,279 

22,779 


1,086,542 

567,072 

545,531 

365,678 

49,712 

119,341 

7,873 

2,868 

59 

21,162 

1,617 

2,582 

11,373 

613 

900 

2,444 

1,633 

519,470 

273,892 

34,034 

7,550 

889 

2,529 

4,932 

7,427 

10,451 

20,805 

14,261 

3,106 

3,489 

4,146 

3,366 

24,219 

1,446 

14,784 

16,864 

13,228 


55-56 

53-22 
53-22 
53-25 
53-28 
52-69 
57-14 
59-66 
67-05 
53-33 
56-64 
67-10 
49-22 
56-50 
5114 
57-24 
59-27 

58-35 

59-63 
59-15 
56-87 
88-46 
58-51 
68-58- 
61-10 
54-29 
57-75 
56-44 
82-41 
59-87 
55-33 
49-68 
68-16 
74-31 
63-93 
57-60 
58 07 


44-44 

' 46-78 
46-78 
46-75 
46-72 
47-31 
42-86 
40-34 
32-95 
46-67 
43-36 
32-90 
50-78 
43-50 
48-86 
42-76 
40-73 

41-65 

40-37 
40-85 
43- 13 
11-54 
41-49 
31-42 
38-90 
45-71 
42-25 
43-36 
17:59 
40-13 
44-67 
50-32 
31-84 
25-69 
36-07 
42-40 
41-93 


25 




14 




14 




14 




14 




11 




33 




48 




104 




14 




31 




104 




- 3 




30 




5 




34 




46 




40 




48 




45 




32 




667 




41 




118 




57 




19 




37 




30 




369 


Holland 


49 




24 




- 1 




114 




189 




77 


Poland 


36 




39 



72 SEX, CONJUGAL CONDITION, AGE COMPOSITION OF VARIOUS STOCKS 

TABLE 32.— NUMBER AND PERCENTAGE OF IMMIGRANT MALES AND FEMALES IN 
CANADA, BY BIRTHPLACE, 1921— Concluded. 



Birthplace 



Europe — Concluded 

Russia 

Sweden 

Switzerland. . . . 

Ukraine 

Other 



Asia 

China 

Japan 

Syria 

Turkey 

Other 

United States... 

West Indies 

Other Countries. 
At sea 



Total 
Number 



101,055 
27,700 

3,479 
11,357 

3,183 

53,636 

36,924 

11,650 

3,879 

401 

782 

374,024 

123 

3,171 

653 



Males 



56,967 
18,134 
2,203 
6,942 
2,120 

47,211 

35,719 

8,298 

2,395 

283 

516 

196,427 

53 

1,887 

379 



P.c. 

Males 



56-37 
65-47 
63-32 
61-13 
66-60 

88-02 
96-74 
71-23 
61-74 
70-57 
65-98 
52-52 
43 09 
59-51 
58-04 



P.c. 
Females 



43-63 
34-53 
36-68 
38-87 
33-24 

11-98 
3-26 
28-77 
38-26 
29-43 
34 02 
47-48 
56-91 
40-49 
41-96 



P.c. 

Surplus 
of Males 



29 
90 
73 
57 



635 
2,867 

148 
61 

140 
94 
11 
-24 
47 
38 



A glance at Table 33 reveals remarkable differences within the geographical and certain 
of the linguistic groups. That the tendency to send a surplus of males is a characteristic 
rather of the group than of the geographical area is evidenced by the wide disparity in the 
percentages shown within both the North Western European and the South, Eastern and 
Central European groups; especially in view of the close approximation to the same figure 
for the totals. Within the Scandinavian stocks, the Icelanders differ radically from the 
other Scandinavians in sending approximately equal numbers of the sexes to Canada. 
■Though the uniformity is marked for the Germanic countries, in the Latin and Greek group 
the sex distribution of Roumanian immigrants is quite different from that of immigrants 
from Italy and Greece. The Roumanians are largely rural people and follow agriculture, 
while the Italians and Greeks are commercial and live in the city. With the exception of 
the small groups from Bulgaria and Jugo-Slavia there is remarkable uniformity within the 
Slavic group. 

TABLE 33.— PERCENTAGE OF FOREIGN BORN MALES AND FEMALES AND PERCENTAGE SUR- 
PLUS OF MALES, BY GEOGRAPHICAL AND LINGUISTIC GROUPING OF COUNTRIES OF 
BIRTH, 1921. 



Birthplace 



P.c. 

Males 



P.c. 
Females 



P.c. 
Surplus 
Males 



Birthplace 



P.c. 

Males 



■P.c. 
Females 



P.c. 

Surplus 
Males 



North Western Europe- 

Belgium 

Denmark 

France 

Germany 

Holland 

Iceland 

Norway 

Sweden 

Switzerland 

Total 



South, Eastern and Central 
Europe — 

Austria 

Bulgaria 

Czechoslovakia 

Finland 

Galicia 

Greece 

Hungary 

Italy 

Jugo-Slavia 

Poland 

Roumania 

Russia 

Ukraine 

Total 



56-87 
68-58 
54-i9 
56-44 
59-87 
49-68 
03-93 
65-47 
63-32 



60-03 



5915 
88-46 
58-51 
61-10 
57-75 
82-41 
55-53 
68-16 
74-31 
57-60 
58-07 
56-37 
61-13 



59-40 



43-13 
31-42 
45-71 
43-36 
40 13 
50-32 
36-07 
34-53 



40-85 
11-54 
41-49 
38-90 
42-25 
17-59 
44-67 
31-84 
25-69 
42-40 
41-93 
43-63 
38-87 



40-60 



50 



45 
667 
41 
57 
37 
369 
24 
114 
189 
36 
39 
29 
57 



46 



Scandinavian — 

Denmark 

Iceland 

Norway 

Sweden 

Total 

Germanic — 

Belgium 

Germany 

Holland 

Total 

Latin and Greek — 

Greece 

Italy 

Roumania 

Total...... 

Slavic — 

Austria 

Bulgaria 

Czechoslovakia. 

Galicia 

Jugo-Slavia 

Poland 

Russia 

Ukraine 

Total 



68-58 
49-68 
63-93 
65-47 



63-61 



56-87 
56-44 
59-87 



57-02 



82-41 
68-16 
58-07 



65-32 



59-15 
88-46 
58-51 
67-75 
74-31 
57-60 
56-37 
61-13 



57-92 



31-42 
50-32 
36-0/ 
34-53 



36-39 



43-13 
43-36 
40-13 



42-98 



17-59 
31-84 
41-93 



34-68 



40-85 
11-54 
41-49 
42-25 
25-69 
42-40 
43-63 
38-87 



42-1 



118 
-1 

77 
90 



32 
30 



33 



369 
114 
39 



83 



45 
667 
41 
37 
189 
36 
29 
57 



SURPLUS OF MALES OF DIFFERENT BIRTHPLACES 



73 



TaBle 34 presents a significant summary. The immigrants from the United States, con- 
sisting mainly of British, French, Scandinavian and Germanic stocks and settling to a great 
extent in rural areas, show the nearest approximation to equality in the numbers of males 
and females. The British born, with 14 p.c. surplus males, rank next. While the majority 
of these locate in urban communities 1 , on the whole they are permanent settlers intending to 
make their homes in this country and to assume the responsibilities and duties of citizen- 
ship. The Germanic and Slavic countries send larger proportions of females than does any 
other foreign group, the United 1 States excepted. Among the immigrants from these coun- 
tries there was a surplus of only about 35 p.c. males. Of the Europeans, the immigrants from 
the Scandinavian and Latin and Greek countries are in a class more or less by themselves, 
with 75 p.c. to 88 p.c. surplus males among the foreign born in Canada. As has been pointed 
out already, Asiatic immigration is unique in the overwhelming preponderance of males. 2 

TABLE 34.— SUMMARY TABLE SHOWING PERCENTAGE OF MALES AND FEMALES AND PERCENT- 
AGE SURPLUS OF MALES FOR IMMIGRANTS IN CANADA, BY SPECIFIED GROUPS OF 
COUNTRIES OF BIRTH, 1921. 



Per cent 
Males 



Per cent 
Females 



Percent- 
age 
Surplus 
of Males 



Total Immigrants 

British born 

Foreign born 

North Western Europe 

South, Eastern and Central Europe. 

United States 

Scandinavian 

Germanic 

Latin and Greek 

Slavic 

Asia 



55-56 
53-22 
58-35 
60-03 
59-40 
52-52 
63-61 
57-02 
65-32 
57-92 
88-02 



44-44 
46-78 
41-65 
39-97 
40-60 
47-48 
36-39 
42-98 
34-68 
42-08 
11-98 



25 
14 
40 
50 
46 
11 
75 
33 
88 
38 
635 



Earlier in this section the statement was made that were the adult population exam- 
ined separately, the proportions of surplus males would be greater than appear in the data 
given for the total population of all ages. Such was the expectation because of the ten- 
dency for the numbers of the sexes to be more or less equal among children. That such is 
actually the case is shown for the foreign born in Table 35. Column 1 gives the percent- 
ages of surplus males in the total foreign born population by country of birth and column 
2 gives the data for the adult population in each case. Both of the percentages for the 
Icelanders are exceptional and no explanation is offered, as the numbers of the sexes are so 
nearly equal among the adults as well as the children, and the differences in the percentages 
so insignificant that 'the case would seem to be unimportant. The significant point in the 
table is that for every other country of birth the surplus of males is greater in the adult 
population. In some cases it is very much greater. 

Similarly, when the proportions of surplus males are computed for the adult population 
of the several origins (Table 36), they are seen to be in excess olf the percentages for all 
ages given in Tables 29, 30 and 31. These two tables show that the significant differences 
in sex distribution were minimized rather than overstated in the earlier part of this chapter. 
Further use will be made of the data in the subsequent discussion' of intermarriage and 
fertility, etc. 



iSee Table 51, p. 105. 

2 The above remarks refer to groups of countries as such; individual exceptions within the groups have 
been previously noted. 



74 SEX, CONJUGAL CONDITION, AGE COMPOSITION OF VARIOUS STOCKS 

TABLE 35— PERCENTAGE SURPLUS OF MALES IN TOTAL FOREIGN BORN POPULATION, COMPARED 
WITH SURPLUS OF MALES AMONG FOREIGN-BORN ADULTS (21 AND OVER), BY COUNTRY OF 
BIRTH, 1921. 



Country of Birth 


Percentage 

surplus of 

males in 

foreign born 

population, 

all ages 


Percentage 

surplus of 

males in 

foreign born 

population, 
21 years 
and over 




40 
48 
45 
32 

667 
41 

118 
57 
19 
37 
30 

369 
49 
24 

-1 

114 

189 
77 
36 
39 
29 
90 
73 
57 
99 

635 
2,867 

148 
61 

140 
94 
11 


51 




57 




53 




41 




919 




47 




132 




68 




22 




43 




34 




440 




59 




28 




-2 




135 




250 




86 




47 




46 




36 




102 




82 




69 




104 




685 




3,427 




152 




70 




179 




126 




15 



TABLE 36— PERCENTAGE SURPLUS OF MALES IN TOTAL POPULATION, COMPARED WITH PER- 
CENTAGE SURPLUS OF MALES AMONG ADULTS (21 AND OVER) FOR PRINCIPAL ORIGINS IN 
CANADA, 1921. 



Origin 


Percentage 

of Burplus 

of males 

in total 

population, 

all ages 


Percentage 
of surplus 
of males 
in total 

population, 
21 years 
and over 




6 

4 

4 

5 

23 

23 

20 

366 

1,433 

20 

36 

8 

27 

9 

161 

3 

11 

2 


11 




5 




5 




8 




38 




3 




57 




38 




736 




3,263 




41 




67 




13 




61 




15 




370 




10 




28 




2 




47 
97 
8 
30 
20 
40 
23 
83 
38 
19 
25 
18 
43 


116 




153 




20 




60 




48 




101 




57 




228 




74 




34 




63 




48 




191 







RELATION OF CONJUGAL CONDITION TO NATIVITY 



75 



CONJUGAL CONDITION AND NATIVITY 



Data on the conjugal condition of the population are not available for the separate 
stocks nor for the different groups of immigrants by country of birth. The census, however, 
has published the information classifying the population as Canadian born, British bom 
and foreign born. Table 37 shows the percentage single of the population 15 years of age 
and over by sex, according to the above classification of places of birth. A few interesting 
points brought out in this table may be briefly mentioned. 

First, the percentage single for each sex in the case of the Canadian born is greater 
than in the case of British born or foreign born in every province except Prince Edward 
Island, where the percentages for the foreign. born are somewhat higher. The exception is 
interesting but not significant because the number of foreign born in Prince Edward Island 
is so very small. Thus in Canada as a whole and in practically every province in Canada, 
the proportion of the British born and the foreign born over fifteen years of age who either 
are married or have been married, is greater than that for the -Canadian born population. 
This may be due in part to the lower age of marriage customary among people born out- 
side Canada and in part, to differences in age distribution. These points will be discussed 
below, but a probable explanation does not alter the significance of the larger proportion 
married, from the standpoint of future population. 

The second fact of interest is that for all classes the proportion of females single is 
smaller than the proportion of males. That is to be expected- in the light of the previous 
discussion on sex distribution. Further, the difference between the percentage of men and 
women single, is greater for the foreign born- and British born than for the Canadian born. 
That this should be so follows logically from the greater excess of males among the foreign 
and British born sections of the population than among the Canadian born. . 

In the third place, the percentages of single males of Canadian and British birth, tend 
to increase in passing from Ontario westward, and with the exception of Manitoba, the same 
tendency is evident among the foreign born from Quebec west. Manitoba with only 30-11 
p.c. foreign born males single has the smallest percentage of any province in the Dominion. 
The exceptional behaviour of the percentages in the Maritime Provinces may also be noted. 
As opposed to the males, the percentages of single females tend to decrease in passing west- 
ward from Quebec for all groups except the Canadian born in Manitoba, where there is a 
rather larger percentage of single women than in Ontario or the provinces further west. 

The two inferences from these facts seem to be; first, that the conjugal condition of 
the population differs as between the far east, the central and the far western parts of 
Canada, and secondly, that there is a proportionately greater surplus of single foreign born 
males in the far -west and in the far east than in the central, provinces. 

TABLE 37— PERCENTAGE OF SINGLE MALES AND FEMALES, FIFTEEN YEARS OF AGE AND 
OVER, CLASSIFIED AS CANADIAN, BRITISH AND FOREIGN BORN, BY PROVINCES, 1921. 



Provinces 


Males 


Females 


All 

Classes 


Canadian 
Born 


British 
Born 


Foreign 
Born 


All 
Classes 


Canadian 
Born 


British 
Born 


Foreign 
Born 




39-09 

42-88 
4119 
4011 
39-28 
36-82 
39-90 
42-33 
42-28 
38-71 


41-53 

43 10 

■ 42-33 
40-61 
40-42 
39-60 
49-29 
47-80 
46-96 
46-27 


31-98 

18-36 
29-29 
29-67 
27-85 
28-55 
34-19 
38-78 
37-70 
33-84 


36-57 

58-36 
39-32 
38-26 
33-55 
34-58 
3011 
38-69 
41 13 
36-53 


31-96 

35-82 
33-85 
33-46 
3702 
31-83 
29-24 
24-73 
24-43 
25-49 


36-28 

3614 

34-97 
34-36 
38-24 
35-37 
40-07 
33-43 
33-90 
35-58 


22-06 

13-86 
22-87 
19-51 
27-32 
23-10 
21-58 
17-94 
1911 
20-27 


19-35 




43-13 




27-05 




24-52 




27-12 




18-80 




16-10 




18-65 




18-85 




15-14 







Table 38 shows the percentage of the population fifteen years of age and over single, 
by quinquennial age groups, for Canada. Comparing the -percentages for the males in the 
three groups, foreign born, British born and Canadian born, the first point to note is the 



76 SEX, CONJUGAL CONDITION, AGE COMPOSITION OF VARIOUS STOCKS 



close correspondence between the percentages of single Canadian and British born males 
in each age group. The second significant fact is that between 25 and 70 years of age the 
foreign born males show a larger percentage who have never married than either the British 
or Canadian born. That the foreign born males tend to marry younger than the Canadian 
born and British born, is made clear on examination of the percentages for the lower age 
groups. In spite of the large shortage of women the foreign born males actually showed 
a smaller proportion single between the 'ages of 15 and 25 yea,rs than either of the other 
groups. 

In the figures for the females greater differences appear. The British born females 
show a smaller percentage single at all ages above 20 than do the Canadian born, and the 
foreign born females show much smaller percentages single at all ages than the British 
born. Thus a larger proportion of the foreign born women not only have married younger 
than the Canadian born, but the foreign born females have married to a far greater extent 
than the Canadian born women at all ages. The foreign born women (in proportion to 
their numbers) are therefore contributing to future population far more than the British 
born or Canadian born. This fact is extremely significant from the standpoint of the 
population structure of the country, and its importance is increased when one notes that 
the greatest differences between the proportions married are at the earlier ages of the child- 
bearing period. 

In the absence of separate figures for the different stocks and groups of foreign born, 
a detailed analysis of the various origins in respect of conjugal condition is impossible, 
but the section on age distribution, when read in connection with Chapter VI on inter- 
marriage, will provide the reader with material for making definite deductions as to the 
behaviour of the several stocks in the matter of marriage and as to the effect of their 
differing behaviour on the population structure of the Dominion. 

TA %SJ?.vrS ERCENTAGE OF POPULATION FIFTEEN YEARS OF AGE AND OVER SINGLE, BY 
QUINQUENNIAL AGE GROUPS AND SEX, CLASSIFIED AS CANADIAN, BRITISH OR FOREIGN 
BORN, FOR CANADA, 1921. 





Canadian Born 


British Born 


Foreign Born 


Age Group 


Males 


Females 


Males 


Females 


Males 


Females 




Per cent 
single 


Per cent 
single 


Per cent 
single 


Per cent 
single 


Per cent 
single 


Per cent 
single 


15-19 


99-44 

81-83 

47-59 

27-51 

19-71 

16-07 

13-76 

12-83 

11-22 

10-99 

9-32 

8-67 

7-80 

7-36 

6-69 

7-12 

4-67 

1-96 


93-94 
61-39 
33-94 
' 21-12 
16-27 
14-51 
13-11 
13-17 
11-81 
12-14 
11-15 ■ 
11-63 
11-38 
11-66 
11-59 
10-90 
10-55 
5-97 


99-46 

83 09 

47-72 

26-92 

19-59 

16-62 

14-62 

12-44 

U-03 

10-64 

'9-57 

8-78 

8-15 

7-57 

710 

6-84 

1-75 

4-76 


94-90 
50-12 
22-29 
12-17 
9-30 
7-99 
8-12 
7-83 
7-11 
6-94 
6-90 
7-98 
6-97 
8-34 
6-38 
8-11 
9-40 
5-56 


99-27 

81-15 

48-08 

29-72 

21-69 

17-77 

14-86 

13-79 

12-81 

11-57 

9-66 

9-42 

7-77 

6-64 

6-53 

9-02 

7-32 

11-11 


86-35 


20-24 




25-29 




30-34 


6-09 


35-39 ■ 




40-44 




45-49 




50-54 




55-59 




60-64 




65-69 




70-74 


4-32 


75-79 




80-84 




85-89 




90-94 


2-07 


95-99 













THE AGE DISTRIBUTION OF THE FOREIGN BORN 

Just as an individual at one age is radically different in -disposition, capacity and 
outlook from what he was at an earlier or will be at a later age, so a population differs 
materially with the changing age distribution of the people who compose it. A people with 
unduly large numbers in the prime of life has characteristics which are much less pronounced 
in a population with large numbers of small children or with a considerable proportion of 
men and women above middle age. In making comparisons, then, between different 
population groups in respect to social or anti-social behaviour, the age distribution is an 
important factor which must be reckoned with before valid conclusions can be reached. 



AGE DISTRIBUTION OF THE FOREIGN BORN 77 



To what extent differing characteristics are due to differences in age distribution is a 
matter for nice calculation, and can usually be estimated with very considerable accuracy 
when sufficient data are available. The present study is somewhat handicapped in respect, 
of age statistics for the foreign born population. White many types of information are 
available for the population by country of birth, age data have been assembled for the 
different sections of the foreign born population, only by three broad classifications, viz., 
Canadian born, British born, and foreign bora. That information, however, is exceedingly 
useful when other data are also classified by the same broad nativity groups, and the 
present subsection is devoted to presenting the facts, making certain explanations, and 
suggesting some of the consequences which follow from the various types of age distribution 
in these different sections of the population. 

Age Distribution and Nativity. — Table 39 shows the numbers and percentages of each sex 
found in -specified age groups for the total population in Canada and the three nativity 
groups which compose it. Charts 19, 20, 21 and 22 (p. 80) present the same data in graphic 
form. 

A glance will reveal great differences as between the first two and last two charts. The 
chart for the total population is a composite diagram of which the other three form the 
component parts, and since our object is the making of an analysis, attention is focussed 
on the latter three. 

Among the Canadian born over 40 p.c. of the population is under 15 years of age. This 
is the first outstanding point of difference when comparison is made between the age dis- 
tribution of the Canadian and either the British or the foreign born. Of the British born 
only 7-74 p.c. of the males and 8-58 p.c. of the females are below the age of 15 years and 
in the foreign born group 9-77 p.c. of the males and 12-99 p.c. of the females. Thus on June 
10, 1921, the Canadian born section of our population had four to five times as large a pro- 
portion of children under the adolescent age as had either the British or foreign born. 

The figures for 1921, however, rather over-emphasize the difference in age distribution 
for two important reasons, viz., the comparatively small immigration during the last six 
years of the decade 1911-1921, and the fact that children of immigrant parents are added to 
the Canadian born. The two causes undoubtedly result in a higher age distribution among 
the British and foreign born in Canada at the close of the ten-year period than would other- 
wise have obtained. It is worth noting that the figures in themselves do not neces- 
sarily prove an abnormal age distribution among immigrants. There might have been 
nearly as large a proportion of immigrants prior to 1914 under 15 years of age as was found 
in the total population, and a resultant age distribution of the foreign born somewhat 
similar to that in 1921. By 1921 the children of 1914 would have grown to adult manhood 
and womanhood. Their places in the community would have been taken by a new genera- 
tion — not of foreign born but of Canadian 'born children of immigrant parentage. The pro- 
portion of children in the population group classed as of Canadian birth would thus natur- 
ally appear unduly high and at the same time there would be a gross deficiency in the lower 
age group of the foreign born. Such influences were at work prior to the year 1921, the effect 
being intensified by the comparative cessation of immigration, and the result was that neither 
the age distribution of the Canadian born nor that of the British nor foreign born even 
approximated to that of a normal population. The percentage below 15 years was abnorm- 
ally large in the Canadian group and abnormally small in the other two. The chart for the 
population as a whole more nearly represents the normal distribution, though if even that 
were compared with similar charts for other European countries, marked differences would 
appear, especially in the lower and upper age groups. 

It should also be pointed out that the comparative cessation of immigration and the 
obvious necessity of classifying all children of immigrants born in Canada as of Canadian 
birth, though the most important, were not the sole causes of the abnormal age distribution 
of the British and foreign born in 1921. The age of incoming immigrant people prior to the 
war is also an important factor, for the age distribution of immigrants is quite different 



TABLE No. 39.-NUMERICAL AND PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION BY QUINQUENNIAL AGE GROUPS OF MALE AND FEMALE POPULATION IN CANADA 1921 

CLASSIFIED AS CANADIAN BORN, BRITISH BORN AND FOREIGN BORN rrA1J1Ijr ' ™™ ha hum ^ainaua, laji, 

Males 



All classes 

pc 

Canadian born 

PC 

British born... 

PC 

Foreign born . . 

PC 

All classes 

P-c 

Canadian born 

P-c 

British born... 

P-c 

Foreign born. .- 

P-c 



Total 



4,518,344 

1000 

3,432,864 

100-0 

566,778 

100-0 

518,702 

100-0 



Under 15 



1,523,469 

33-72 

1,428,930 

41-63 

43,879 

7-74 

50,660 

9-77 



15-19 



403,259 

8-93 

323,015 

9-41 

40,440 

7-14 

39,804 

7-67 



20-24 



350, 984 

7-77 

260,154 

7-58 

43,085 

' 7-60 

47,745 

9-20 



25-29 



347,645 

7-70 

227,344 

6-62 

53,494 

9-44 

66,807 

12-88 



30-34 



343,263 

7-60 

202,339 

5-89 

70,672 

12-47 

70,252 

13-54 



35-39 



342,313 

7-58 

193,064 

5-62 

80,897 

14-27 

68,352 

13 18 



40-44 



286,470 

6-34 

169,258 

4-93 

65,166 

11-50 

52,046 

1003 



45-49 



236,896 

5-24 

149,130 

4-34 

47,775 

8-43 

39,991 

7-71 



50-54 



195,141 

4-32 

127,914 

3-73 

38,023 

6-71 

29,204 

5-63 



55-59 



148,137 

3-28 

103,449 

3-01 

25.431 

4-49 

19,257 

3-71 



6D-64 



126,400 

2-80 
91,195 

2 
19,775 

3-49 
15,430 

2-97 



65 
and over 



Females 



4,248,862 

100-0 

3,379,968 

1000 

498,209 

1000 

370,685 

1000 



1,496,091 

35-21 

1,405,172 

41-57 

42,756 

8-58 

48,163 

12-99 



398,559 

9-38 

323,535 

9-57 

38,278 

7-68 

36,746 

9-91 



360,227 

8-48 

270,110 

7-99 

'47,539 

9-54 

42,578 

11-49 



338,874 

7-98 

233,787 

6-92 

55,628 

1117 

49,459 

13-34 



309,623 

7-29 

203,046 

601 

61,094 

12-26 

45,483 

12-27 



290,080 


6-83 


185,925 


5-50 


63,213 


12-69 


40,942 


11 04 



240,666 

5-66 

160,066 

4-74 

50, 773 

1019 

29.827 

805 



198,133 

4-66 

137,945 

4-08 

36,842 

7-39 

23,346 

6-30 



166,817 


3-93 


120,021 


3-56 


29, 195 


5-86 


17,601 


4-75 



132,167 

3-11 
99,220 

2-94 
20,358 

4-09 
12,589 

3-40 



112,885 

2-66 

86,281 

2-55 

16,924 

3-40 

9,630 

2-61 



214,367 

4-74 

157,072 

4-58 

38,141 

6-73 

19,154 

3-69 



204,740 

4-82 

154.860 

4-58 

35,609 

715 

14,271 

3-85 



o 
o 

o 
o 



o 

o 
o 

o 

Go 

o 
o 

■*! 

S3 

o 

Go 

Co 

O 
O 

Co 



AGE DISTRIBUTION OF THE .FOREIGN BORN 79 

from that of a non -migrating population. There is usually a much larger percentage of 
unattached adults in the prime of life, especially of men. The great bulk of immigrants 
consists of persons above 15 years of age, and a continuous stream of immigration into a 
country could not but result in the existence of a proportion of the population with an 
abnormal concentration in the age groups 20-45 and an abnormal deficiency in the groups 
under 15 years. 

Now the comparative absence of children in any considerable section or community 
tends to be reflected very clearly in the attitude of that section both in respect to social 
conduct and public policy. A complete understanding of social .movements and of public 
opinion as it expresses itself in social legislation in a new country such as ours cannot be 
attained without taking into account the important factor of abnormal age distribution, 
especially in sections where such large proportions of the population have arrived compara- 
tively recently from overseas. Here, as in many other instances, the fields of the statis- 
tician and of the political and social philosopher come together. 

To compensate for the small percentage of children among the immigrant population, 
both the British and foreign born show proportions very much, larger than the Canadian 
born in the age groups from 25 to 45 years. Indeed, in all groups above 15 years the per- 
centages both male and female for the British born are greater than for the Canadian born, 
and the same holds true for the foreign born except at very advanced ages. After 45 years 
of age, however, the differences are not so great as in the four five-year age groups preceding 
45. Thus the immigrant population, while marked by a smaller percentage of children, has 
the second important characteristic of an abnormally large proportion in the most active 
years of adult life. That also reflects itself in the outlook and enterprise of a population 
group, and is of equal importance with the comparative paucity of children in explaining 
many phases of life in those districts where considerable proportions of the population are 
new Canadians who have recently arrived from abroad. Enterprise may be directed to social 
or anti-social ends. A balanced population in respect of the proportion married and having 
families tends to keep the activities of adult manhood and womanhood in social channels. 
A population unbalanced in respect to age distribution, while capable of phenomenal pro- 
gress when its energies are directed along constructive lines, is peculiarly subject to anti- 
social action and may become a serious menace to the body politic of which it forms a part. 

Thus age distribution is important from two points of view. First, as was pointed out 
at the beginning, it is necessary as a means of correcting crude data before comparing two 
sections of a population of entirely different age structures, in respect to a given char- 
acteristic. For example, before legitimate comparison is possible, crude statistics as to crime 
for the Canadian born population and the foreign. born must be adjusted. Crime is far 
more frequent at certain ages than at others, and allowance must be made when one group 
has an unduly large proportion of its numbers at the ages most marked by criminal tend- 
encies. Such corrections may be made with a great degree of accuracy, and that specific 
problem is dealt with in detail in a subsequent chapter. 

] The second point of view from which age statistics are valuable is in helping to explain 
such differences in behaviour of two sections of the population as may be attributed solely 
to the absence of people of other ages in normal proportions. Twice as large a proportion 
of men between 20 and 40 years of age will mean a larger amount of crime in the community 
merely because of the numerical addition of a large percentage among whom the crime rate 
is greater. But the simple numerical correction would not be enough to account for the 
amount of crime which would actually occur in such a community. The mere fact of age 
distribution tends to increase the criminality of each one of those surplus men by reducing 
the influences combating crime emanating from the existence of numbers of younger and 
older people in a neighbourhood. Unfortunately the influence of this last aspect of age 
distribution is very difficult of measurement, but that its existence is real cannot be doubted. 

The four diagrams reveal another type of difference. The age- distribution ■ of males 
and females differs in the four charts. The normal distribution is for males to be slightly 
in excess of females in early childhood. The high mortality rate among male children 



80 SEX, CONJUGAL CONDITION, AGE COMPOSITION OF VARIOUS STOCKS 



Charts XIX-XXII 



AGE DISTRIBUTION or TOTAL POPULATION >n CANADA , 192 1 

%45 40 3S 30 25 20 15 10 5 S '0 IS 20 25 30 35 40 45 %> 



65 ANO OVER 
60 - 64 
55-59 
50-54 
4S -49 
40 -44 
35 -39 
30-34 
25-29 
20 -24 
IS -19 

UNOER IS 



— ~ MALES Z I^lJ^IIZ .FEMALES ZZ~ 

— HJLULU II ILXXJmLJ I 



AGE DISTRIBUTION or CANADIAN BORN.n CANADA ,1921 









































































































































. males: 












FEMALES 













































































































































































65 ANO OVER 
60-64 
55-59 
50-54 
45 - 49 
40-44 
35-39 
30-34 
25-29 
20-24 
15-19 

UNOER 15 



AGEDISTRIBUTIONof FOREIGN BORN in CANADA ,1921 



65AND0VER 
60-64 
55 - 59 
50-54 
45-49 
40-44 
35 - 39 
30 - 34 
25-29 
20-24 
15-19 

UNDER 15 


















































































































































































































FEMALES 








MALES : 






















































































. 





























AGE DISTRIBUTION or BRITISH BORN in CANADA ,1921 



































































































































: males: 










males. 
















FE 



































































































































































65 ANO OVER 
60-64 
55-"- 59 
50-5 4 
45-49 
40-44 
35-39 
30-34 
2 5-2 9 
20-2 4 
15-19 

UNOER 15 



%45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 Q * '0 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 % 



Afo/e: //7 d-&>c6 of/A&pe fear ofecr/&/??s\/6e /ofe/ /ny/vfe/- o/'/7z?/?s' &/?c//fa /a/?/ 
/?&/77per o/ /e/Tr^/ev //7 e&c/' f/v&p /s £>A-&r?zs> /oa. 



AGE DISTRIBUTION OF DIFFERENT STOCKS 81 

tends to even up the proportions before the adult age is reached, liven from 20 to 45, owing 
to higher mortality among women during the ©hild-bearing period, the proportion of men is 
usually greater than that of women in a population. 

Now, aimong those of Canadian birth, the proportions at the respective ages are very 
nearly equal, and in that respect the age distribution tends to be closer to the normal than 
in the case of the British or foreign born. However, contrary to the normal expectation, the 
proportion of Canadian born females from 14 to 35 years is slightly greater than that of 
malles. For the ages 20 to 35 the explanation is very obvious. First, a large number of 
young men were killed during the war, and the figures are for 1921, only two and one-half 
years after the cessation of hostilities. In the second place, emigration was probably 
another contributory factor, as men emigrate to a far greater extent than do women. 

For the British born the differences are much larger. Below 30 years'of age the females 
are concentrated to an appreciably more marked degree than the males. The same obtains 
to an even greater extent among those of foreign birth. In the group under 15 years of age 
almost one per cent more British born and over three per cent more foreign born females 
than males are found. The explanation is not hard to find. When the number of women 
in the population is small compared to that of men, the female children will tend to form 
a larger percentage of all females than will the male children of all males, the numbers of 
children of each sex being roughly equal. The explanation of the higher percentage of 
females for the years immediately above that group may be found in the tendency of larger 
proportions of women to immigrate in the early years of womanhood. Many, come to marry 
men who have arrived at an earlier date, and a lag of five years in the largest female age 
group behind that of the largest male group is quite consistent with a normal inflow of 
immigration. Further, following the war, immigration from a number of countries showed 
an abnormally large proportion of females, so that in 1921, for which year the age distribu- 
tions are charted, the surplus of foreign born women between 20 and 30 years of age resulted 
from the interaction of several causes with which everyone is familiar. The same phenome- 
non characterized to a less extent the age distribution of the British born and the same forces 
were operative. 

An age lag also appears in the case of the adult female immigrants, who show smaller 
proportions than do the males in the higher age groups. The age lag in the higher groups 
has been handed on from immigration in previous decades, and the deficiency of females at 
those higher ages tends to compensate for the larger proportions of females among the groups 
of children 15 years of age and under. 

There is one other point of interest presented in the charts. The largest percentage of 
men of foreign birth was in the age group 30 to 34, while the largest percentage of men of 
British birth appeared in the group 35 to 39. The highest percentage of women immigrants 
from foreign countries was in the age group 25 to 29, while the largest percentage of women 
of British birth appeared in the age group 35 to 39. The explanation seems to be that on 
the average the British immigrants either came to Canada at a later age or arrived at an 
earlier date than the foreign born immigrants. 

AGE DISTRIBUTION OF THE DIFFERENT STOCKS IN CANADA 

Table 40 shows the numbers and percentages of the principal stocks in Canada by 
specified age groups. In the previous subsection attention was focussed on the ages of the 
population by broad nativity groups, and especially on the foreign born section of our popu- 
lation. Detailed data for the foreign born by countries of birth were not directly available, 
but it has been possible to compile the present origin table showing the percentages for each 

74422—6 



82 SEX, CONJUGAL CONDITION, AGE COMPOSITION OF VARIOUS STOCKS 

stock under 10 years of age, between 10 and 20, and 21 years and over. Much useful informa- 
tion is contained in this table regarding the various origins of the population of Canada, 
though onlly a partial analysis can be attempted here. 

In the first place it is noteworthy tq find a wide variation in the percentages. From 
the Chinese with less than 6 p.e. of their number under 10 years of age to the Austrians 
■and Ukrainians with between 35 and 37 px. in that age group, is an exceedingly wide spread. 
Similar differences appear in the other age groups. Now, variation in age distribution as 
between different sections of the population is exceedingly significant. That has been 
pointed out in respect to broad nativity groups, but there is this difference when dealing 
with similar data for the respective stocks, namely, that when age distribution for a given 
stock is abnormal, the unusual distribution applies to a more or less homogeneous section 
of the community and not merely to the Canadian born or the foreign born portion of a 
stock. When the nativity groups for a given stock are combined, as they are under ordinary 
conditions in real life, the resulting population may constitute a fairly normal group in 
respect of age distribution. Table 40 shows very clearly, however, that this frequently does 
not occur. With many stocks in Canada, the combined influence of immigration, sex dis- 
tribution, birth rate and death rate has resulted in quite unusual age groupings. In a great 
many cases the population of a given origin forms a very definite section within the com- 
munity, and what has been said regarding social behaviour and abnormality in age distribu- 
tion has considerable point when it is shown that such differences actually do exist in quite 
distinct population groups. 

Table 41 arranges the stocks according to linguistic groups and shows the percentages of 
each stock and the average percentage for each group in the three specified age classes. In 
the first place, of all groups the British show the lowest proportion below 10 years of age 
and the highest in the group 21 and over. There are only two isolated cases where lower 
percentages are shown in the earlier ages, namely, the Bulgarians and the Chinese. In both 
of those stocks the numbers of males were far in excess of the females. In the case of those 
of Chinese origin it was found that there were fifteen times as many males as females in 
Canada and between four and five times as many of Bulgarian origin. This great dispropor- 
tion between the sexes is the chief explanation for the percentages under 10 years of age 
being lower among these two peoples than for the British stock in Canada. 

With those minor exceptions, then, the British stocks show the smallest number of 
children under 10 years of age and larger proportions 21 years and over than any other 
European group. The Scandinavian and Germanic stocks have a little higher proportion in 
the earlier age group and a little smaller in the adult age group ; the age distributions of the 
Scandinavian and Germanic stocks are very similar. Passing to the Latins and Greeks and 
the Slavs, quite a radical difference is at once apparent. The former group shows 32-2 p.c. and 
the latter 34-5 p.c. under 10 years, proportions notably larger than for the North Western 
Europeans. The percentages 21 years and over are correspondingly lower, with the excep- 
tion of that for the Greeks, whose age distribution is altogether unique. 

It is thus clear that there are marked differences in the age distribution of the various 
stocks and groups of stocks in Canada. The Latin and Greek and the Slavic peoples have 
on the whole much larger proportions under 10 years than have the English, Scandinavians, 
Germans or French, and consequently smaller percentages 21 years of age and over. No 
generalization can be made regarding the Asiatics. The Chinese with their small proportion 
of women have, as one would naturally expect, a very small number of children in their 
population; yet the Japanese, in spite of a very considerable surplus of males, have as large 
a proportion under 10 years of age as the average Scandinavian or Germanic stock. A stock 
like the Syrian ranks along with the Slavic people in age distribution. The causes for these 
differences and their implications are exceedingly important, and will be dealt with in Chap- 
ter XII, where comparison will be made between the: fertility of the various stocks. 



AGE DISTRIBUTION OF DIFFERENT STOCKS 



83 



TABLE 40.-PERCENTAGE AGE DISTRIBUTION OF THE VARIOUS STOCKS IN CANADA IN 1921. 



Origin 



P.O. 

under 
10 year? 



P.O. 

10 to 20 
years 



P.c. 

21 years 
and over 



Total 

English 

Irish 

Scotch 

Welsh 

French 

Austrian 

Belgian 

Bulgarian 

Chinese 

Czech 

Danish 

Dutch 

Finnish 

German 

Greek 

Hebrew 

Hungarian 

Icelandic 

Italian 

Japanese 

Lithuanian 

Negro 

Norwegian 

Polish 

Roumanian... . 

Russian 

Serbo-Croatian 

Swedish 

Swiss 

Syrian 

Ukrainian 

Unspecified 

Various 

Indian 



24-86 



54-25 



•84 

■27 

•23 

•15 

•65 

•11 

•59 

•46 

■35 

■83 ■ 

■80 

•76 

■93 

•72 

•76 

•10 

■45 

•15 

■16 

•82 

•55 

•05 

•07 

•00 

•87 

■94 

■95 

•33 

■68 

•75 

•47 

•03 

•47 



74422--6J 



84 SEX, CONJUGAL CONDITION, AGE COMPOSITION OF VARIOUS STOCKS 



TABLE 41. 



-PERCENTAGE AGE DISTRIBUTION OF SPECIFIED STOCKS IN CANADA IN 1921, BY 
LINGUISTIC AND OTHER GROUPINGS. 



Origin 


P.c. 

under 

10 years 


P.c. 
10 to 20 
years 


P.c. 

21 ycnrs 
and over 




24-86 

21-61 
20-00 
20-70 
22-33 


20-90 

19-55 
19-13 
19-07 
18-52 


54-25 


British— 


58-84 




60 -2V 




60-23 




59-15 




21-00 


19-50 


59-50 




27-79 


24-56 


17-65 


Scavdinaviav — 


26-26 
22-47 
26-88 
23-55 


19-94 
22-37 
20-05 
20-12 


54-80 




55-15 




53 07 




56-33 




25-00 


20-30 


54-60 


Germanic — 


23-82 
24-79 
24-90 


24-59 
21-45 
22-38 


54-59 




53-76 




52-72 




24-80 


22-10 


53-10 


Latin and Greek — 


26-83 
32-04 
35-31 


9-41 

- 17-81 

16-82 


63-76 




5016 




47-87 




32-20 


17-10 


50-70 






Slavic— 


35-31 
• 14-27 
28-17 
34-64 
33-70 
32-91 
27-40 
36-60 


21-58 
8-27 
24-01 
19-80 
21-30 
23-15 
17-65 
22-93 


4311 




77-46 




47-83 




45-55 




45 00 




43-94 




54-95 




40-47 




34-50 


22-30 


43-20 


Asiatic — 


5-18 
24-03 
32-72 


8-47 
815 
21-54 


86-35 




67-82 




45-74 




13-40 


10 10 


76-50 







CHAPTER IV 

DISTRIBUTION OF POPULATION STOCKS AND NATIVITY 
GROUPS BY PROVINCES 

In Chapter I attention was centred on the proportions of different stocks in the popula- 
tion of Canada as a whole. It was seen that Canada is as yet predominantly British and 
French, but that in the decades previous to 1921 important changes had taken place which, 
if continued, would definitely 'alter the composition of the population in a comparatively 
short period. The proportion of foreign born in the population was also discussed and 
attention directed to the newer arrivals of foreign origin. The significance of the wide 
fluctuations in the numbers and proportions of the foreign born was also emphasized. 

In the second chapter an examination was made of the distribution of the foreign stocks 
from the point of view of their length of residence in Canada. First, attention was drawn 
to the different proportions of our population born in Canada, the United States and other 
countries. Then a more detailed examination was made of the foreign born portions of the 
foreign stocks and of their increases from decade to decade. Some conclusions were reached 
as to the dates of immigration for the various groups and also as to the relative magnitude 
and changing sources of recent immigration. 

Important as are such considerations, in some ways they are overshadowed by the 
territorial distribution of the different stocks in Canada. The geographical distribution of 
the foreign stocks is especially significant. In dealing with this topic several questions 
are suggested: How are the foreign stocks and the foreign •born distributed among the 
different provinces of Canada? What changes are taking place in those proportions? How 
are the foreign stocks distributed as between urban and rural districts? What is the signifi- 
cance of the differences appearing and how are they to be explained? This section attempts 
to answer the first two of the above questions and certain others incidental to them. 

DISTRIBUTION OF VARIOUS STOCKS BY PROVINCES 

Table 42A shows the .percentage distribution of the various stocks in Canada at the last 
three census enumerations. The first column shows the percentage of British origin in the 
population of each province in 1921. Prince Edward Island with 85 p ; c. had by far the 
largest proportion of British stock. Nova Scotia, Ontario and British Columbia were also 
predominantly British by extraction, with a proportion of well over 70 p.c. in each case. 

As is to be expected, the proportion of French origin in the province of Quebec is far 
greater than in any other section of the country. New Brunswick ranks second, with almost 
a third French. Prince Edward Island and Nova Scotia follow in the order named with 
much smaller percentages. In the West the proportion of French stock in the population 
is small, ranging from five to seven p.c. in the Prairie Provinces, and dropping as low as 
two p.c. in British Columbia. Ontario stands midway between the Maritimes and the 
Prairie Provinces with respect to the proportion of persons of French origin in its 
population. 

A comparison of column 2 and ■ column 3 reveals the interesting fact that while the 
proportions of French stock in the eastern provinces are large as compared with the West, 
the reverse obtains in the case of other European origins. From Quebec east, the propor- 
tion of other European origins in the populations of the respective provinces is less than 
10 p.c. In fact, Nova Scotia with 9.34 p.c. is the only province east of Ontario with a 
significant intermingling of foreign stocks. In Prince Edward Island the proportion is less 
than one p.c. Passing west, it is seen that Ontario and British Columbia have about the 
same proportions of other European origins, with between 11 and 12 p.c. in each, while 
the proportions in^the three Prairie Provinces range between 30 and 40 p.c. It would be 

85 



TABLE 42A.— PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF THE POPULATION OF VARIOUS ORIGINS IN CANADA, BY PROVINCES, 1901, 1911, 1921. 



GeozraDhical Division 


1921 


1911 


1901 


British 
Origin 


French 
Origin 


Other 
European 


Indian 
Origin 


Asiatic 
Origin 


British 
Origin 


French 
Origin 


Other 
European 


Indian 
Origin 


Asiatic 
Origin 


British 
Origin ■ 


French 
Origin 


Other 
European 


Asiatic 
Origin 


Indian 
Origin 




p.c. 

55-40 

85-34 
77-81 
65-23 
15-12 
77-79 
57-53 
52-86 
59-79 
73-87 


p.c. 

27-91 

13-51 

10-81 

31-22 

80 01 

8-46 

6-66 

5-56 

• 5-25 

2-14 


p.c. 

1416 

0-67 
9-34 
2-53 
3-85 
11-99 
32-99 
39-14 
31-16 
11-63 


p.c. 

1-26 

0-27 
0-39 
0-34 
0-49 
0-91 
2-27 
1-70 
2-47 
4-27 


p.c. 

0-75 

011 
0-28 
0-21 
0-22 
0-31 
0-28 
0-43 
0-73 
7-57 


p.c. 

54 08 

84-23 
76-92 
65-33 
15-76 
76-25 
57-77 
50-97 
51-46 
64-38 


p.c. 

28-52 

13-99 

10-51 

28-02 

80 04 

8-01 

6-71 

4-72 

5-29 

2-27 


p.c. 

12-81 

0-97 
10-14 
308 
2-97 
12-83 
28-09 
35-85 
30-22 
14-61 


p.c. 

1-46 

0-26 
0-39 
0-44 
0-60 
1-07 
2-87 
2-38 
305 
5- 13 


p.c. 

0-60 

003 
014 
0-09 
011 
018 
0-21 
0-25 
0-56 
7-84 


p.c. 

57-03 

8511 
78 13 
71-73 
17-60 
79-35 
64-35 
43-92 
47-83 
59-56 


p.c. 

30-70 

13-43 
9-83 
24-15 
80-18 
7-27 
6-28 
2-89 
6-18 
2-57 


p.c. 

8-51 

0-97 
1015 
2-84 
1-36 
11-39 
22-36 
33-30 
26-84 
12-48 


p.c. 
0-41 

002 
0-02 
0-06 
003 
0-08 
005 
0-34 
10-90 


p.c. 
2-38 


Prince Edward Island 


0-25 
0-35 




0-44 




0-62 




113 




6-37 




19-43 




18-38 




16-20 







TABLE 42B— PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF THE POPULATION OF VARIOUS ORIGINS IN CANADA, BY PROVINCES, 1901, 1911, 1921. 



~0 

'to 
o 

1—1 



to 
— . i 

to 

h — 

to 

C3 

i—i 
C 



Geographical Division 


Per cent 


British 


Origin 


Per cent 


French 


Origin 


Per cent 


European 


Origin 


Per cent 


Asiatic 


Origin 


Per cent 


Indian 


Origin 


1921 


1911 


1901 


1921 


1911 


1901 


1921 


1911 


1901 


1921 


1911 


1901 


1921 


1911 


1901 




p.c. 

55-40 

85-34 
77-81 
65-23 
' 15- 12 
77-79 
57-53 
52-86 
'59-79 
73-87 


p.c. 

54 08 

84-23 
76-92 
65-33 
15-76 
76-25 
57-77 
50-97 
51-46 
64-38 


p.c. 

57-03 

8511 
78-13 

71-73 
17-60 
79-35 
64-35 
43-92 
47-80 
59-56 


p.c. 

27-91 

13-51 
10-81 
31-22 
8001 
8-46 
6-66 
5-56 
5-25 
2-14 


p.c. 

28-52 

13-99 

10-51 

28-02 

80-04 

8-01 

6-71 

4-72 

5-29 

2-27 


p.c. 

30-70 

13-43 
9-83 
24-15 
80-18 
7-27 
6-28 
2-89 
6-18 
2-57 


p.c. 

14-16 

0-67 
9-34 
2-53 
3-85 
11-99 
32-99 
39 14 
3116 
11-63 


p.c. 

12-81 

0-97 
1014 
308 
2-97 
12-83 
28-09 
35-85 
30-22 
14-61 


p.c. 

8-51 

0-97 
10 15 
2-84 
1-36 
11-39 
22-36 
33-30 
26-84 
12-48 


p.c. 

0-75 

0-11 
0-28 
0-21 
0-22 
0-31 
0-28 
0-43 
0-73 
7-57 


p.c. 

0-60 

003 
0-14 
0-09 
011 
018 
0-21 
0-25 
0-56 
7-84 


p.c. 
0-41 

002 
002 
- 0-06 
003 
008 
0-05 
0-34 
10-90 


p.c. 

1-26 

0-27 
0-39 
0-34 
0-49 
0-91 
2-27 
1-70 
2-47 
4-27 


p.c. 

1-46 

0-26 
0-39 
0-44 
0-60 
1-07 
2-87 
2-38 
305 
5-13 


p.c. 
2-38 




0-25 
0-35 




0-44 




0-62 




1-13 




6-37 




19-43 




18-38 




16-20 







On 

■ ^ 

d 

&5 



fa 



© 

to 
o 

CI 
"3 



PROPORTION OF SPECIFIED STOCKS IN VARIOUS PROVINCES 



87 



difficult to over-emphasize the significance of these facts. In the middle western provinces, 
the relative proportion of foreign stocks is- from three to thirty times greater than in 
other parts of Che Dominion, and on the average perhaps four times greater than in 
the East as a whole. The structure of the population in the Prairie Provinces is thus 
entirely different from that in Ontario and the Maritime Provinces. Reference will be 
made bellow to the consequences of this fact. 

The Asiatics form a far larger proportion in the population of British Columbia, where 
the Orient and Occident meet, than in any other .province. The percentage is ten times 
greater than in Alberta, which stands second, and the proportions generally decline in 
passing eastward. 

The significance of these figures may be brought out more clearly by arranging the 
provinces in rank according to the proportion of British, French, Other European and Asiatic 
stocks in taheir populations in 1921 : — 



Province 


Rank 


Province 


Rank 


British Origin- 


1 

2 
3 
4 
5 

6 
7 
8 
9 

1 

2 
3 
4 
5 
6 
7 
8 
9 


French Origin — 


1 






2 






3 






4 






5 






6 






7 






8 






9 


Other European Origin — 


Asiatic Origin — 


1 






2 






3 






4 






5 






6 






7 






8 






9 









The material in Table 42A is presented also in Charts 23, 24, 25 and 26. 

Table 42B shows the same data as presented in the previous table with the percentages 
of each origin grouped by years. The material is so arranged that the decennial 1 increases 
or decreases in the proportions of the several stocks are easily seen. The table makes 
possible a comparison between the percentage of each origin in the years 1901-1911-1921. 

In Prince Edward Island and Nova Scotia the proportion of British origin remained 
about the same over the period. There were slight decreases in New Brunswick, Quebec, 
Ontario and Manitoba, and significant increases in Saskatchewan, Alberta and British 
Columbia. 

These differences may be explained in terms of the relative influx of British and 
foreign immigration, emigration, movement of population between provinces, different rates' 
of natural increase of the British and non-British stocks and the stationary character of 
the native Indian population. The relative importance of these influences varies. For 
instance, in New Brunswick the more rapid increase of the French both by immigration 
and natural increase is of major importance; in Quebec the paucity of British immigration, 
coupled with a high rate of natural increase among the native population; in Ontario, 
foreign immigration and the movement of French from the adjacent, province of Quebec; and 
in Manitoba, foreign immigration coupled with the higher rate of natural increase among 
the foreign stocks in that province. The latter point is especially important in Manitoba, 
where such large proportions of the population are of foreign origin. The increases in the 
proportions of British stock in the three provinces west of Manitoba are due partly to heavy 
immigration of British from the United States and, in the case of British Columbia, 
from Great Britain. Further, in the West the Indian population was of very considerable 
dimensions in 1901. For example, in Saskatchewan it constituted nearly 20 p.c, of the 
population in 1901, but in 1921 only 2 p.c. The existence of this group, which is prac- 
tically stationary in numbers, would in itself make for percentage increases in the other 
growing stocks "and cannot be neglected among the "influences accounting for the. relative 
increase of the British in the three western provinces. 



88 PROVINCIAL DISTRIBUTION OF STOCKS AND NATIVITY GROUPS 



Charts XXIII-XXV 



PERCENTAGEof BRITISH STOCK. nthe POPULATION or the 
SEVERAL PROVINCES, 1921. 

Prince Edward Is. 
Nova Scotia 



io 



20 30 



40 



50 



60 



70 



80 90 



ioo£ 



Ontario 

British Columbia 

New Brunswick 
Alberta 

Manitoba 

Saskatchewan 

Quebec 




PERCENTAGEof FRENCH STOCK. nthe POPULATION ofthe 
SEVERAL PROVINCES, 192 I. 



Quebec 

New Brunswick 

Prince Edward Is. 

Nova Scotia 

Ontario 

Manitoba 

Saskatchewan 

Alberta 

British Columbia 




PERCENTAGE of other EUROPEAN STOCK m the POPULATION 
ofthe SEVERAL PROVINCES, 1921. 

Saskatchewan 

Manitoba 

Alberta 

Ontario 

British Columbia 

Nova Scotia 

Quebec 

New Brunswick 

Pmnce Eowaro Is. 




PROPORTION OF SPECIFIED STOCKS IN VARIOUS PROVINCES 89 

The proportion of French in Prince Edward Island, like that of British origin, showed 
little change. The same holds true of Quebec and Manitoba. There were slight increases 
in the density of French stock in Nova Scotia and Ontario and significant increases in the 
case of New Brunswick and Saskatchewan. In Alberta and British Columbia the proportion 
of French stock declined in the 20-year period, owing mainly to the disproportionate 
increase in British stock through immigration. 

Turning to the proportions of Continental European origins, it is seen that for Prince 
Edward Island, Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Ontario and British Columbia, the propor- 
tions in 1921 were very slightly different from those of 1901. In British Columbia the per- 
centage was two p.c. higher in 1911, but with this exception there was little variation dur- 
ing the twenty years in these five provinces. On the other hand, in each of the provinces 
of Quebec, Manitoba, Saskatchewan and Alberta, increases in the proportions of foreign 
stocks were marked. The increase was smalllest in Quebec and greatest in the province of 
Manitoba, where the proportions changed from 22-36 p.c. in 1901 to 32-99 p.c. in 1921 — 
an increase of between 45 and 50 p.c. The increases were also extremely significant in the 
other Prairie Provinces and were consistent throughout the period. 

In the case of the Asiatic origins, while the proportions increased for the whole of 
Canada, in the province of British Columbia their relative density decreased during the 
period. In this respect British Columbia differs from every other province in the Dominion, 
for in all other provinces the proportions of the population of Asiatic origin have increased 
consistently since the beginning of the century. An explanation of this is found in the 
relatively small numbers of Asiatics in the provinces to the east of British Columbia at 
the beginning of the century. For instance, in Saskatchewan there were only 42 Asiatics in 
1901. while British Columbia already had 19,4S2. In the two subsequent decades the actual 
number of Asiatics in British Columbia increased by 20,342, yet tlie total population 
increased more rapidly, resulting in a net decrease in the proportion of Asiatics in that 
province in 1921. In Saskatchewan, on the other hand, the numerical increase was only 
3,252, but this represented a rate of increase on the original 42 in 1901 which was much 
faster than that of the total population. The absolute increase in British Columbia was 
between six and seven times greater than in Saskatchewan. 

Chart XXVI 



PERCENTAGEorASIATIC STOCK inthc POPULATION oftmc 


SEVERAL PROVINCES, 1921. 


%0 12 3 4 5 6 7891 

1 ' | 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 


0'/ o 


Alberta ■■ 






















Saskatchewan ■ 






















Ontario 9 






















Manitoba I 






















Now Soon a 1 






















Quebec 1 






















New Brunswick 1 






















Prince Eowvro li 1 





























90 PROVINCIAL DISTRIBUTION OF STOCKS AND NATIVITY GROUPS 

THE BIRTHPLACES OF THE POPULATION BY PROVINCES 

Table 43 (p. 96) shows the distribution of the population by birthplace for Canada and 
the provinces, in 1911 and 1921. Tables 44 and 45 arrange the data for the European born by 
geographical and linguistic groups and Table 46 presents a summary for Canada and the 
Provinces. The information in these rather formidable tables may best be presented by 
the use of charts. 

The nine provinces, arranged in order of the percentage of their population Canadian 

born in 1921, are as follows (See chart 27) : — 

Province . Percentage 

Canadian born ' 

Prince Edward Island 97-33 

New Brunswick 94-47 

Quebec 92-01 

Nova Scotia 91-69 

Ontario 78-13 

Manitoba 63-55 

Saskatchewan 60-44 

Alberta 53-55 

British Columbia 50-34 

The first point to note is the wide range of fluctuations in the proportions. The per- 
centage of Canadian born is almost twice as high in Prince Edward Island as in British 
Columbia. Indeed from Quebec east the proportion of native Canadians is on an entirely 
different level from west of Ontario. Changes in population structure in the Eastern Prov- 
inces are. thus going on very slowly, but as we move westward from Ontario the population 
appears to be in an increasing state of flux. The percentage of Canadian born fluctuates 
so violently that the traveller finds on reaching the Pacific coast that he has passed from 
the far East where less than 3 p.c. of the population was born outside of Canada to the 
extreme West, where nearly half consists of immigrants. 

A comparison of the proportions Canadian born in 1911 and 1921 by provinces (Table 
46) shows that the provinces stand in the same rank at the last two Census dates, though 
the proportions of Canadian born are slightly less in 1911 than in 1921 in the East and con- 
siderably less in the provinces from Ontario west. 

Chart 27 also shows the proportions of the population born in the British Isles at the 
date of the 1981 census. The provinces arranged in order are as follows: — 

Province Percentage 

British born 

British Columbia 29-31 

Manitoba 18-32 

Alberta 16-57 

Ontario 15-35 

Saskatchewan 13-09 

Quebec '.' 3-59 

Nova Scotia 3-16 

New Brunswick 2-46 

Prince Edward Island 0-94 

Attention again is directed to the wide range of the percentages. In contrast with the pre- 
vious table, the proportion of the population born in the British Isles is very much heavier 
from Ontario west, as compared with Quebec and the Maritimes. The proportion of British 
immigrants in the population of the five western provinces is four to eight times as great 
as in Quebec, which shows the highest percentage of any of the four eastern provinces. Thus 
the effect of British immigration in the past generation on the composition of the population 
in the various provinces has been to give a more than proportionate number of settlers to 
the, provinces from Ontario west. . In 1921 British Columbia showed the largest percentage 
of her population born in the British Isles. While Ontario, as will be shown later, has 
received a much greater total number of British immigrants than any other province, her 
population is several times as large as that of any western province, so that British immi- 
grants, though great in numbers, constitute only a moderate percentage of her total popu- 
lation. In comparison with the other western provinces, it seems that Saskatchewan has 
not been receiving a proportionate share of British immigration; Table .46 shows that in 
1911 Saskatchewan had a somewhat larger percentage .of British immigrants than Ontario, 
but the situation was reversed by 1921. In all provinces except Quebec, Ontario and British • 
Columbia, there was a lower proportion of the population born in the British Isles in 1921 
than in 1911." ' ' 



BIRTHPLACES OF THE POPULATION OF THE PROVINCES 91 

Chart 27 shows in addition the proportions of foreign born in the population of the 
respective provinces in 1921. They rank in the following order: — 

Province Percentage 

foreign bora 

Alberta..'. 29-56 

Saskatchewan '. 26-31 

British Columbia 19-02 

Manitoba 17-91 

Ontario 6-21 

Quebec 4-18 

New Brunswick 2-77 

Nova Scotia 2-67 

Prince Edward Island 1-46 

As in the case of the .proportions Canadian born and of those born in the British Isles, 
there are wide fluctuations in the percentages foreign born in the different provinces. The 
four western provinces are in a class quite by themselves. While Ontario ranked with these 
provinces in the percentage of her population born in the British Isles, she ranks with 
Quebec and the Maritime provinces in the proportion foreign born in her population. From 
Manitoba east there is a very marked change in the proportion of foreign immigrants in 
the population. The percentage of the lowest of the western provinces is three times as 
large as the percentage in Ontario, the highest of the eastern provinces, and the difference 
becomes greater as we approach the extremes in each case. Such a marked difference 
between east and west in the proportion of foreign born in the population cannot but result 
in radical differences in "their attitude towards the problems of government, education and 
business. 

Another interesting fact is presented in Table 46 when comparing the proportions of 
foreign born at the two census dates. In Ontario and eastward there was a higher percentage 
foreign born in 1921 than in 1911, while in Manitoba and westward there was a lower per- 
centage in 1921 than in 1911. Probably the immigration of United States born to the 
cities in the East in recent years and the comparative cessation of immigration of other 
foreign iborn to the western provinces during and subsequent to the war, togefeher with the 
dying off of the older immigrants, have an important bearing on these differences. 

The proportions of North Western European immigrants in the population of the 
various provinces appear below. 

Percentage 
born in 
Province ' North Western 

Europe 

Alberta 4-53 

Saskatchewan 4-33 

Manitoba 3-46 

British Columbia 2-91 

Ontario 0-73 

Quebec 0-47 

Nova Scotia -. . .' 0-41 

New Brunswick 0-25 

Prince Edward Island : 0-02 

The range of fluctuations is significant in this case also. There is a distinct drop in the 
proportion of Northern European born, as in the case of all foreign born, as we pass^ from 
Manitoba . to Ontario and eastward. It is interesting to find that Alberta had a higher 
proportion of North Western European immigrants in her population than any other 
province in the Dominion. The proportion of North Western Euopean birth in 1921 was 
lower than in 1911 in all provinces except Prince Edward Island, where the actual numbers 
were negligible. The principal explanation is arrested immigration. 

The relative density of the South, Eastern and Central European born in the various 

provinces was as follows: — 

Percentage South, Eastern and 
Province Central European born 

Manitoba 10-57 

Saskatchewan 9-94 

Alberta 7-26 

British Columbia : 3-07 

Ontario '. 2-74 

Quebec 1-70 

Nova Scotia 0-70 

New Brunswick 0-25 

Prince Edward Island 0-02 



92 PROVINCIAL DISTRIBUTION OF STOCKS AND NATIVITY GROUPS 



Chakt XXVII 



PERCENTAGES of POPULATION .CANADIAN BORN, BRITISH 
ISLES BORNano FOREIGN BORN,by PROVINCES, 1921. 



%0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100% 



PRINCE EDWARD IS. 



NOVA SCOTIA 



T 



«;»*««■»«•#*/#•«»//■ 



W/.777777i 



QUEBEC 



ONTARIO 



MANITOBA 



SASKATCHEWAN 



ALBERTA 



BRTISH COLUMBIA 



new Brunswick ^mEwiiLWibwmwniWEmzLwnL'm 



mmwnnnm. 



w7mwmwiLwm7ffli7mwzL7mi 



■p« 



mm '{M/wt/T, mrr, wjtt/ m 



7 m.7M/.7ffl7, 



'UmUllMML. 



mmmMMMmmm 



wmmzTzmwiL] 






mmm 



wMTzmwmTsm 



>imi'MM 



3&0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100%" 

Canadian born 



roREISN BORN 



British Isle} born | 



BIRTHPLACES OF THE POPULATION OF THE PROVINCES 93 

Notice in the first place that the variation in the percentages shows a greater range of 
fluctuation between the provinces than was found in the figures for North Western European 
immigrants. One should not infer from this that, relatively to population, North Western 
Europeans have been more evenly scattered over the Dominion. In fact the reverse proves 
to be the case. While the actual fluctuations are much smaller for the North Western group, 
their numbers are also much smaller; so also is their proportion of the population in the 
respective provinces. For purposes of comparison, then, it is necessary to take this difference 
into account as is done by the use of the coefficient of variation. For the North Western 
Europeans the coefficient was found to be 153 p.c, while for the South, Eastern and Central 
Europeans it was 97 p.c. The coefficients are large in both cases, but while the extremes 
are further apart in the case of the South, Eastern and Central European group, the co- 
efficients indicate that on the whole they are more evenly distributed among the population 
in the various provinces than are the North Western European immigrants. The wide range, 
however, is significant as emphasizing the difference in the proportions of South, Eastern and 
Central Europeans in the populations of the provinces at the two extremes, viz., Manitoba 
and Prince Edward Island. 

In the three Prairie Provinces, South, Eastern and Central European imimigrants fonm 
a much larger proportion of the total population than in any other part of Canada. Passing 
eastward the decline is very marked. It may be noted also that the proportions in the four 
western provinces were considerably lower in 1921 than in 1911, while in Ontario, Quebec 
and Nova Scotia they were somewhat higher. 

In connection with provincial distribution of the Scandinavian born, it is rather 
significant that only from Manitoba westward has that group other than a very negligible 
place in the population. The percentages for the four western provinces are as follows: — 

Percentage 
Province Scandinavian born 

Alberta 2-68 

Saskatchewan 2-57 

British Columbia 2-01 

Manitoba 1 -83 

In all cases the proportions were smaller in 1921 than in 1911. 

The proportions of the population born in Germanic countries in the several provinces 

appear below: — 

Percentage born in 
Province Germanic countries 

Alberta 1-36 

Saskatchewan 1 • 26 

Manitoba l - 08 

British Columbia 0-54 

Ontario 0-43 

Nova Scotia 0-19 

Quebec 0-17 

New Brunswick 0-07 

Prince Edward Island negligible 

Here again we find a larger proportion in the West than in the East, though the 
differences are not so marked as in the case of the total North Western Europeans and 
especially of the South, Eastern and Central groups. In all cases the proportions were lower 
in 1921 than in 1911. 

The data for the Latin and Greek group are presented in the following table, where the 
provinces are ranked according to the percentages of those immigrants in their respective 
populations: — 

\ Percentage born in Latin 

Province and Greek Countries 

British Columbia 1-07 

Saskatchewan 1-05 

Alberta 0-98 

Ontario 0-69 

Manitoba : 0-61 

Quebec 0-61 

Nova Scotia 0-19 

New Brunswick 0-06 

Prince Edward Island 0-01 



94 PROVINCIAL DISTRIBUTION OF STOCKS AND NATIVITY GROUPS 

As in the case of the Germanic group, greater uniformity appears to obtain in the pro- 
portionate distribution, of the Latins and Greeks ' in the more populous provinces of ths 
Dominion. The figures seem naturally to group themselves into three classes. British 
Columbia, Saskatchewan and Alberta show the highest proportion, and between them the 
differences are slight. The same uniform tendency obtains for Ontario, Manitoba and 
Quebec. Those provinces stand on a lower level. The Maritime Provinces show very 
much smaller percentages than either of the other two sections of the country. 

Another important fact in connection with the Latin and Greek immigrants as con- 
trasted with the other linguistic groups, is that the proportion of the population of Canada born 
in those countries was higher in 1921 than in 1911, and that in every province where their 
numbers are significant, with the exception of British Columbia, the proportions in 1921 
were either as great as or greater than in 1911. 

Little need be said of the Slavic group* except to present the figures: — 

Percentage born in 
Province Slavic countries 

Manitoba 9-72 

Saskatchewan 8-09 

Alberta: 5-81 

Ontario 1-64 

British Columbia 1-58 

Quebec 1-07 

Nova Scotia 0-47 

New Brunswick 0* 18 

Prince Edward Island 0-01 

■ Fluctuations in the proportions of foreign born Slavs in the populations of the various 
provinces, are marked. The concentration in the Prairie Provinces is worthy of notice. While 
in the west the proportions in 1921 were smaller than those in 191(1, two provinces in the 
East showed larger proportions of their population born in Slavic countries in 1921 than 
ten years previously. These provinces were Ontario and Nova Scotia. 

The rank of the provinces according to the proportions of United iStates born is 
interesting : — 

Percentage 
Province United States born 

Alberta 16-97 

Saskatchewan 11-57 

British Columbia. '. 6-66 

Manitoba 3-55 

Ontario 2-41 

New Brunswick 2-13 

Quebec 1-78 

Prince Edward Island 1-37 

Nova Scotia 1-34 

Comparing aid the provinces, it is seen that Alberta and Saskatchewan- had by far the 
largest proportions of their populations born in the United States. The percentages gradu- 
ally declined elsewhere, yet unlike those for any of the groups of origins previously examined, 
they are by no means negligible for the Maritime Provinces. For some time there has been 
a considerable movement of both British and French Canadian stock from the Eastern 
States back to Canada, and it is believed that this migration largely accounts for the 
percentages of American born in the far East being larger than the percentages for other 
immigrants. The bulk of the American immigrants in the western provinces are of British, 
Scandinavian and Germanic stock. 

Another interesting fact is brought to light in comparing the figures for 1921 with those 
for 1911. In British Columbia, Alberta and Saskatchewan the proportions United States 
born were lower in 1921 than in 1911, but in Manitoba, Ontario, Quebec and) the other 
eastern provinces the proportions were higher. 



* These immigrants born in Slavic countries include a very large number who are Hebrews 
by origin. 



BIRTHPLACES OF THE POPULATION OF THE PROVINCES 95 

The proportions of Asiatics in the various- provinces 'in 1921 appear below: — 

Percentage born in 
Province Asiatic countries 

British Columbia '. 6-22 

Alberta '.: , 0-68 

Saskatchewan 0-40 

Ontario : 0-26 

Manitoba 0-24 

Quebec 0-17 

Nova Scotia .' 0-14 

Now Brunswick . 0-11 

Prince Edward Island 0-04 

Comment is hardly necessary in this connection except to note the rather significant 
fact which appears on examination of the figures in Table 46. While in Saskatchewan, 
Alberta and British Columbia the', proportion in the respective populations born' dn Asia 
was lower in 1921 than in 1911, in all other provinces it was higher at the time of the last 
census. 

By way of comparing the relative proportions of the .population, by place of birth in 
1921 and 1911, the following resume is made - first, the proportion of British immigrants in 
the population decreased in the Prairie Provinces, while in Ontario, Quebec and British 
Columbia the proportion increased. The same tendency characterized- the foreign born on 
the whole, though in the case of British Columbia the proportion was lower in 1921. The 
North Western European born showed a' lower percentage in all provinces except Prince 
Edward Island, while the South, Eastern and Central European immigrants, though showing 
a lower percentage in the four western provinces, constituted a larger percentage in Ontario 
and the East generally in 1921 than in 1911. Both the Scandinavian and Germanic immigrants 
showed smaller percentages' throughout in 1921, while on the whole - the proportion of 
Latin and Greek group increased in the decade. The increase for the latter group 
was most marked in the Middle West and Quebec. In Ontario the proportion remained 
constant. British Columbia is the outstanding exception, with a decline of approximately 50 
per cent. 

The Slavic born (including the bulk of those who are of Hebrew origin) show a smaller 
percentage in 1921 in all provinces in the West, while in Ontario and Nova Scotia the pro- 
portion born in Slavic countries increased in the decade. That difference is partly due to 
the fact that between 1911 and 1914 Ontario, and Nova Scotia received on the whole larger 
proportions of the main Slavic stocks in their immigration than in the previous decade, 
while most of the other provinces got, smaller proportions. Then since the war there was a 
more rapid recovery of Russian and especially of Polish immigration to Ontario than to the 
other provinces. 

A somewhat similar situation appears to obtain as regards the United States born. 
In 1921 the proportion was considerably lower than in 1921 in the three western provinces 
but sLigbtly higher in Eastern Canada. 



TABLE 43.— PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF THE POPULATION, BY BIRTHPLACE, FOR CANADA AND THE PROVINCES, 1911 AND 1921. 



Birthplace 


Canada 


Prince 

Edward 

Island 


Nova 
Scotia 


New 
Brunswick 


Quebec 


Ontario 


Manitoba 


Saskatch- 
ewan 


Alberta 


British 
Columbia 




1911 


1921 


1911 


1921 


1911 


1921 


1911 


1921 


1911 


1921 


1911 


1921 


1911 


1921 


1911 


1921 


1911 


1921 


1911 


1921 




100 

77-98 

1116 

0-41 

10-44 

5-62 
0-94 
011 
0-28 
0-02 
0-07 
0-15 
0-24 
0-44 
0-55 
004 
0-05 
015 
010 
0-48 

0-29 

1-25 

0-39 

007 

0-57 
0-37 
0-12 
004 
003 
001 

4-21 


100 

77-75 

11-66 

0-45 

1013 

5-23 
0-65 
015 
001 
005 
0-08 
0-14 
0-22 
0-41 
0-29 
004 
007 
009 
008 
0-40 
002 
0-26 
0-33 
0-20 
115 
0-32 
004 
013 
004 

0-61 

0-42 
013 
004 
001 
0-01 

4-25 


100 
97-25 
1-49 
0-25 
1-00 
0-08 

001 
0-01 

0-01 
001 

002 
001 

002 
001 

001 
0-89 


100 

97-33 

0-94 

. 0-26 

1-46 

0-04 

001 

001 
001 

0-01 

004 
001 

0-03 
1-37 


100 

92-63 

3-35 

1-78 

2-23 

106 
012 
012 
002 
001 
0-01 

0-08 
0-05 
0-11 
0-01 
001 
007 

014 

0-02 

0-25 
"003 

001 

011 
003 

0-07 
001 

0-98 


100 
91-69 

3-16 

2-47 

2-67 

113 
007 
011 
0-01 
003 
002 

016 
002 
007 
002 
0-01 
0-02 

0-15 
001 
0-02 
011 
002 
0-22 
0-02 

002 
0-02 

014 
0-06 

0-08 
1-34 


100 

94-80 

2-66 

0-23 

2-31 

0-58 
001 
0-02 
003 

007 

0-05 

0-04 
0-01 
001 
0-01 

0-08 

0-04 

0-16 
004 

0-01 

007 
0-03 

004 
1-64 


100 

94-47 

2-46 

0-29 

2-77 

0-52 
002 
003 
001 

0-06 
001 
005 

0-03 
0-01 
0-01 

0-05 

004 
002 
001 
013 
003 

001 

011 
005 

0-06 
213 


100 

92-67 

3-45 

0-17 

.3-71 

205 
015 
007 
0-20 

0-01 
001 
0-30 
0-02 
009 
003 
0-01 
001 

0-32 

0-02 

0-76 
002 

003 

014 
008 

004 
001 
001 

1-49 


100 

92 01 

3-59 

0-22 

4-18 

2-21 
0-13 
0-10 

001 
001 
0-26 
003 
004 
005 
0-0! 
001 

0-33 

0-01 
012 
0-23 
0-77 
002 
0-02 
0-02 
004 

017 
0-09 

0-06 
001 
0-01 

1-78 


100 

79-99 

13-99 

0-20 

5-89 

3-44 
0-38 
002 
011 

003 
0-27 
0-07 
014 
0-59 
004 
003 
007 
001 
0-63 

006 

0-77 
015 

0-05 

0-22 
011 
001 
0-04 
005 
0-01 

2-20 


100 
78-13 
15-35 
0-30 
6-21 

3-51 

0-27 
0-08 
002 
003 
003 
0-27 
008 
013 
0-31 
0-05 
004 
003 

0-61 

002 
005 
0-44 
013 
0-67 
011 
0-03 
007 
004 

0-26 
018 
001 
0-05 

002 

2-41 


100 

58-64 

20-39 

0-21 

20-74 

16-92 
5-02 
0-50 
0-48 
004 
013 
0-03 
0-63 
2-61 
0-93 
01 
016 
0-2J 
111 
015 

0-31 

3-55 
0-84 

017 

0-24 
0-18 
001 
003 
0-01 
001 

3-54 


100 
63-55 
18-32 
0-21 
17-91 

14-08 

2-87 
0-54 

011 
015 
004 
0-48 
2-40 
0-37 
002 
017 
010 
0-78 
016 
001 
0-25 
0-94 
0-43 
2-83 
0-6.J 
007 
0-69 
005 

0-24 
0-21 
001 
002 

3-55 


100 

50-52 

16-28 

017 

33-02 

18-50 
3-22 
0-26 
1-35 
011 
O-20 
Oil 
O-60 
1-79 
1-63 
001 
013 
112 
0-27 
005 

1-55 

4-69 
1-26 

010 

0-31 
0-24 
0-01 
004 
0-01 
0-01 

14-14 


100 

60-44 

13 09 

015 

26-31 

14-30 
2-25 
0-28 
0-02 
0-12 
0-23 
010 
0-43 
1-28 
0-85 
003 
013 
0-62 
018 
0-05 
004 
1-22 
0-44 
0-97 
3-74 
0-97 
007 
0-28 
0-03 

0-40 
0-35 
001 
003 

0-01 

11-57 


100 

43-25 

18-23 

0-38 

38-13 

15-70 
2-83 
0-27 
0-95 
0-10 
0-37 
0-27 
0-49 
1-55 
1-63 
003 
0-30 
0-31 
0-06 
0-49 

1-54 

2-68 
1-70 

0-13 

0-59 
0-48 
0-06 
002 
001 
002 

21-74 


100 

53-55 

16-57 

0-31 

29-56 

11-85 
1-70 
0-28 
0-01 
0-19 
0-43 
0-21 
0-36 
116 
0-78 
004 
0-3J 
012 
0-04 
0-42 
0-03 
1-13 
0-50 
0-52 
1-97 
111 
013 
0-37 
0-06 

0-68 
0-58 
0-07 
002 
001 

16-97 


109 

43 14 

28-16 

1-90 

26-78 

10-22 
1-12 
0-20 
0-10 
0-10 
019 
0-54 
0-32 
015 
0-78 
017 
01J 
017 
006 
2-07 

0-95 

101 

1-81 

0-38 

6-88 
4-8J 
201 
003 
0-03 
0-01 

9-57 


100 




50-34 




29-31 




1-31 




19 02 




604 




0-27 




015 




001 




Oil 




0-18 




0-36 




0-26 




008 




0-29 




009 


Holland 


010 




0-04 




0-06 


Italy 


0-92 




009 




0-68 


Poland 


017 




0-06 




0-83 




109 




010 




004 


Other 


006 




6-22 




410 




208 




002 




001 




001 




6-66 







"a 
to 
O 

o 



to 
to 

o 

•*! 

Co 
►-3 
O 

Co 



< 
to 



to 
o 

"a 



Note.— Where percentage is omitted it is less than 1/100 of one per cent and so is negligible. 



TABLE 44 -PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF CONTINENTAL E UROPEAN BORN IN CANADA, BY PROVINCES AND GEOGRAPHICAL GROUPING 
mow t . QF COUNTRIES 0F BIRTH, 1911 AND 1921. 



Country of Birth 


Canada 


Prince 
Edward 
Island 


Nova 
Scotia 


New 
Brunswick 


Quebec 


Ontario 


Manitoba 


Saskatch- 
ewan 


Alberta 


British 
Columbia 




1911 


1921 


1911 


1921 


1911 


1921 


1911 


1921 


1911 


1921 


1911 


1921 


1911 


1921 


1911 


1921 


1911 


1921 


1911 


1921 


North Western European — 


Oil 
007 
0-24 
0-55 
005 
0-10 
0-29 
0-39 


Hi 
0-08 
0-22 
0-29 
007 
0-08 
0-26 
0-32 
004 


001 
001 

001 


001 
0-01 


012 
001 
0-08 
011 
001 

002 
003 


011 
0-02 
016 
007 
001 

0-02 
0-02 


0-02 
007 
0-05 
004 
001 

004 
0-04 


003 
0-06 
0-05 
0-03 
001 

0-04 
0-03 


0-07 
001 
0-30 
009 
0-01 

0-02 
002 


0-10 
0-01 
0-26 
004 
001 

0-01 
002 
002 


0-02 
003 
007 
' 0-59 
0-03 
001 
006 
015 


008 
003 
0-08 
0-31 
004 

005 
011 
003 


0-50 
013 
0-68 
0-93 
016 
1-11 
0-31 
0-84 


0-54 
015 
0-48 
0-37 
017 
0-78 
0-25 
0-65 
0-07 


0-26 
0-20 
0-60 
1-68 
0-13 
0-27 
1-55 
1-26 


0-28 
0-20 
0-43 
0-85 
013 
018 
1-22 
0-97 
0-07 


0-27 
0-37 
0-49 
1-63 
0-30 
006 
1-54 
1-70 


0-28 
0-40 
0-36 
0-78 
0-30 
0-04 
113 
111 
013 


0-20 
019 
0-32 
0-78 
0-10 
0-06 
0-95 
1-81 


015 




































1-80 


1-51 


003 


002 


0-38 


0-41 


0-27 


0-25 


0-52 


0-47 


0-96 


0-73 


4-66 


3-46 


5-95 


4-33 


6-36 


4-53 


4-41 


2-91 


Central, South and Eastern European — 


0-94 
0-28 
002 
015 
0-44 
004 
0-15 
0-48 

1-25 


0-6L 
001 
005 
014 
0-41 
004 
009 
0-40 
002 
0-33 
0-26 
115 
0-13 


001 
002 


001 
001 


012 
002 
001 

005 
001 
0-07 
014 

0-25 


0-07 
0-01 
003 

002 
002 
0-02 
015 
001 
011 
002 
0-22 
0-02 


001 
003 

0-01 
008 

016 


002 
001 

001 

0-05 

002 
001 
013 


015 
0-20 

0-01 
0-02 
003 
001 
0-32 

0-76 


013 

001 
0-03 
0-05 
001 
0-33 

012 
0-23 
0-77 
02 


0-38 
011 

0-27 
014 
004 
0-07 
0-65 

0-77 


0-27 
0-02 
003 
0-27 
013 
005 
003 
0-61 
0-02 
0-44 
013 
0-67 
007 


502 
0-48 
0-04 
003 
2-61 
001 
0-20 
015 

3-55 


2-87 

011 
004 
2-40 
0-02 
0-10 
016 
001 
0-94 
0-43 
2-80 
0-69 


3-22 
1-35 
011 
011 
1-79 
001 
112 
005 

4-60 


2-25 
0-02 
012 
010 
1-28 
0-03 
0-62 
005 
004 
0-44 
0-97 
3-74 
0-28 


2-83 
0-95 

•o-io 

0-27 
1-55 
003 
0-31 
0-49 

2-68 


1-70 
001 
0-19 
0-21 
116 
004 
012 
0-42 
0-05 
0-50 
0-52 
1-97 
0-37 


112 
010 
0-10 
0-54 
015 
0-17 
0-17 
2-07 

101 


0-27 




001 




011 




0-36 




0-08 




009 




004 




0-92 
009 
017 




006 




0-83 




004 


Total 


3-35 


3-68 


0-03 


002 


0-67 


0-70 


0-29 


0-25 


1-50 


,1-70 


2-43 


2-74 


12-09 


10-57 


12-45 


9-94 


9-21 


7-26 


5-43 


307 







Note. — Where percentage is omitted it is less than 1/100 of one per cent. 



feg 

ft) 

fcq 



Go 

to 

to 
cj 

o 
o 

CI 

to 
o 

"■3 

to 
o 
to 
>, 



TABLE 45.-PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF CONTINENTAL EUROPEAN BORN IN CANADA, BY PROVINCES AND LINGUISTIC GROUPING OF COUNTRIES 

OF BIRTH, 1911 AND 1921. 



Birthplace 


Canada 


Prince 
Edward 
Island 


Nova 
Scotia 


New 
Brunswick 


Quebec 


Ontario 


Manitoba 


Saskatch- 
ewan 


Alberta 


British 
Columbia 




1911 


1921 


1911 


1921 


1911 


1921 


1911 


1921 


1911 


1921 


1911 


1921 


1911 


1921 


1911 


1921 


1911 


1921 


1911 


1921 


Scandinavian — 


0-07 
0-10 
0-29 
0-39 


0-08 
0-08 
0-26 
0-32 


001 


0-01 


001 

0-02 
0-03 


002 

0-02 
002 


007 

004 
0-04 


0-06 

004 
003 


001 

0-02 
002 


001 

001 

002 


003 
001 
006 
015 


0-03 

0-05 
011 


013 
111 
"0-31 

0-84 


0-15 
0-78 
0-25 
0-65 


0-20 
0-27 
1-55 
1-26 


0-20 
0-18 
1-22 
0-97 


0-37 
006 
1-54 

1-70 


0-40 
0-04 
1-13 
111 


0-19 
006 
0-95 
1-81 


0-18 
0-06 
0-68 
1-09 










Total 


085 


0-74 


0-01 


001 


006 


006 


015 


0-13 


005 


004 


0-25 


019 


2-39 


1-83 


3-28 


2-57 


3-67 


2-68 


3-01 


201 




Germanic — 


011 
0-55 
0-05 


015 
0-29 
0-07 


001 


- 


012 
011 
0-01 


011 
007 
0-01 


002 
004 
0-01 


003 
003 
0-01 


0-07 
009 
001 


0-10 
0-04 
001 


0-02 
0-59 
003 


0-08 
0-31 

004 


0-50 
0-93 
0-16 


0-54 
0-37 
0-17 


0-26 
1-68 
013 


0-28 
0-85 
013 


0-27 
1 63 

0-30 


0-28 
0-78 
0-30 


0-20 
0-78 
0-10 


015 
0-29 
010 




Holland 




Total 


0-71 


0-51 


0-01 


- 


0-24 


019 


007 


0-07 


017 


0-15 


0-64 


0-43 


1-59 


1-08 


2-07 


1-26 


2-20 


1-36 


108 


0-54 




Latin and Cheek — 


004 
0-48 


0-04 
0-40 
0-26 


001 


001 


0-01 
014 


002 
015 
0-02 


001 
008 


0-05 
001 


003 
0-32 


005 
0-33 
0-23 


004 
0-6i 


0-05 
0-6! 

013 


0-01 
015 


002 
0-16 
0-43 


001 
005 


003 
0-05 
0-97 


0-03 
"0-49 


004 
0-42 
0-52 


017 
2-07 


009 
0-92 
006 


Italy 






Total '. 


0-52 


0-70 


001 


0-01 


015 


0-19 


0-09 


006 


0-35 


0-61 


0-69 

0-38 
0-77 
011 

014 


0-69 


016 


0-61 


006 


105 


0-52 


0-98 


2-24 


107 




Slavic — 


0-94 
1-25 
0-28 

0-44 


0-65 
1-15 
001 
002 
0-41 
002 
0-33 
0-13 


002 


001 


012 
0-25 
002 

005 


007 
0-22 
001 
0-01 
0-02 
001 
011 
0-02 


001 
016 
003 


0-02 
013 
001 

0-02 


0-15 
0-76 
0-20 

002 


0-13 
0-77 

003 

0-12 
002 


0-27 
0-67 
002 
002 
13 
0-02 
0-44 
0-07 


502 
3-55 
0-4S 

2-61 


2-87 
2-80 

001 
2-49 
001 
0-94 
0-69 


3-22 
4-69 
1-35 

1-79 


2-25 
3-74 
002 
0-04 
1-28 
0-04 
0-44 
0-28 


2-83 
2-68 
0-93 

1-55 


1-70 
1-97 
001 
005 
116 
0-05 
0-50 
0-3J 


1-12 
101 
010 

015 


0-27 
0-83 
001 
009 
008 
009 
017 
004 












Poland 






Total 


2-91 


2-72 


002 


0-01 


0-44 


0-47 


0-20 


018 


113 


107 


1-40 


1-64 


11-66 


9-72 


1105 


• 8-09 


8-01 


5-81 


2-38 


1-58 




Note. — Where percentage is omitted it is less than 


/100o 


one pe 


r cent. 





































*0 

So 
o 



&3 

•-a 
So 

to 
O 

o 

Co 

•-a 
o 
o 

& 
to 

So 
o 



-« TABLE 46 —SUMMARY TABLE SHOWING PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION BY BIRTHPLACE OF POPULATION OF CANADA AND THE PROVINCES, BY SPECIFIED 
£ GROUPINGS OF COUNTRIES OF BIRTH, 1911 AND 1921. 



Birthplace 


Canada 


Prince 
Edward 
Island 


Nova 
Scotia 


New 
Brunswick 


Quebec 


Ontario 


Manitoba 


Saskatch- 
ewan 


Alberta 


British 
Columbia 




1911 


1921 


1911 


1921 


1911 


1921 


1911 


1921 


1911 


1921 


1911 


1921 


1911 


1921 


1911 


1921 


1911 


1921 


1911 


1921 




77-98 
11-16 
10-44 
5-62 
1-80 
3-35 
0-85 
0-52 
0-71 
2-91 
0-57 
4-21 


77-75 
11-66 
10-13 
5-23 
1-51 
3-68 
0-74 
0-70 
0-51 
2-72 
0-61 
4-25 


97-25 
1-49 
1-00 
0-08 
0-03 
0-03 
001 
001 
001 
0-02 
002 
0-89 


97-33 
0-94 
1-46 
0-04 
002 
0-02 
001 
001 

0-01 
004 
1-37 


92-63 
3-35 
2-23 
1-06 
0-38 
0-67 
0-06 
0-15 
0-24 
0-44 
011 
0-98 


91-69 
3-16 
2-67 
113 
0-41 
0-70 
0-06 
019 
0-19 
0-47 
0-14 
1-34 


94-80 
2-66 
2-31 

0-58 
0-27 
0-29 
015 
0-09 
007 
0-20 
0-07 
1-64 


94-47 
2-46 
2-77 
0-52 
0-25 
0-25 
0-13 
006 
0-07 
018 
011 
213 


92-67 
3-45 
3-71 
205 
0-52 
1-50 
005 
0-35 
017 
113 
014 
1-49 


9201 
3-59 
4-18 
2-21 
0-47 
1-70 
0-04 
0-61 
0-15 
107 
017 
1-78 


79-90 
13-99 
5-89 
3-44 
0-96 
2-43 
0-25 
0-69 
0-64 
1-40 
0-22 
2-20 


78-13 
15-35 
6-21 
3-51 
0-73 
2-74 
0-19 
0-69 
0-43 
1-64 
0-26 
2-41 


58-64 

20-39 

20-74 

16-92 

4-66 

12-09 

2-39 

0-16 

1-59 

11-66 

0-24 

3-54 


63-55 

18-32 

17-91 

1408 

3-46 

10-57 

- 1-83 

0-61 

108 

9-72 

0-24 

' 3-55 


50-52 
16-28 
33-02 
18-50 
5-95 
12-45 
3-28 
0-06 
2-07 
1105 
0-31 
14 14 


60-44 

13-09 

26-31 

14-30 

4-33 

9-94 

2-57 

1-05 

1-26 

8-09 

0-40 

11-57 


43-25 
18-23 
38 13 
15-70 
6-36 
9-21 
3-67 
0-52 
2-20 
801 
0-59 
21-74 


53-55 

16-57 

29-56 

11-85 

4-53 

7-26 

2-68 

0-98 

1-36 

5-81 

0-68 

16-97 


43 14 

28-16 

26-78 

10-22 

4-41 

5-43 

3-01 

2-24 

1-08 

2-38 

6-88 

9-57 


50-34 




29-31 




1902 




6-04 




2-91 




3 07 




201 




107 




0-54 




1-58 




6-22 




6-66 







13 

tq 
to 
o 

^ 

Co 

O 
"=3 

O 

^- 

<; 
to 

ta 
t-< 

Co 

tg 
3 



ta 
to 
ta 

to 
O 
to 

^ 

to 
^ 

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to 
o 

o 

ta 



100 PROVINCIAL DISTRIBUTION OF STOCKS AND NATIVITY GROUPS 

Table 47 presents a summary from a different point of view. It ranks the provinces 
according to the relative density of the population by specified countries and groups of 
countries of birth. A few interesting facts may be mentioned. While Prince Edward Island 
has the largest percentage Canadian born, it shows the lowest proportion of immigrants 
from all countries except the United States, in which case it cedes its place at the foot of the 
list to Nova Scotia. British Columbia has the highest proportion born in the British Isles, 
in Latin and Greek countries and in Asia. Alberta has the highest percentage foreign born; 
thia province also leads in the proportion born in the United States and in Scandinavian 
and Germanic countries. Manitoba has the highest proportion of South, Eastern and Central 
Europeans and also the largest proportion of Slavic birth. 

The summary Table 46 yields some interesting information from still another angle. 
It shows the relative importance of the foreign born of the various stocks in the population 
of the respective provinces. In Prince Edward Island, out of 1-46 p.c. foreign born, 
1-37 p.c. came from the United States. It. is thus seen that' the only significant immigra^ 
tion to Prince Edward Island was from the country to the south. In Nova Scotia out of 
2-67 p.c. foreign born, one-half came from the United States and a little less than half from 
Europe, and in New Brunswick, with a little less than 3 p.c. foreign born, some three- 
quarters of that number reported themselves as of United States birth. Thus, in the Mari- 
time Provinces, while the actual percentages of foreign born are comparatively small, the 
great bulk of them came from the. Eastern States. In the Maritimes, with the exception 
of Prince Edward Island, the proportion of immigrants born in the British Isles was greater 
than that born in all foreign countries put together. 

In Quebec, on the other hand, there was a slightly larger percentage foreign born than 
born in the British Isles. Of the 4£ p.c. foreign born more than half were from Europe and 
the majority of them were born in Slavic countries. Practically the whole of the balance 
came from the United States. ' 

In Ontario the proportion of British bom immigrants is two and a half times as great 
as the foreign born, Ontario being unique in this respect. Of the 6-21 p.c. foreign born, 
over half were from Europe and 2-4'l p.c. from the United States. Of the Continental 
Europeans the majority came from South, Eastern and Central countries, those born in 
Slavic countries contributing the largest proportion. 

As we pass westward the proportion of foreign and British born is reversed. In the 
East, Quebec excepted, the British born formed a larger proportion of the population than 
did the foreign born. In Manitoba the numbers born in the British Isles and in foreign 
countries were approximately equal. In Saskatchewan there were twice as many foreign 
born as were bom in the British Isles, and in Alberta the same tendency is marked, though 
not to quite the same extent. 

In Manitoba, of the 17-9 p.c. foreign born in the population, about three-quarters were 
from Europe and one-quarter from the United States. In Saskatchewan, of the 26-31 p.c. 
foreign bom, three-fifths were from. Europe and two-fifths from tflie United States, and in 
Alberta the proportion born in the United' States was considerably larger than the number 
of European birth. Thus American immigration tends to become relatively more impor- 
tant in passing from East to West, the percentage of American born being largest in 
Alberta. In British Columbia the relative importance of American immigration" declines 
again.' 

Manitoba showed three-quarters of her foreign born from European countries and it is 
interesting to note the distribution of their places of birth. Those bom in South, Eastern 
and Central Europe were three times as numerous as those coming from northern and 
western points of the Continent, and nine-tenths of them were bom in Slavic countries. 
Indeed, in Manitoba there were aHmost three times as many of Slavic birth as were born 
in all Northern European countries. Of the North Western Europeans those of Scandinavian 
birth were slightly in excess of those born in Germanic countries. 

Saskatchewan had twice as many foreign bom as were bom in the British Isles and 
considerably more than half of those were of European birth. It had a larger proportion 



CANADIAN AND ELSEWHERE BORN IN THE PROVINCES 



101 



of North Western Europeans than had Manitoba. The South, Eastern and Central Europeans 
were twice as numerous as those of North Western European birth, while in Manitoba their 
numbers were 'three times as great. 

In Alberta, of the foreign born, those coming from South, Eastern and Central Europe, 
while much more numerous than those from the North and West, did not constitute such 
an overwhelming percentage as in Manitoba or Saskatchewan. Yet there were more Slavs 
than Scandinavians and more Scandinavians than Germans, just as in the other Prairie 
Provinces. 

Because of the large percentage of British extraction among the United States born 
coming to Canada, Alberta, though showing by far the largest percentage foreign born of 
all the provinces in Canada, is not so foreign in the composition of its population as the 
crude figures suggest. Probably Saskatchewan and' Alberta have a much larger percentage 
of immigrants of other than British origin, but the large proportion coming from the United 
States should be very caTefully considered in any investigation designed to determine with 
precision the percentages of immigrants of foreign stocks in the western provinces. 

British Columbia, showing a slightly larger percentage of foreign born than Manitoba, 
is unique in that the proportions of the foreign born are about equally divided. between 
Europe, Asia and the United States. With 6-04 p.c. of European birth, 6-22 p.c. of Asiatic 
birth and 6-66 p.c. born in the United States, we have in this province a different alignment 
of immigration from foreign countries than that obtaining dn any other province of Canada. 
Furthermore, as in Ontario, there is a far larger percentage of British born in the population 
than of foreign born. 

That there are great differences in the distribution of immigration between the prov- 
inces must be apparent, and in so far as differences in composition make for difference in 
culture in the widest sense of the term, such material as has been presented seems to merit 
very careful consideration. 



TABLE 47. 



-PROVINCES RANKED ACCORDING TO PERCENTAGE OF POPULATION OF SPECIFIED 
BIRTHPLACE IN 1921. 



Rank 


Canada 


British 
Isles 


Foreign 
Coun- 
tries 


N.W. 
Europe 


S.E. 
and C. 
Europe 


Scandi- 
navian 
Coun- 
tries 


Ger- 
manic 
Coun- 
tries 


Latin, 
Greek 
Coin- 
tries 


Slavic 
Coun- 
tries 


U.S.A. 


Asiatic 
Coun- 
tries 


1 


P.E.I. 

N.B. 

Que. 

N.S. 

Ont. 

Man. 

Sask. 

Alta. • 

B.C. 


B.C. 

Man. 

Alta. 

Ont. 

Sask. 

Que. 

N.S. 

N.B. 

P.E.I. 


Alta. 

Sask. 

B.C. 

Man. 

Ont. 

Que. 

N.B. 

N.S. 

P.E.I. 


Alta. 

Sask. 

Man. 

B.C. 

Ont. 

Que. 

N.S. 

N.B. 

P.E.I. 


Man. 

Sask. 

Alta. 

B.C. 

Ont. 

Que. 

N.S. 

N.B. 

P.E.I. 


Alta. 
Sask. 
B.C. 
Man. 

l 


Alta. 

Sask. 

Man. 

Ont. 

B.C. 

N.S. 

Que. 

N.B. 

P.E.I. 


B.C. 

Sask. 

Alta. 

Ont. 

Man. 

Que. 

N.S. 

N.B. 

P.E.I. 


Man. 

Sask. 

Alta. 

Ont. 

B.C. 

Que. 

N.S. 

N.B. 

P.E.I. 


Alta. 

Sask. 

B.C. 

Man. 

Ont. 

N.B. 

Que. 

P.E.I. 

N.S. 


B.C. 


2 


Alta. 


3 


Sask. 


4 


Man. 


5 


Ont. 


6 


Que. 


7 

8 

9 


N.S. 
N.B. 
P.E.I. 







1 Negligible. 

As further illustrating these differences, Table 48 divides the immigrants resident in 
each province in 1921 into two classes, namely, foreign and British born. While for the 
Dominion, over one-half of those born outside Canada came from the British Empire, 
slightly more than two-thirds of the immigrants to Nova Scotia were British born. In 
Prince Edward Island, slightly more than half were born in foreign countries — chiefly from 
the United States. The numbers of British born and foreign born were approximately equal 
in New Brunswick; a slightly larger percentage of foreign born is shown in the case of 
Quebec, but in Ontario nearly three-quarters of the immigrants were of British birth. In 
Manitoba, as in New Brunswick, the proportions were equal. On the other hand, two- 
thirds of the immigrants in Saskatchewan and Alberta were born in foreign countries and 
only one-third were of British birth. In British Columbia the percentages of Saskatchewan 
and Alberta are reversed; almost two-thirds of all immigrants were British born. Thus, 
immigration to British Columbia, Ontario and Nova Scotia showed the largest proportions 
British born, and that going to Saskatchewan and Alberta the largest proportions foreign 
born. 



102 PROVINCIAL DISTRIBUTION OF STOCKS AND NATIVITY GROUPS 



TABLE 48— PERCENTAGES OF FOREIGN BORN AND BRITISH BORN AMONG THE IMMIGRANT 

POPULATION, BY PROVINCES, 1921. 



Province 


P.O. 

Foreign 
born 


P.c. 

British 
born 




45-52 
54-59 
32-15 
50-09 
52-35 
28-38 
49-13 
66-51 
63-64 
38-30 
62-30 


54-48 




45-41 




67-85 




49-91 




47-65 




71-62 




50-87 




33-49 




36-36 




61-70 




37-70 







THE EXTENT TO WHICH EACH PROVINCE HAS SHARED IN THE TOTAL 

IMMIGRATION 

Hitherto our discussion has centred on the proportion of the foreign stocks among the 
population in each province, and more particularly of the foreign born portions of specified 
stocks. It is interesting further to see how the provinces have been sharing in the actual 
number of immigrants coming to Canada. Table 49 presents this material for British 
and foreign born. 

Of the total, Ontario has received the largest percentage of the British immigrants 
resident in Canada at the date of the census — over 40 p.c; British Columbia came second 
with 15 p.c. and the Prairie Provinces have received about 10 p.c. for each province. Ontario 
has resident within her boundaries as many imimigrants from the British Isles as the whole 
of the West. Quebec, with 8.4 p.c, is the only other eastern province which has received 
any considerable number of British immigrants. 

The table further shows definite grounds for the current opinion as to the very small 
percentage of British immigrants stopping in the Maritime Provinces. That this holds 
true also for the foreign immigrants is shown in the lower section of the table. 

It' is of considerable significance that as regards foreign born, one of the western 
provinces leads in the percentage of total foreign-born residents in 1921, .Saskatchewan 
having 22.4 p.c. of all the foreign born residents of Canada. While in the case of the 
British born Ontario showed almost as many in actual numbers as the entire West, the 
four western provinces combined have three times as many foreign born residents as 
Ontario. Thus in this generation an overwhelming majority of the immigrants of foreign 
stocks have gone West. The result has been to make the composition of itihe population 
in the eastern and western parts of Canada entirely different, and it is reasonable to suppose 
that the cultural, educational and political consequences will be more marked as this move- 
ment proceeds. 

TABLE 49.-PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF BRITISH BORN AND FOREIGN BORN IMMIGRANTS 
BY YEAR OF ARRIVAL IN CANADA, FOR THE NINE PROVINCES, 1921. 

(A) Pebcentage Distribution op British Immigrants by Year of Arrival in Canada. 



Province 


Total 


1919- 
June 
1921 


1915- 
1918 


1911- 
1914 


1900- 
1910 


Before 

1900 


Year 

not 

stated 




100-0 

0-1 

2-8 

1-0 

8-4 

431 

10-6 

9-4 

9-3 

151 

0-1 


100-0 

0-1 
3-5 
1-2 
7-9 

45-7 
9-9 
8-8 
9-7 

131 


100-0 

01 

7-4 

2-0 
12-2 
39-2 

8-4 
10-2 

9-4 
11-1 


100-0 

1-9 
0-7 
8-4 
43-5 
10-9 
9-4 
10-2 
14-9 


100-0 

' 2-4 
0-7 
7-6 
37-8 
11-8 
11-5 
110 
17-1 


1000 

0-3 
3-2 
1-6 
8-9 

52-2 
9-1 
5-7 
4-8 

14-2 


100-0 
0-4 














17-9 


















101 




3-4 







NUMBER OF IMMIGRANTS IN EACH PROVINCE 



103 



(B) Percentage Distribution of Foreign Immigrants by Year op Arrival in Canada. 



Province 


Total 


1919- 
June 
1921 


1915- 
1918 


1911- 
1914 


1900- 
1910 


Before 
1900 


Year 

not 

stated 




100-0 

01 
1-6 
1-2 
11-1 
20-5 
12-3 
22-4 
19-5 
11-2 
0-1 


100-0 

0-3 

2-1 

1-9 

12-7 

30-1 

8-2 

13-7 

18-9 

12-1 


1000 

0-3 
2-0 
1-8 
10-6 
19-5 
6-8 
20-3 
25-9 
12-8 


100-0 

01 
1-7 
0-9 
10-4 
22-5 
11-5 
24-0 
19-2 
9-7 


100-0 

0-1 
1-2 
0-8 
9-9 
15-4 
13-5 
26-9 
21-9 
10-3 


100-0 

0-2 
1-8 
1-9 
13-3 
24-8 
16-2 
15-0 
11-7 
151 


100-0 




0-5 




2-4 




3-5 




24-3 




25-4 




6-9 




11-4 




10-9 




8-2 




6-4 







NUMBER OF IMMIGRANTS EN EACH PROVINCE 

Before dosing this chapter reference should be made to the numerical distribution of the 
foTeign born for a few of the important countries from which Canada draws her immi- 
grants. This- is done in Table 50. Little comment is necessary in this connection, for the 
facts are presented very clearly in the table. However, a few points are worthy of special 
notice. Of the foreign born in Canada, more have come from the United States than from 
any other single country, and of those Alberta has received by far the most, with 
Saskatchewan coming second and Ontario third. 

Russia has contributed to this country the second largest number of immigrants, and 
the province of Saskatchewan has received more of these than has any other province. 
Ontario, Quebec and Manitoba have received about the same numbers each, and about 
one-third less than Saskatchewan. 

Those of Austrian birth are concentrated in .the two provinces of Manitoba and 
Saskatchewan in albout equal numbers, each of these provinces having almost twice as 
many Austrian born as Alberta or Ontario. 

It is rather surprising to find that those of Chinese birth stand fourth in numbers 
among the foreign born in Canada. As has been pointed out, the great bulk of them are 
in British Columbia. 

The province of Ontario has almost as many Italians as the rest of Canada put together. 
While the largest numbers of Russians, Austrians and Galicians are either in Manitoba 
or Saskatchewan, the largest number of Poles is in Ontario. Ontario has twice as many 
Poles as any other province. 

The Swedes rank eighth among the foreign born. Of all the provinces, Saskatchewan 
has the largest number. . Alberta comes second and Manitoba third, with about half as 
many as the province of Saskatchewan. 

Finally, the largest number of German immigrants is found in the province of Ontario, 
with Saskatchewan in second place. 



TABLE 50— NUMBER OF FOREIGN BORN FROM NINE MAIN COUNTRIES OF BIRTH, 

PROVINCES, 1921. 



BY 



Country of birth 


Canada 


Prince 
Edward 
Island 


Nova 
Scotia 


New 
Bruns- 
wick 


Quebec 


Ontario 


Mani- 
toba 


Saskat- 
chewan 


Alberta 


British 
Colum- 
bia 




374,024 
101,055 
57,535 
36,924 
36,025 
35,531 
29,279 
27, 700 
25,266 


1,215 
6 
2 
12 

4 
2 
2 
2 


7,016 
1,129 
375 
317 
92 
801 
593 
115 
388 


8,268 

525 

77 

177 

8 

191 

73 

' 137 

112 


42,124 

18,282 

3,052 

2,186 

594 

7,906 

2,735 

455 

972 


70, 729 
19,776 
8,045 
5,394 
3,760 
17,918 
13,023 
3.302 
8,962 


21,644 

17,082 

17,529 

1,279 

14,656 

979 

5,705 

3.948 

2,227 


87,617 

28,315 

17,040 

2,613 

9,686 

383 

3,303 

7,381 

6,409 


99,879 
11,572 
9,981 
3,422 
6,807 
2,486 
2,959 
6,535 
4,606 


34,926 




4,354 




1,415 




21,523 




422 


Italy 


4,847 


Poland 


874 




5,735 




1,537 







CHAPTER V 

THE URBAN AND RURAL DISTRIBUTION OF THE POPULATION 
OF VARIOUS STOCKS IN CANADA 

It is important in studying assimilation to know which stocks tend to concentrate in 
rural districts and those which congregate in urban parts. The influences of rural and 
urban surroundings are in many respects quite different, and a study of the rural and 
, urban distribution of the various stocks and of the foreign born, will be seen to throw 
■considerable -light on such questions as intermarriage, literacy, naturalization, infant mortal- 
ity and many others. 

Certain outstanding questions present themselves in this connection. First, what 
peoples concentrate in urban districts and to what extent? Which stocks tend to congregate 
in large cities? How do the stocks differ in their rural and urban distribution as between 
provinces? Are the men or women more urban and why? To the above questions, and 
to some others, this chapter suggests answers. 

It might foe mentioned in passing that there are two extreme conditions respecting 
urban and rural distribution very unfavourable to the assimilation of the foreigner. First, 
rural isolation, and secondly, the tendency too often observed in large cities, for particular 
•stocks to segregate in separate wards or districts. Consequently, in relating the material in 
this section to the aspects of the assimilation problem discussed in the latter part of this 
report, both of the above points should be kept clearly in mind. 

In order to avoid a confusing multiplicity of figures attention is centred on the per- 
centage urban throughout this section. A high percentage urban for a given stock naturally 
implies a correspondingly low percentage in rural districts and vice versa. Such inferences as 
a rule are left to the reader. The distinction between rural and urban is that followed 
by the census ; " urban " includes those living in all incorporated cities, towns and villages, 
while the balance of the population is tabulated as " rural ". 

PERCENTAGE OF URBAN RESIDENTS AMONG THE IMMIGRANT POPULATION 
FOR CANADA AND THE PROVINCES 

Table 51 gives the percentage urban of the immigrant population by countries of 
•birth for Canada and for each .province. Tables 52 and 53 group the European born 
other' than British and French into geographical and linguistic classes, showing the percent- 
age urban for the total population in each group. Finally, Table 54 presents a summary 
for specified groups of origins. 

Beginning with Canada as a whole, it is to be remembered that during the past three 
or four decades there has been a radical shifting in the distribution of the population as 
between urban and rural districts. Table 19 in Volume I of the Census shows that while 
in 1891 only 31.80 p.c. of the population was urban, by 1921 just under 50 p.c. lived in 
incorporated cities, towns and villages. The change has been continuous throughout the 
period. In this shifting of the population from rural to urban districts Canada is by no 
means unique. The same change has characterized virtually all western nations to a greater 
or less degree during the past century. 

In Table 51, column 1, the foreign born in Canada appear with a lower percentage 
urban than the population as a whole. Of the total population 49.52 p.c. were classed as 
resident in urban districts in 1921 and of the foreign born only 45.68 p.c. Of all foreign 
groups, the Asiatics show the most marked propensities for urban life. Some 65.50 p.c. of 
those immigrants lived in urban districts. It is perhaps surprising to find the immigrants 

104 



PERCENTAGE OF URBAN RESIDENTS IN IMMIGRANT POPULATION 105 

from the British Isles, with 64.88 p.o. urban, standing second only to the Asiatics in this 
respect. That British immigration up to date has been directed in such large proportions 
to our cities and towns is of marked significance. 

In contrast with the Asiatics and also with those born in the British Isles, immigrants 
from Europe are less urban than the .population as a whole, while those from the United 
States show a smaller proportion urban than the Europeans. In both cases the percentages 
urban are considerably below that for the total population, and if comparisons be made 
between immigrants from the British Isles, and from Europe and the United States, respect- 
ively, there is a difference of between 19 and 1 22 p.c. in the proportions urban. Obviously, 
Continental Europeans, as well as United States immigrants, include a larger proportion 
of agriculturists, while among the British large numbers follow commercial, manufacturing 
and professional pursuits. 

Table 52 gives the percentages urban for the European born, by geographical grouping 
of countries of birth. North Western Europeans are considerably less urban than those from 
South, Eastern and Central Europe. The percentage urban in the former case is 34.50, 
while for the latter group it is 50-12. These figures suggest a very real difference between 
the people who come from these two sections of the continent, and because of the differing 
conditions of life in urban and rural districts, it is only to be expected that such a marked 
difference in territorial distribution would be reflected in the type and extent of the adjust- 
ments which the foreign born have made and are making to their new Canadian home. 

TABLE 51— PERCENTAGE URBAN OF IMMIGRANT POPULATION, BY COUNTRY OF BIRTH, FOR 
. CANADA AND THE PROVINCES, 1921. 



Conntry of Birth 



Canada 

P.O. 


Prince 
Edward 
Island 


Nova 
Scotia 


New 
Biuns- 
wick 


Quebec 
p.c. 


Ontario 
p.c. 


Manitoba 
p.c. 


Saskat- 
chewan 


Alberta 
p.c. 


Urban 


p.c. 
Urban 


Urban 


p.c. 
Urban 


Urban 


Urban 


Urban 


Urban 


Urban 


49-52 


21-55 


43-34 


32-08 


56-01 


58-17 


42-88 


28-90 


37-88 


45-68 


25-33 


63-56 


42-64 


84-70 


72-09 


42-16 


21-48 


25-81 


64-88 


37-80 


67-83 


51-96 


91-27 


73-32 


58-81 


43-02 


55-56 


76-22 


53 02 


86-62 


72-43 


93-37 


82-51 


68-44 


45-70 


55-39 


45-75 


63-89 


78-42 


51-55 


93-32 


71-04 


40-66 


18-49 


22-91 


35-33 


500 


75-20 


53-25 


94-46 


60-97 


31-78 


21-86 


23-61 


40-64 


■ - 


77-87 


13-04 


87-74 


24-06 


32-81 


14-75 


29-90 


52-83 


- 


95-65 


45-45 


88-68 


59-21 


90-00 


11-59 


32-08 


41-42 


- 


42-69 


20-00 


77-27 


85-30 


51-25 


16-72 


32-19 


31-49 


100-0 


71-43 


23-08 


82-24 


57-11 


35-24 


18-42 


19-64 


33-31 


- 


62-50 


52-38 


31 15 


41-01 


19-12 


6-75 


10-21 


52-37 


37-50 


68-67 


25-14 


82-73 


68-87 


27-35 


18-03 


34-77 


24-39 


- 


89-13 


87-50 


92-26 


68-94 


26-15 


9-72 


10-84 


37-24 


- 


56-44 


26-79 


77-06 


52-27 


39-65 


19-86 


20-63 


89-33 


100-0 


97-59 


95-24 


99-10 


89-66 


93-23 


89-14 


78-80 


40-90 


- 


62-74 


68-75 


91-40 


61-53 


36-18 


25-41 


30-14 


37-50 


- 


80-68 


- 


96-89 


66-90 


63-19 


24-80 


32-61 


37-57 


- 


100-00 


- 


100-00 


65-69 


40-74 


23-61 


34-85 


75-81 


75-0 


80-90 


25-13 


94-08 


79-36 


86-01 


31-85 


42-44 


49-69 


- 


97-92 


25-00 


93-33 


58-64 


77-33 


42-41 


3511 


21-86 


- 


69-66 


41-33 


87-28 


65-89 


31-20 


12-01 


15-51 


67-30 


100-0 


83-98 


89-04 


93-67 


86-06 


57-69 


23-28 


29-27 


51 12 


100-0 


94-39 


78-00 


97-28 


80-07 


49-16 


16-07 


18-45 


56-25 


100-0 


92-29 


91-24 


97-46 


86-82 


58-66 


20-53 


30-38 


24-60 


50-0 


51-30 


35-04 


87-03 


44-94 


33-61 


12-63 


15-38 


44-64 


- 


71-43 


75-00 


85-88 


64-15 


38-83 


18-87 


27-33 


41-85 


- 


100-00 


50-00 


96-90 


83-20 


37-92 


25-72 


13-63 


66-75 


- 


82-65 


57-50 


94-01 


82-26 


49-82 


15-89 


21-30 


65-50 


88-57 


90-96 


84-90 


96-45 


92-57 


85-60 


87-54 


74-44 


71-66 


- 


98-11 


94-92 


99-04 


94-77 


86-94 


93-99 


79-05 


38-16 


- 


83-33 


100-00 


92-00 


77-55 


88-10 


77-32 


36-90 


85-02 


- 


87-38 


74-18 


93-76 


90-50 


74-17 


26-87 


57-80 


84-54 


- 


77-78 


100-00 


89-34 


88-72 


80-77 


52-17 


85-19 


75-32 


- 


50 00 


- 


89-10 


78-44 


73-08 


62-00 


50-00 


42-63 


22-22 


47-73 


38-24 


72-93 


71-46 


44-99 


22-89 


25-88 



British 

Columbia 

p.o. 

Urban 



Total population 

Total foreign born. . . 

British Isles 

British Possessions. 

Europe 

Austria 

Belgium 

Bulgaria 

' Czechoslovakia. . . 

Denmark 

Finland 

France 

Galicia 

Germany 

Greece 

Holland 

Hungary 

Iceland 

Italy 

Jugo-Slavia 

Norway 

Poland.... 

Roumonia 

Russia 

Sweden 

Switzerland 

Ukraine 

Others 

Asia 

China 

Japan 

Syria 

Turkey 

Other 

United States 



47-19 

43-88 

50-99 
49-29 

36-15 
39-51 
45-57 
26-47 
25-81 
39-66 
29-74 
46-29 
28-20 
38-84 
67-70 
37-28 
52-91 
39-81 
52-73 
37-85 
33-58 
49-66 
34-97 
22-37 
26-89 
33-13 
23-71 
42-01 

50-82 
57-70 
36-98 
77-57 
70-37 
50-00 
44-44 



106 



URBAN AND RURAL DISTRIBUTION OF VARIOUS STOCKS 



TABLE 52 — PERCENTAGE URBAN OF CONTINENTAL EUROPEAN BORN, FOR CANADA AND THE 
PROVINCES, BY GEOGRAPHICAL GROUPING OF COUNTRIES OF BIRTH, 1921. 



Country of birth 


Canada 

P.O. 

urban 


Prince 
Edward 
Island 

P.O. 

urban 


Nova 

Scotia 

p.c. 

urban 


New 
Bruns- 
wick 
p.c. 
urban 


Quebec 

p.c. 

urban 


Ontario 

p.c. 

urban 


Manitoba 

p.c. 

urban 


Saskat- 
chewan 
p.c. 
urban 


Alberta 

p.c. 

urban 


British 

Columbia 

p.c. 

urban 


North Western European- 


40-64 
31-49 
52-37 
37-24 
40-90 
37-57 
21-86 
24-60 
44-64 


100 00 
37-50 

50-00 


77-87 
71-43 
68-67 
56-44 
62-74 
100-00 
69-66 
51-30 
71-43 


13 04 
23-08 
2514 
26-79 
68-75 

41-33 
35-04 
75-00 


87-74 
82-24 
82-73 
77-06 
91-40 
100-00 
87-28 
87-03 
85-88 


24-06 
57-11 
68-87 
52-27 
61-53 
65-69 
55-89 
44-94 
64-15 


32-81 ' 
35-24 
■ 27-35 
39-65 
36-18 
40-74 
31-20 
33-61 
38-83 


14-75 
18-42 
18-03 
19-86 
25-41 
23-61 
1201 
12-63 
18-87 


29-20 
19-64 
34-77 
20-63 
30-14 
34-85 
15-51 
15-38 
27-33 


45-67 




39-66 




46-29 




38-84 


Holland 


37-28 




39-81 




33-58 




26-89 




33-13 






Total 


34-50 


i 


68-04 


28-94 


84-31 


51-25 


34-99 


15-75 


20-63 


33-98 






South, Eastern and Central 
European — 


35-33 
52-83 
41-42 
33-31 
24-39 
89-33 
37-50 
75-81 
49-69 
67-30 
51-12 
56-25 
41-85 


50-00 

100-00 

75 00 

100-00 
100-00 
100-00 
1 


75-20 
95-65 
42-69 
62-50 
89-13 
97-59 
80-68 
80-90 
97-92 
83-98 
94-39 
92-29 
100-00 


53-25 
45-45 
20-00 
62-38 
87-50 
95-24 

25-13 
25-00 
89-04 
78-00 
91-24 
50-00 


94-46 
88-68 
77-27 
31-15 
92-26 
99-10 
96-89 
94-08 
93-33 
93-67 
97-28 
97-46 
96-90 


60-97 
59-21 
85-30 
41-01 
66-94 
89-66 
66-90 
79-36 
58-64 
86-06 
80-07 
86-82 
83-20 


31-78 
90-00 
51-25. 
19-12 
26- 15 
93-23 
63-19 
86-01 
77-33 
57-69 
49-16 
58-66 
37-92 


21-86 
11-59 
16-72 
6-75 
9-72 
89-14 
24-80 
31-85 
42-41 
'23-28 
1607 
20-53 
25-72 


23-61 
32-08 
32-19 
10-21 
10-84 
78-80 
32-61 
42-44 
3511 
29-27 
18-45 
30-38 
13-63 


39-51 




26-47 




25-81 
29-74 




28-20 




67-70 




52-91 


Italy 


52-73 




37-85 


Poland 


49-66 




34-97 




22-37 




23-71 






Total 


50-12 


- 


84-40 


72-63 


95-98 


76-06 


42-47 


19-69 


24-36 


3809 







1 Numbers too small for percentages to be significant. 

When the foreign bora are classed in linguistic groups (Table 53, p. 108) , the Scandina- 
vians are found to be the least urban of all. The German group, with a percentage of only 
38-74 living in urban districts, ranks second, but there is a considerable difference between 
the percentages for these two groups, the figure for the Scandinavians being only 25*75 p.c. 
Of the Slavs and the Latins and Greeks, on the other hand, much larger percentages live 
in incorporated cities, towns and villages. The percentage for the former is 46-88 and for 
the Latins and Greeks 63-97 p.c. — just a fraction under the percentage urban for the immi- 
grants from the British Isles. Among the Continental Europeans, the Scandinavians are 
by far the most rural and the Latins and Greeks by far the most unban. Just two and 
one-half times as large a proportion of the Latin and Greek immigrants live in urban 
communities as of the Scandinavians. 

Turning now to a more detailed examination, attention is called to the peculiarities of the 
populations of the specified birthplaces. Of the North Western Europeans, immigrants 
from France and Switzerland are the most urban; the Belgians and the Dutch follow with 
between 40 and 41 p.c; the Germans and Icelanders are still less urban. The most rural 
of the immigrants from the northwest of Europe are the Swedes and Norwegians. Indeed, 
of all stocks the Norwegians and Swedes show the largest percentages living ' in rural 
districts. 

Of the immigrants from South, Eastern and Central Europe, the percentage urban of 
the Greeks is most marked; in fact, of all immigrant peoples coming to Canada, the Greeks 
show the most marked tendency to concentrate in urban districts. The Italians also show 
a very high figure of urbanization, with something over 75 p.c. of Italian immigrants living 
in incorporated cities, towns and villages. These two are in a class by themselves, in 
comparison with the other South, Eastern and Central Europeans. Passing from the south 
to the east of Europe we find that the Poles are a very unban people, that the Russians 
show a proportion 7 p.c. higher than the percentage urban for the total population, and that 
the figure for Roumanians and Bulgarians is also slightly above the average for the whole 
of Canada. The least urban of all South, Eastern and Central Europeans are those born in 



URBAN RESIDENTS AMONG THE IMMIGRANT POPULATION 107 

Galicia, with a percentage practically equal to that for the Swedes. The Finns, Austrians 
and Hungarians, with percentages ranging between 35 and 40 p.c, are also considerably less 
urban than the average for the group, or for the population as a whole. The proportions 
for the balance of the South, Eastern and Central European group are between 40 p.c. 
and 50 p.c. urban. 

It is difficult, therefore, to speak of the urban distribution of the South, Eastern and 
Central Europeans as, a group because of the great variation in the extent to which 
immigrants from the respective countries in that section of Europe exhibit a predisposition 
to urban life. While on the average the South, Eastern and Central Europeans are much 
more urban than immigrants from North Western Europe, settlers from such countries as 
Galicia, Finland and Austria show appreciably smaller percentages of urban domicile in 
Canada than does the total North Western European group. 

However, in turning to certain linguistic groupings (Table 53) less variation appears, 
which seems to suggest that the tendency to urban Life is associated with peculiarities of 
cultural rather than geographical origin. The Scandinavian immigrants show a more or less 
uniformly low percentage urban. While the figure for the Icelanders is somewhat higher 
than the average, on the whole the immigrants from Iceland have been longer in Canada 
than those from any other European country, and the tendency to move cityward, which 
increases with residence on this side of the ocean, should be more marked in their case. It 
is impossible with the data at hand to trace the movement of the Icelandic population within 
the country, but the comparatively small immigration from Iceland since the beginning of the 
century would favour the cityward movement of the oIder_ settlers being reflected in the 
percentage of the urban to the total population in 1921. 

Among the Germanic peoples the uniformity in the proportions of the immigrants urban 
and rural is very marked; The percentage of urban for the group is higher than that for the 
Scandinavians, and with the exception of very minor overlapping as between the Germans 
and Icelanders, the percentage for every element in the Germanic group is higher than the 
highest in the Scandinavian. 

Among the Latins and Greeks, however, no such uniformity is discernible. The lowest 
percentage urban an that group is 10 points higher than the highest in the Germanic group, 
but the figures for the Greeks and Italians are far above those for the French and Rouman- 
ians. As a group the Latins and Greeks clearly tend toward urban life, but within the 
group itself the decided aversion to rural life displayed by immigrants from Greece and 
Italy places them in a class by tihemselves. 

What has been said as to lack of uniformity among the Latins and Greeks in respect 
of percentages living in urban districts, may be reiterated of the Slavic peoples. They 
differ radically in concentration in urban districts. The Galician immigrants, with less 
than a quarter of theim living in incorporated cities, towns and villages in Canada, may be 
contrasted with the Poles, who have over two-thirds of their numbers living in urban 
communities. Such differences are difficult to explain. The Poles and Russians show the 
highest percentages of urban immigrants, and from those two countries a very large pro- 
portion of our Jewish immigrants come. As will be shown later, of all origins in Canada, 
the Jews show by far the highest percentage in our largest cities, and with a considerable 
proportion of immigrants from those two countries of Jewish extraction it is not surprising 
that the percentage urban among those born in Poland and Russia should be somewhat 
higher than for the other Slavic countries. Just how far this accounts for the differences 
cannot be ascertained, and just what other forces and influences are at work to bring about 
the remarkable variation in percentages, can only be discovered and evaluated after careful 
study. It is questionable, however, whether the proportion of Polish Jews among the immi- 
grants of Polish birth is large enough to account for the extremely high percentage of urban 
residents shown by that group. 



108 



URBAN AND RURAL DISTRIBUTION OF VARIOUS STOCKS 



TABLE 53— PERCENTAGE URBAN OF CONTINENTAL EUROPEAN BORN, FOR CANADA AND THE 
PROVINCES, BY LINGUISTIC GROUPING OF COUNTRIES OF BIRTH, 1921. 



Country of birth 


Canada 

p.c. 

urban 


Prince 

Edward 

Island 

p.c. 

urban 


Nova 

Scotia 

p.c. 

urban 


New 
Bruns- 
wick 
p.c. 
urban 


Quebec 

p.c. 

urban 


Ontario 

p.c. 

urban 


Manito ba 

p.c. 

urban 


Saskat- 
chewan 
p.c. 
urban 


Alberta 

p.c. 

urban 


British 

Columbia 

p.c. 

urban 


Scandinavian — 


31-49 
3757 
21-86 
24-60 


100-00 
50-00 


71-43 
100-00 
69-66 
51-30 


23-08 

41-33 
35-04 


82-24 
100-00 
87-28 
87-03 


57-11 
65-69 
55-89 
44-94 


35-24 

40-74 

. 31-20 

33-61 


18-42 
23-61 
12-01 
12-63 


19-64 
34-85 
15-51 
15-38 


39-66 




39-81 




33-58 




26-89 






Total 


25-75 


i 


62-90 


31-42 


90-05 


50-00 


36-46 


13-55 


16-36 


30-68 






Germanic — * 


40-64 
37-24 
40-90 


- 


77-87 
56-44 
62-74 


13-04 
26-79 
68-75 


87-74 
77-06 
91-40 


24-06 
52-27 
61-53 


32-81 
39-65 
36-18 


14-75 
19-8J 
25-41 


29-20 
20-63 
30 14 


45-57 
. 38-84 


Holland 


37-28 






Total 


.38-74 


- 


68-90 


25-87 


85-26 


47-91 


35-68 


19-28 


24-62 


40-43 






Latin and Greek — 


52-37 
89-33 
75-81 
51-12 


37-50 
100-00 

100-00 


68-67 
97-59 
80-90 
94-39 


■ 25-14 
95-24 
25 13 
78-00 


82-73 
99-10 
94-08 
97-28 


68-87 
89-66 
79-36 
80-07 


27-35 
93-23 
86-01 
4916 


18-03 
89-14 
31-85 
16-07 


34-77 
78-80 
42-44 
18-45 


46-29 




67-70 


Italy 


52-73 




34-97 






Total 


63-97 


i 


76-86 


37-23 


91-77 


79-14 


■ 45-84 


18-63 


32-06 


51-72 






Slavic — 


35-33 
52-83 
41-42 
24-39 
49-69 
41-85 
67-30 
56-25 


50-00 

l 

100-00 
100-00 


75-20 
95-65 
42-69 
89-13 
97-92 
100-00 
83-98 
92-29 


53-25 
45-45 
20 00 
87-50 
25-00 
50 00 
89 04 
91-24 


94-46 
88-68 
77-27 
92-26 
93-33 
96-90 
93-67 
97-46 


60-97 
59-21 
85-30 
66-94 
58-64 
83-20 
86-06 
86-82 


31-78 
90-00 
51-25 
26-15 
77-33 
37-92 
57-69 
58-66 


21-86 
11-59 
16-72 
9-72 
42-41 
25-72 
23-28 
20-53 


23-61 
32-08 
32-19 
10-84 
3511 
13-63 
29-27 
30-38 


39-51 




26-47 




25-81 
28-20 




37-85 




23-71 


Poland 


49-66 




22-37 






Total 


46-88 


- 


84-92 


84-50 


96-47 


79-88 


41-31 


19-57 


23-60 


29-55 







1 Numbers too small for percentages to be significant. 



RURAL AND URBAN DISTRIBUTION AS BETWEEN PROVINCES 

Of all provinces in the Dominion, Prince Edward Island shows the largest percentage 
rural and Ontario shows the largest proportion living in urban districts. The -provinces with 
their respective percentages urban are aranged in order of rank below: — 



Province P.c. urban Rank 

Ontario 5817 1 

Quebec 5601 2 

British Columbia 47-19 3 

NovaScotia 43-34 , 4 

Manitoba 42-88 5 

Alberta 37-88 6 

New Brunswick 32-08 7 

Saskatchewan : 28-90 8 

Prince Edward Island 21-55 9 

While the population of Ontario ranks first in respect to concentration in urban localities, 
that of Quebec comes a close second. It is interesting to see that British Columbia in the 
extreme West ranks third in the Dominion. Among the Prairie ■ Provinces, Manitoba is the 
most urban and Saskatchewan the most rural. In the Maritimes, Nova Scotia has the 
largest proportion of its population domiciled in incorporated cities, towns and villages. 

Turning to the distribution of the total foreign born as between rural and urban dis- 
tricts in the various provinces, one discovers that in the five Eastern provinces they are 
more urban and in the four Western provinces less urban than the population as a whole. 
In the more urban provinces the foreign born are more urban than the (population as a 
whole; in the rural provinces of Western Canada they are more rural than the population 



URBAN RESIDENTS AMONG THE FOREIGN BORN IN THE PROVINCES 109 

as a whole. The provinces may be arranged in order of the percentages of foreign born 
living in urban districts as below: — 

P.c. of total 
foreign born 
resident 

Province in urban Rank 

communities 

Quebec 84-70 1 

Ontario 72-09 2 , 

Nova Scotia 63-56 3 

British Columbia 43-88 4 

Now Brunswick 42-64 5 

Manitoba : 42-16 6 

Alberta 25-81 7 

Prince Edward Island .* 25-33 8 

Saskatchewan 21-48 9 

A comparison of the above table with that for the population as a whole will reveal 
the fact that the relative positions of the various provinces are somewhat changed. Quebec, 
Nova Scotia, New Brunswick and Prince Edward Island have moved up and Ontario, 
British 'Columbia, Alberta, Saskatchewan and Manitoba have moved down. These changes 
may probably be partially explained in the light of the discussion in Chapter IV, which 
emphasized the different population structures of the various provinces, and also by 
occupational differences between the Canadian and foreign born sections of the populations. 
For example, it was shown that in New Bruinswick nearly 80 p.c. of the foreign born were 
from the United States. These were largely immigrants of French origin who took up other 
than agricultural occupations. This fact probably accounts for the change in New Bruns- 
wick's position. As opposed to New Brunswick the provinces of AOberta and Saskatchewan 
moved down. It is recalled that in these provinces there was a much larger percentage of 
immigrants from Scandinavian countries than in any other province in Canada. As a group 
the Scandinavians are the least urban and in Alberta and Saskatchewan they are almost 
exclusively engaged in agricultural occupations. These two examples are given merely to 
suggest the method of approaching the study of this phenomenon. 

Attention is called also to the magnitude of the differences between the percentages 
urban for the foreign born and for the total population in the various provinces. Were the 
foreign born contrasted with the Canadian born the differences would be greater than 
appear above. HoweveT, in certain cases the spread shown in the tables is quite significant. 
Quebec leads, with the foreign born showing a 28 p.c. higher figure in urban districts than 
that for the population as a whole. Immigrants going to the province of Quebec obviously 
concentrate to a very marked degree in the cities and towns. The spread for that province 
is twice as great as for Ontario, which shows a difference of 14 p.c. between the percentage 
of the foreign born who reside in urban districts and trie percentage of the total population 
urban. The number of immigrants in Prince Fxlward Island is so small that the difference 
of 3 p.c. for that province is not representative. In the other Maritime Provinces the 
spread is much greater, in Nova Scotia a 20 p.c. larger proportion of the foreign born being 
urban and in New Brunswick a difference of over 10 p.c. occurring. With the exception of 
Alberta, the contrast between the behaviour of the total population and the foreign born in 
the West is not nearly so marked as in the eastern provinces. The figures for Saskatchewan 
show the widest variation, namely, 8 p.c, which is lower than the spread for any of the 
eastern provinces except Prince Edward Island. 

One must not immediately conclude, however, that the difference in the percentages 
urban for the foreign born and for the .population as a whole, is a direct index of differences 
between the foreign born and the native born. Separate figures are not available for the 
native or Canadian born, and consequently the percentages for the total population include 
not only the Candaian born but also the foreign and the British born. In the West, the 
percentage of foreign birth in the population is much greater than in the East, so that the 
figure giving the proportion urban for the total population in the Prairie Provinces is 
reduced considerably by the large proportion of .foreign born within the borders of those 
provinces. In the East, on the other hand, with much smaller percentages foreign bom, the 
proportions living in urban districts, as given for the total, populations in the various prov- 
inces, would not be so radically different from the percentages for the Canadian born alone, 



110 URBAN AND RURAL DISTRIBUTION OF VARIOUS STOCKS 



were they classed separately. While such considerations minimize to some extent the dis- 
tinction between the East and West in this regard, it is probable that. they are not adequate 
to account for the whole difference, and that other important forces aTe at work. 

The immigrants from the British Isles are more urban than the foreign born in every 
province in Canada. Reference has already been made to the -urban propensities of immi- 
grants from the British Isles. The difference is most marked in the provinces of Alberta 
and Saskatchewan. In Alberta immigrants from the British Isles show a 30 p.c. higher pro- 
portion in urban districts than immigrants from foreign countries, and in Saskatchewan a 
proportion 22 p.c. higher. In Manitoba the difference :s not so marked, amounting. to only 
17 p.c, and in the East the- spread is, on the whole, very much smaller than in the West. 
The significant fact seems to be that in Canada as a whole immigration from Great Britain 
has become directed toward urban centres to a much more marked degree than immigra- 
tion from foreign countries in general and that this tendency, while absolutely less marked 
in the West than in the East, is relatively more pronounced, when compared with the 
small, percentages of both the foreign born and of the population as a whole in urban dis- 
tricts. In Saskatchewan foreign immigrants are slightly less urban than the population as 
a whole, while the British born show proportions in incorporated cities, towns and villages 
1 nearly 50 p.c. larger. 

A few other striking facts are revealed when the analysis is pushed still further The 
percentage urban of those immigrants coming from the_ South, Bast and Central sections of 
the Continent is greater 'for every province than the proportions urban for immigrants from 
the countries of North Western Europe. In Nova Scotia and Quebec immigrants from 
both parts of the Continent are more urban than the population as a whole. In New 
Brunswick and Ontario, while the South, Eastern and Central Europeans are very much 
more urban- than the total population, those from the north and western part of Europe 
are decidedly less urban. In Manitoba, Saskatchewan, Alberta and British Columbia 
immigrants from both sections of Europe show a greater inclination to live on. rural districts 
than the total population resident in those provinces. These facts are very significant. 
From Ontario east, -the South, Eastern and Central Europeans are concentrating to am 
abnormally marked extent an the cities, while from . Manitoba west they are settling- to an 
equally marked extent in the Tural parts. The same applies to the North Western ■ Euro- 
peans except in the case of the province of New Brunswick, where they are more rural 
than in the province of Manitoba. 

Passing to the linguistic groups, similar differences are noted between the proportion 
living in urban and rural districts in the various provinces. The high percentage of 90-05 
p.c. urban for the Scandinavian group in the province of Quebec represents a very small 
.number of resident Scandinavians and is not at all typical of the group. In fact, figures of 
Scandinavians for provinces east of Manitoba should not be considered of great importance 
because of the exceptionally small percentage of Scandinavians resident in these eastern 
provinces. In the West, Manitoba shows the largest proportion of Scandinavians in urban 
centres and Saskatchewan shows the smallest. In all parts of the West the percentage urban 
is much lower for the Scandinavians than that for the total population. 

Greater importance may be attributed to the fluctuation of the percentages urban for 
the Germanic group because of their more even distribution throughout the country. In 
the two cases of Nova Scotia and Quebec, where the percentages urban exceed the propor- 
tions for the total population, the numbers are comparatively small, but in all other cases 
and notably in those provinces where they form larger proportions of the total population, 
the Germanic people are resident in urban districts to a much smaller extent than the total 
population. 

Of all Europeans the Latins and Greeks are the most urban, and in all but two provinces 
of the Dominion their percentage urban is much higher than that for the population as a 
whole. Those provinces are Saskatchewan and Alberta, and the explanation is simple when 
the actual numbers are considered. In Saskatchewan in 1921 there were 221 immigrants 
born in Greece, 383 in Italy, and 7,324 immigrants from Roumania. Somewhat the same 
proportions obtain in Alberta. Now the Roumanians are a much more rural people than 



URBAN AND RURAL DISTRIBUTION BY SEX 



111 



the Italians and Greeks, and with Roumanian immigrants constituting so preponderating a 
proportion of the total immigrants from Latin and Greek countries in those provinces, it is 
natural to expect that the figure showing the percentage urban for the Latin and Greek 
group (including the Roumanians) would be exceptionally low. It is very probable that 
immigrants from Italy and Greece show just as marked a tendency to concentrate in the 
cities in Saskatchewan and Alberta as in other parts of the Dominion. 

The Slavic group is similar to the Scandinavian. In the East immigrants from those 
countries show an undue concentration in urban parts, while in the west they are more 
rural than the population as a whole. Immigrants from Asia show larger percentages urban 
than other classes of immigrants in every province of the Dominion except British Column 
bia, where the Greeks are slightly more urban than the Asiatics. Occupational differences 
largely account for the differences in urban and rural domicile obtaining among the Asiatics 
in the various provinces. 

Finally, United States born immigrants coming to Canada, while displaying less disposi- 
tion to live in urban ' districts than the total population of Canada, in all provinces from 
Manitoba east show a greater concentration in incorporated cities, towns and villages 
than is evidenced among'the population as a whole. From Saskatchewan west immigration 
from the United States has been directed to rural areas to an unusually marked extent. 



TABLE 54.-SUMMARY SHOWING PERCENTAGE URBAN OF IMMIGRANT POPULATION FOR CANADA 
AND THE PROVINCES, BY SPECIFIED GROUPING OF COUNTRIES OF BIRTH, 1921. 



Country of Birth 



Total population 

Total foreign born 

British Isles 

Europe 

Total North Western Europe. . 
Total South, Eastern and Cen- 
tral Europe 

Scandinavian Countrie3. .■ 

Germanic Countries 

Latin and Greek Countries 

Slavic Countries 

Asia : 

United States 



Canada 

p.c. 

urban 



49-52 
45-68 
64-88 
45-75 
34-50 

5012 
25-75 
38-74 
63-97 
46-88 
65-50 
42-63 



P.E.I. 

p.c, 

urban 



21-55 
25-33 
37-80 
63-89 



88-57 
.22-22 



Nova 

Scotia 

p.c. 

urban 



43-34 
63-56 
67-83 
78-42 
68-04 

84-40 
62-90 
68-90 
76-80 
84-92 
90-96 
47-73 



New 
Bruns- 
wick 
p.c. 
urban 



32-08 
42-64 
51-96 
51-55 
28-94 

72-63 
31-42 
25-87 
37-23 
84-50 
84-90 
38-24 



Quebec 

p.c. 

urban 



56-01 
84-70 
91-27 
93-32 
84-31 

95-98 
90-05 
85-26 
91-77 
96-47 
96-45 
72-93 



Ontario 

p.o.' 

urban 



58-17 
72-09 
73-32 
71-04 
51-25 

76-06 
50 00 
47-91 
79-14 
79-88 
92-57 
71-46 



Mani- 
toba 
p.c. 
urban 



42-88 
42-16 
58-81 
40-66 
34-99 

42-47 
36-46 
35-68 
45-84 
41-31 
85-60 
44-99 



Saskat- 
chewan 
p.c. 
urban 



28-90 
21-48 
43-02 
18-49 
15-75 

19-69 
13-55 
19-28 
18-63 
19-57 
87-54 
22-89 



Alberta 

p.c. 

urban 



37-88 
25-81 
55-56 
22-91 
20-63 

24-36 
16-36 

24-62 
32-06 
23-60 
74-44 
25-88 



British 

Columbia 

p.c. 

urban 



47-19 
43-88 
50-99 
3615 



38-09 
30-68 
40-43 
51-72 
29-55 
50-82 
44-44 



1 Numbers too small for percentage to be significant. 

URBAN AND RURAL DISTRIBUTION BY SEX 

Table 55 is presented for the purpose of showing the difference between the percentages 
of men and women living in urban districts, first, for the population as a whole and secondly, 
for the respective' groups of immigrants. A cursory inspection of this table will show that 
where the percentage of urban- males is large the percentage of the females is also large 
and vice versa; and secondly, that- for immigrants from all but two countries the percentage 
of the females in urban districts exceeds the percentage of the male's. Of those, two excep- 
tions, the Bulgarians with only 1,000 population. in the whole of Canada may be dismissed 
as relatively unimportant. The other exception occurs in the. case of the immigrants from 
Galicia, and while their numbers are comparatively large the difference in percentage is 
exceedingly small. The predominating tendency is obviously for females to concentrate in 
urban communities to a considerably greater extent than males. The causes of this are 
varied and it is impossible to weigh their relative importance. The following are suggested 
as possible contributories: the rigours of agricultural and pioneer life; the great mobility 
of immigrant males, among whom large numbers either are unmarried or have left their 
families across the seas; types of occupations, railroad building and maintenance, lumbering 
and mining, etc., which take men to the rural parts. From the women/s standpoint there is 
greater opportunity for suitable work in urban districts. Such occupations as domestic 



112 URBAN AND RURAL DISTRIBUTION OF VARIOUS STOCKS 



service, restaurant work and mercantile, factory and professional pursuits of various kinds 
are open to women in urban centres. Further, matrimonial opportunities and social attrac- 
tions may exert considerable influence. It is obviously quite impossible to weigh the 
relative importance of these forces in quantitative terms. 

The explanation of the differences which occur between the several stocks in respect 
to the behaviour of the men and women as to preference for urban and rural life, is even 
more difficult. They cannot be explained in terms of the excess of males among the various 
groups of immigrants in this country. There is a surplus of males in all groups and these 
surpluses vary in size, but no correlation is apparent between the percentage urban and the 
sex ratio. It is possible that some relationship might be found .between length otf residence 
in Canada and the tendency for the percentage of women to exceed the proportion of men. 
Reference will be made to this in connection with the figures for the United States born, 
but it is improbable that length of residence in Canada is the .main explanation. It is 
suggested that the basic cause will be found in vocational and in cultural differences which 
are not subject to quantitative measurement. Interpretation of the table must be left to 
those who have first hand knowledge of the peculiar characteristics and important voca- 
tions of the various groups. A few interesting facts, however, are pointed out as to the 
rank of the foreign born from countries which are more important from the point of view 
of Canada's biologicaJ composition. 

For the population as a whole the percentage of females living in urban districts is 
4-44 p,c. greater than the proportion of males, and for all immigrants the difference is 
6-05 p.c. It is apparent from these figures that immigrant women show a greater tendency 
to concentrate in urban districts as compared with male immigrants than do the women in 
the population as a whole as compared with the men in the total population. Figures for 
the individual countries of birth are given in Table 55. Where the surplus is small, female 
immigrants from a given country are found in rural parts to an unusual extent as compared 
with male immigrants from the same country. Where the difference is large the women 
concentrate in urban centres to a far greater extent than the men. 

Immigrants from only six countries show a tendency for females to dwell in urban dis- 
tricts which exceeds that of the males to an extent less than that which obtains for the 
population in Canada as a whole. Two of these countries, namely, Turkey and Bulgaria, 
are comparativelv unimportant from the standpoint of numbers, and the remaining four, 
namely Russia, Austria, Ukraine and Galacia, are all in the South, Eastern and Central 
European section of Europe. This means that the women from that section of the Continent 
are exceptionally rural as compared with the men. That this should be the case and that the 
bulk of immigrants from those four countries should be of Slavic origin is rather significant. 

In the case of seven other countries the females differ from the males in respect to 
concentration in urban districts to an extent less than obtains for the total immigrant 
population. They are Holland, Belgium, Germany and Norway in the North and West of 
Europe, Greece in the South, and Hungary and Roumania in the East. 

The immigrants showing the greatest difference between males and females in this 
respect are the Jugo-Slavs, the Italians, the Japanese, the Finns and the Chinese. In all 
five cases the percentage of females urban exceeds by more than 10 p.c. the proportion of 
males living in urban districts. 

The difference of 8-61 p.c. for the United States immigrants is suggestive. That figure 
is higher than the figure for any of the groups of origins which appear at the foot of Table 55. 
Immigration from the United States consists largely of British and French stock with an 
admixture of Scandinavian and Germanic, yet the difference between males and females of 
United States birth in respect to concentration in urban districts is greater than that for 
either the British born, the French born or those of Scandinavian or Germanic birth. 
Length of residence on this continent seems to be the main explanation. 

Finally, on examining the data for the geographical and linguistic groups, it appears 
that the extent by which the females exceed the males in urban concentration is far greater 
for the North Western Europeans than for. immigrants from the South, Eastern and Central 
Europe Indeed, the figure for South, Eastern and Central Europe is smaller than that for 



CONCENTRATION OF VARIOUS STOCKS IN LARGE CITIES 



113 



the population as a whole, which implies that unduly large numbers of women as compared 
with men from those countries were living in rural parts. Among the linguistic groups the 
Scandinavians show the greatest difference, while those from Slavic countries show the 
smallest. The surpluses for the Germanic and Latin and Greek groups are practically equal. 



TABLE 55.- 



-PERCENTAGE URBAN OF MALE AND FEMALE IMMIGRANTS IN CANADA, BY 
COUNTRIES OF BIRTH, 1921. 



Birthplace 


Canada 
Per cent urban 


Per cent 

by which 

proportion of 

urban females 

exceeds 

proportion 

of urban 

males 




Males 


Females 




47-40 


51-80 


+ 4-40 








53-68 
62-65 


. 59-73 
68-32 


+ 6-05 




+ 5-67 








43-84 
34-23 
38-11 
53-66 
38-79 
28-97 
28-87 
49-11 
24-52 
34-68 
88-47 
38-52 
35-26 
33-13 
71-98 
4613 
20-20 
64-24 
49-24 
54-42 
22-34 
4117 
41-57 
65-80 
65-55 
71-32 
34-84 
82-13 
83-75 
73-06 

38-59 
31-31 
48-75 
23-25 
36-23 
65-83 
45-27 


48-57 
36-92 
43-99 
46-55 
45-12 
36-99 
40-28 
56-24 
24-20 
40-55 
93-36 
44-46 
40-27 
41-96 
84-02 
60-00 
24-81 
71-46 
53-71 
58-61 
28-89 
50-63 
42-29 
68-67 
65-11 
81-58 
46-39 
89-69 
86-44 
79-70 

47-10 
39-29 
51-99 
30-12 
42-07 
70-86 
48-95 


+ 4-73 




+ 2-69 




+ 5-88 




- 711 




+ 6-33 




+ 8-02' 




+ 11-41 




+ 713 




- 0-32 




+ 5-87 




+ 4-89 


Holland 


+ 5-94 




+ 5-01 




+ 8-83 


Italy 


+ 12-04 




+ 13-87 




+ 4-61 


Poland 


+ 7-22 




+ 4-47 




+ 4-19 




+ 6-55 




+ 9-46 




+ 0-72 


Others 


+ 2-87 




- 0-44 




+ 10-26 




+ 11-55- 




+ 7-56 


Turkey 


+ 2-69 




+ 6-64 




+ 8-51 




+ 7-98 




+ 3-24 




+ 6-87 




+ 5-84 




+ 5-03 




+ 3-68 







THE EXTENT TO WHICH THE DIFFERENT STOCKS CONGREGATE IN 

LARGE CITIES 

Table 56 shows the proportions of specified stocks in the eighteen Canadian cities with 
a population of 25,000 and over. Unfortunately the data for the foreign born are not con- 
veniently available, so attention is confined in this subsection to distribution of population 
by origins. 

The second column of Table 56 arranges the proportion of the specified stocks in order 
of magnitude. A rough calculation from the recent census shows that approximately 25 p.-c. 
of .the -population lives in cities of 25,000 and over in Canada. Ten of the stocks lusted show 
a more marked tendency to concentrate in the large cities. Of all origins the Jewish is most 
urban; 84-06 p.c. of the Jews live in cities of over 25,000 inhabitants, a percentage exceed- 
ing that for 'the next highest Stock, the Greeks, by approximately a third. The Hebrews had 
about three and a half times as large a percentage in large cities in Canada as had the 
population as a whole; the Italians almost twice. The percentages for the Chinese, Syrians 
and Japanese range from 44-87 down to 29-52. The Asiatics in Canada are thus abnormally 
74422—8 



114 



URBAN AND RURAL DISTRIBUTION OF VARIOUS STOCKS 



urban. The same applies to the Negroes, with almost 36 p-c. of their population in the 
large cities. While the British, Polish and Roumanian peoples show proportions higher 
than the population as -a whole, the differences are not of great magnitude. 

These figures throw a rather interesting light on the experience of many of the large 
cities in the United States and certain of the larger cities in Canada. Those stocks which 
gravitate to the larger centres to an abnormal extent are very often found in quarters or 
wards. There are Jewish sections, Italian sections, Chinese sections and Negro sections in 
a great many of the larger cities on this continent. One does not hear of a Scandinavian 
quarter or of a Dutch or German section of a city nearly so frequently. Segregation of 
particular stocks has grave social and political consequences wherever it occurs, and this 
tendency of certain foreign stocks to concentrate in the large cities of Canada is significant 
from the standpoint of assimilation. 

TABLE 56— PER CENT OF SPECIFIED ORIGINS IN CITIES OF 25.000 AND OVER IN CANADA, 1921. 
Note. — The percentage of .the total population in such cities was 25-42.. 



Alphabetic arrangement 


Arrangement according to rank 


Origins 


-P.C. 




P.C. 


Rank 




28-17 
22-45 
13-24 
17-29 
44-87 
10-80 
17-82 
11-84 

5-96 

9-39 
64-20 
84-06 
10-93 
16-06 
. 9-53 
47-92 
29-52 
35-97 

6-55 
28-10 
26-15 
13-14 
23-63 
10-11 
17-64 
41-85 

2-66 
13-34 
11-83 

8-38 
33-05 
34-85 




84-06 

64-20 

• 47-92 

-44-87 

41-85 

35-97 

34-85 

33-05 

29-52 

28-17 

■ 28-10 

26-15 

23-63 

22-45 

17-82 

17-64 

17-29 

16-06 

13-34 

13-24 

13-14 

11-84 

11-83 

10-93 

10-80 

1011 

■ 9-53 

9-39 

8-38 

6-55 

5-96 

2-66 


1 






2 






3 






4 






5 






6 






7 


Dutch 




8 






9 






10 




Polish 


11 






12 






13 






14 




Danish 


15 




. 16 






17 






18 






19 


Polish ' : , . .. 




20 






21 




Dutch 


•22 • 






23 






24 






25 






26 






27 






28 






29 






30 






31 






32 . 









Table 57 arranges the data by geographical and Table 58 by linguistic classification. 
The percentages for all Northern Europeans in cities of 25,000 inhabitants and over are 
less than for the population as a whole. In the case of the Norwegians and Germans a 
tendency to avoid large cities is most marked. With the exception of the Greeks, the 
Italians, the Poles and the Roumanians, all the South Eastern Europeans likewise show 
smaller proportions in the large cities in Canada than does the total population. Of the 
South, Eastern and Central Europeans, the Finns, the Ukrainians, the Czechs and Hun- 
garians avoid the larger cities to an unusual extent. The percentages for Asiatic peoples 
are all higher than for the population of Canada as a whole. 

Turning to Table 58 we find that irregularity in the data makes generalization difficult. 
The general levels of the Scandinavian and Germanic groups are practically the same, and 
with the exception of the Poles and the Serbo-Croatians, the tendency to concentrate in 
large cities is probably about as small among the Slavic peoples in Canada as among the 
Scandinavian and Germanic. On the other hand, the percentages of the Latin and Greek 
stocks in large cities are exceedingly high, except for the Roumanians, to whom reference 
has already been made. Of the Scandinavians, the Norwegians show the greatest aversion 
to large cities; of the Germanic group, the Germans; and of the Slavic group, the Ukrainians. 
The Poles appear to be different from other Slavic peoples in this respect. With a figure 



PERCENTAGE OF DIFFERENT ORIGINS IN LARGE CITIES 



115 



of 28-10 p.c. in cities 25.000 and over, they are far above the general level for the group. 
Reference has been made to the large number of Jews among immigrants from Poland, but 
it is unlikely that any large numbers of Jewish origin declared themselves as of Polish origin, 
so that the high figure for the Polish stock cannot be attributed' to the influence of an admix- 
ture of Jewish people who show such marked concentration in large cities. That this is so, is 
borne out by the comparatively low figures for the Austrians and the Russians. Many 
immigrants from those countries, and especially the latter, are of Jewish extraction, and 
there is no reason why the Jews from Russia would call themselves of Jewish origin while 
those from Poland would claim to be of Polish stock. There is apparency a clear distinc- 
tion between the Poles and the other Slavs in respect to their tendency to concentrate in 
the larger cities on the continent. 

TABLE 57.— PER CENT OF SPECIFIED ORIGINS IN CITIES 25,000 AND OVER IN CANADA, BY • 
GEOGRAPHICAL GROUPING OF ORIGINS, 1921. 



Origins 


Percentage 
in Cities. 

25,000 
and over 


North Western Europe — 


p.c. 

17-29 




17-82- 




22-45 




9-39 


Dutch 


11-84 




16-06 




6-55 




10-11 




17-64 


South, Eastern and Central Europe — 


13-24 




10-80 




5-96 




13-34 . 




64-20 




10-93 




47-92 


Polish 


28-10 




26-15 




13-14 




23-63 




9-98 


Asia — 


44-87 




29-52 




41-85 







TABLE 58.— PER CENT OF SPECIFIED ORIGINS IN CITIES, 25.000 AND OVER, IN CANADA, BY 
LINGUISTIC GROUPING OF ORIGINS, 1021. 



Origins 


Percentage 

. in Cities 

25,000 

and over 


Scandinavian — 


p.c. 
17-82 




16-06 




6-55 ' 




1011 


Germanic — 


17-29 




9-39 


Dutch 


11-84 


Latin and Greek — 


64-20-' 




47-92- 




26-15 


Slavic — -' 


13-24' 




10-80 ■ 




13-34 




28-10 '■' 




13-14: i 




23-63 ' 




9-98 '• 







^Includes Bukovinian, Galician, Ruthenian and Ukrainian. 
74422—81 



CHAPTER VI 

ORIGINS AND INTERMARRIAGE IN THE REGISTRATION AREA 

IN CANADA 

INTRODUCTION 

The study of the varying extents to which intermarriage has occurred between the 
different stocks included in the population of Canada is as complex as it is important. The 
first type of difficulty arises because of, the limited data which are available. The census 
does not publish a separate classification of the married population by origins; consequently 
a direct approach to the study is impossible. An alternative method would be to analyze 
the marriages in the census year; but even were the records of origins included in the 
provincial official notices of marriage, it is doubtful whether the intermingling of different 
stocks, as indicated by marriages in a given year, would be representative of the total 
amount of intermarriage which had taken place. The tendency would be to over-emphasize 
it, due to the fact that as the length of residence of the immigrant population in Canada 
increases, the extent of intermarriage also increases. It would obviously be wrong to 
assume that the rate applying in 192.1, which marriage data for that year might supply, 
would be applicable to people who were in this country ten or twenty years ago and con- 
tracted their marriages in those years. Further, on account of the varying inflow of 
immigrant peoples, the marriage data of any given year would be unreliable as a guide to 
the total amount of intermarriage. This is especially true of the decade 1911-1921 with its 
great fluctuations in immigration. However, even if these objections did not exist to the 
use of marriages as an index of assimilation, such procedure is impossible, since informa- 
tion as to origin is not available in the marriage returns. 

The alternative source of information, on which of necessity this study has been based, 
.is the origin of the parents of children born in the Registration Area of Canada in the year 
1921, as given in the "First. Annual Report on Vital Statistics" of the Dominion Bureau 
of Statistics. 

The first limitation imposed in using these data is the fact that as the province of 
Quebec compiled and published its own vital statistics at that time, the reports of that 
province are not comparable with the figures for the other provinces as compiled and edited 
by the Dominion Bureau of Statistics. Since 1926, the vital statistics for Quebec are on the 
same basis as those of the other provinces under the Bureau, but the present study for the 
census year 1921 can embrace only that part of Canada which at that time was included in 
the Registration Area. Another difficulty is the variations in the amount of detail in which 
origin classifications are given in the various tables of the Census rfnd Vital Statistical 
Reports, and the absence of certain analyses important for a comparative study of this 
nature. The limitation of space in the census and the expense involved in compilation 
and publication account for this. 

. Offsetting these drawbacks the use of the origin of fathers and mothers of children born 
in 1921 has many advantages. First, it is not open to the objections applying to the use of 
marriage data. The parents of the children born in 1921 are much more representative of 
the married population with respect to origin than are the young people who were married 
in that single year. Further, such data are not so sensitive to the inflow of immigrant 
population. And finally, there were over three times as many births as marriages in the 
year 1921. The actual number of births reported in the Registration Area in the year of 
the census was 168,979. For some 22,000 of those, the origins of the parents are not given. 
Over 12,000 of that number occur in Alberta, making the data for that province less 

116 



MARRIAGE WITHIN THE SAME ORIGIN GROUP 



117 



representative than those of the other provinces. But the study is first concerned with the 
Registration Area as a whole, and when the 22,000 are deducted from the total figure, 
approximately 150,000 married men and 150,000 married women of child-bearing age and 
of various specified origins are left as the parents of the children born in the Registration 
Area in that year. It is suggested that this number is sufficiently large and sufficiently 
representative for the purpose of this study. 

THE TENDENCY TO MARRIAGE WITHIN THE SAME ORIGIN GROUP 

Table 6, page 58, dn the "First Annual Report on Vital Statistics" published for 19121 
by the Dominion Bureau of Statistics, shows the number of births in the Registration Area 
by origin of father and origin of mother. Table 59 below, gives a list of those fathers and 
mothers whose origin is specified and also the number of cases where both are of the same 
origin. 



TABLE 59.-ORIGIN OF PARENTS OF CHILDREN BORN IN THE REGISTRATION AREA IN 1921. 



Origin 

i 


Number 

of 
fathers 


Number 

of 
mothers 


Number of 

mothers 

and . 

fathers of 

same 

origin 




56,662 

18,924 

22,284 

702 


59,180 

17,738 

22,118 

551. 


43,348 

8,761 

11,326 

148 






Welsh 






98,572 


99,687 


90,740 






17,909 
37 

2,765 
517 
68 
295 
197 
360 

1,434 
368 
869 

7,563 
189 
4 
362 
448 
610 

2,162 
618 

1,554 
338 

1,313 

1,663 
604 

2,202 
112 

1,161 
190 
194 

2,564 


18,858 
30 

2,873 
522 
37 
277 
231 
246 

1,371 

•401 

877 

7,833 
103 
3 
403 
528 
714 

1,789 
609 

1,529 
366 

1,384 

1,645 
594 

2,064 
91 

1,175 
134 
145 

2,570 


15, 205 
26 
2,471 
371 
35 
274 
129 


















674, 
334] 
778 

5,691 
92 
2 
310 
373 
549 

1,744 
608 

1,489 
314 
771 

1,330 
462 

1,700 

75 

643 

50 

136 

2,372 




























Polish 


















Total 


147,242 
48,670 


149,088 
49,401 


129,841 
39,101 


Total (less British origin). , 





On the assumption that the figures above are representative of the married population 
as a whole, or sufficently so for all practical purposes, by expressing the number- of fathers who 
have married women of- the same origin- as a percentage of the total fathers of each origin, 
the extent to which the fathers have married within their respective groups is showh in 
comparable form. The same applies to the marriage of mothers to men of the same origin. 
The percentages will be rarely the same for men and women of a given group, because the 
"number of the married males usually differs from the number of married females of the 
same origin. 



118 ORIGINS AND INTERMARRIAGE IN THE REGISTRATION AREA 



The result of the above computation, i.e. of expressing column 3 in Table 69 as a per- 
centage of columns 1 and 2 respectively appears in Table 60 below, with origins arranged 
according to the size of percentage, in each case. 



TABLE 60. 



-PERCENTAGE OF ENDOGAMOUS MARRIAGES AMONG PARENTS OF CHILDREN BORN 
IN REGISTRATION AREA IN 1921. 



Men 


Women 


• Origin 


P.c. married 
to women of 
same origin 


Origin 


P.c. married 

to men of 
same origin 




98-4 
95-8 
92-9 
92<9 
92-6 
90-8 
90-0 
89-5 
89-4 
85-6 
84-9 
83-3 
80-7 
80-0 
77-2 
76-5 
76-5 
75-2 
71-8 
70-3 
70-1 
67-0 
65-5 
58-7 
55-4 
51 -5 
50-8 
48-7 
470 
46-3 
26-3 
25-8 
21-1 




99-8 . 






' 99-0 






97>-5 






9/- 4 






94-6 






93-8 






92-3 






893 






88-7 






86'7 






860 






85-8 






83-3 


Polish 




82-4 






82-4 




Polish 








80-6 






77-8 






76-9 






76-9 






73-3 






72'6 






71 1 






70-6 






55-8 






55-7 






54-7 






51-2 




Dutch 


49-2 






49-4 






37-8 






37-3 


Welsh . . .'. 


Welsh 


22-7 










70-6 


74-4 









A very cursory examination of this table will reveal a number of interesting and 
important facts. 

(1) The wide range over which the percentages are scattered suggests that there are 
very real differences between the several stocks as to the extent to which assimilation by 
intermarriage has taken place. 

(2) The tendency for men and for women to marry within their own group fluctuates 
within approximately the same limits, but the average percentage is some four points higher 
for the women. An examination into the causes of this will be attempted in a subsequent 
part of this chapter. ■ 

(3) While, on the whole, much the same order obtains in the two columns of Table 60, 
there are a number of exceptional cases where the percentage of endogamous marriages for 
the men differs considerably from that for the women of the same group. For example, 
83.3 p.c. of the Icelandic men were married to Icelandic women, and only 70-6 p.c. of the 
Icelandic women had married Icelandic men. The reverse is true for the Bulgarians, for 
instance, where 51.5 p.c. of the men had married within their group and 94.6 p.c. of the 
women. A detailed examination of this table will reveal many such differences. 

The table as it stands gives the percentage for the individual origins. Further light is 
thrown on the differences by grouping them according to colour, geographical and linguistic 
divisions. Re-arranging Table 60 on the lines of this group classification the following 
analysis is obtained: — 



ENDOGAMY AMONG THE COLOURED RACES 



119 



TABLE 61— ENDOGAMY AMONG PARENTS OF CHILDREN OF COLOURED RACES, 1921. 



Men 


Women 


Origin 


Percentage 
married to 
women of 
Bame origin 


Racial Origin 


Percentage 
married to 

men of 
same origin 




98-4 
92-9 
92-9 
90-0 




99-8 






99-0 






85-8 




Indian 


70-9 








93-8 


94-7 









The coloured stocks are thus seen to stand very high as to percentage of both men 
and women marrying within their own group. Stated conversely, the tendency for the 
coloured to mix by marriage with the whites is remarkably small. The colour barrier 
seems to be the greatest of all barriers to assimilation. This applies both to men and women. 
That the amount of endogamous marriage is greater for the women than for the men of the 
yellow stocks is at least in part due to the relative scarcity of such women in Canada 
because .of immigration difficulties; and the lower percentage of endogamous marriage 
among Indian women may be related to the relative scarcity of white women in certain 
sections of this country. The figure for the negro women is unreliable because the origin 
of 11 p.c. of the husbands was unstated. The point to be emphasized in this section, how- 
ever, is the fact that coloured stocks have mixed least, either among themselves or with 
the whites, up to the present time. 

passing to Table 62 it is seen that, as a class, both the men. and women of South, 
Eastern and Central European stocks had married within their respective groups to a far 
greater extent than had those of stocks from the North Western parts of the continent. 
Marked variation appears within each group. But it is evident from comparison of the 
median values and the ranges over which the percentages are scattered that what applies 
to the total is true generally. The upper and lower limits for both sexes are lower for the 
North Western European group than for the South, Eastern and Central Europeans, and the 
median values for the men are 58-7 p.c. as compared with 80.0 p.c. and for the women, 
55-7 p.c. as against 83-3 p.c. These facts may be stated' in terms of exogamous marriages 
as follows: While 16.2 p.c. of the men and 13.5 p.c. of the women of South, Eastern and 
Central European origin had married outside their respective groups, 33-3 p.c. of the men' 
and 34-3 p.c. of the women of North Western European origin had done so. Thus about 
twice the proportion of mixed marriages had occurred in the case of the North Western 
Europeans. 

Further light is thrown' on the subject by Table 63, where the grouping is according to 
linguistic divisions. Attention is first directed to the males. The Slavs (85. 2 p.c.) had 
married within their respective groups considerably more than the Latins and Greeks 
(77-8 p.c); the percentage for the latter' group is higher than that for the Germanic 
(70.8 p.c.) and that for the Germanic higher than that for the Scandinavian (57.3 p/i.). 
There is thus a wide spread between the figure of 57-3 p.c. for the Scandinavian group and 
that of 85.2 p.c. for the Slavs. Expressing the difference in terms of intermarriage, the pro- 
portions of the men of Scandinavian, origin .who. had intermarried with other origins was 
42-7 p.c. or nearly three times greater than that for' the Slavs (14.8 p.c.) and twice that for 
the Latin and Greek, group (22.2 p.c). 

Similar differences obtain between the percentages for the women The figure for the' 
women of' Latin and Greek origin, however, is higher than that for the women of the Slavic' 
stocks. As will be shown below, one reason- for this is difference in sex distribution. There 
is a very ;kmge surplus of. .men of Latin and' Greek Stocks in Canada; ■ with the result that 
women of' marriageable" age are keenly sought Rafter! by their own countrymen. ■ ' 

Clearly; then, assimilation by intermarriage' has proceeded much farther with the North 
and Western Europeans -than with the South, Eastern and Central' Europeans, and with the 
Scandinavian and Germanic peoples than with the Latins and Greeks. 



120 ORIGINS AND INTERMARRIAGE IN THE REGISTRATION AREA 

TABLE 62.— ENDOGAMOUS MARRIAGES AMONG THE POPULATION OF CONTINENTAL EUROPEAN 
ORIGINS. BY GEOGRAPHICAL GROUPINGS, 1921 (AS INDICATED BY THE PARENTAGE OF 
CHILDREN BORN IN THE REGISTRATION AREA). 



Men 


Women 


Rank 


Origin 


Percentage 

married to 

women of 

same origin 


Rank 


Origin 


Percentage 
married to 

men of 
same origin 


1 


North Western Europe — 


p.c. 

83-3 
75-2 
71-8 
58-7 
55-4 
47-0 
26-3 
25-8 


1 
2 
3 
4 
5 
6 
7 
8 

1 

2 
3 
4 
5 
6 
7 
8 
9 
10 
11 
12 
13 


North Western Europe — 


p.c. 

72-6 


2 








3 








4 








5 






54 7 


6 


Dutch 


Dutch 




7 


Swiss 




37-8 


8 








Total 

South, Eastern and Central Europe— 
Ukrainian 


Total : 






66-7 


65-7 




South, Eastern and Central Europe — 




1 


92-5 
90-8 
89-5 
89-4 
85-6 
80-7 
80-0 
77-2 
76-5 
67-0 
65-5 
51-5 
48-7 


97-5 


2 






3 


Galician 

Austrian 

Hungarian 




92-3 


4 




89-3 


5 




88-7 


6 






7 


Polish 




83-3 


8 




82-4 


9 


Roumanian 




'82-4 


10 


Polish...' 


81 -0 


11 






77-8 


12 


Bulgarian 

Greek 

Total 




76-9 


13 




55-8 




Total 






83-8 


86'5 











TABLE 63.— ENDOGAMOUS MARRIAGES AMONG THE POPULATION OF CONTINENTAL EUROPEAN 
ORIGINS BY LINGUISTIC GROUPS, 1921 (AS INDICATED BY THE PARENTAOE OF CHILDREN 
BORN IN THE REGISTRATION AREA). 





Men 


Women 


Origin 


P.c. 

married to 

women of 

same origin 


P.c. 
married to 

men of 
same origin 


Scandinavian — 


25-8 
83-3 
58-7 
55-4 


37-8 




70-6 




558 












57-3 








Germanic — 
' Dutch '. 


470 
71-8 
75-2 


49-2 




71 .1 




72-6 






Total '. 


70-8 


69-3 






Latin and Greek — 


48-7 
80-7 
76-5 


89-3 




97'5 




77-8 






Total 


77-8 


92-4 






Slavic — 


89-4 
51-5 
89-5 
80-0 
77-2 
67-0 
85-5 
92-5 


86'0 




94'6 




88'7 


Polish 










82-4 




55-8 










Total 


85-2 


85-6 







INTERMARRIAGE WITH BRITISH AND FRENCH 



121 



' ASSIMILATION BY INTERMARRIAGE WITH THE BRITISH AND FRENCH 

Intermarriage with Those of British Origin.— 'More important than intermarriage 
generally from the standpoint of assimilation is the progress made in intermarriage with 
those of British and French origin. In Table 64 are found the numbers and percentages 
of the fathers and mothers who had married into the British stock. Tables 65 and 66 group 
the data by specified territorial and linguistic divisions. 

These taible3 repeat the story of the three preceding ones, though the differences in the 
proportions are many times more marked. The percentages of the North Western Euro- 
pean married males who had married into the British stocks were five times greater than 
that for the South, Eastern and Central European married males andi, in the case of the 
women, the proportion was ten times greater. Similar differences appear as between the 
linguistic groups. Between 20 and 25 p.c. of the Scandinavian and Germanic married men 
and women had married into the British stocks, as against less than 3 p.c. of the Slavs. The 
unusual sex distribution of the Greeks and Italians is reflected again in the data on inter- 
marriage with the British. Practically no mixed marriages had occurred between the women 
of these origins and the British, but owing to the shortage of marriageable females in Can- 
ada the Italian and Greek males had in some cases taken wives of British origin. Yet the 
actual, amount of intermarriage kas not been great even for the men. Up to 1921 only 
10-6 p.c. of the Latin and Greek married males had intermarried with the British. More 
detailed examination of the tables reveals striking differences as between particular stocks. 

.When the proportions of married men who had married into British stocks are arranged 
in .rank, the Galicians and Ukrainians appear at the bottom of the list and the Dutch and 
Swiss 'ait the top. Less than one an every hundred Galician and Ukrainian fathers in Canada 
had married a wife of British origin, while 44 out of every hundred fathers of Dutch origin 
and 37 of the Swiss had done so. The figure for the Dutch is 80 times larger than that for 
the Galicians and 60 times greater than that for the Ukrainians. (See p. 123.) 

TABLE 64— NUMBER AND PERCENTAGE OF MARRIED MEN AND WOMEN OF DIFFERENT ORIGINS 
WHO HAD MARRIED INTO THE BRITISH STOCKS, AND HAD CHILDREN BORN TO THEM IN 1921. 



Origin 



Men 



CD 
Total 



(2) 
Number 
married 

into 
British 



(3) 

Per cent 
(Col. 2 of 
Column 1) 



Women 



CD 
Total 



(2) 
Number 
married 

into 

British 

races 



(3) 

Per cent 
(Col. 2 of 
Column 1) 



Armenian 

Austrian 

Belgian 

Bulgarian 

Chinese 

Czechoslovak. . . 

Danish 

Dutch 

Finnish 

Galician 

German 

Greek 

Hungarian 

Icelandic 

Indian 

Italian 

Japanese 

Jewish 

Negro 

Norwegian 

Polish 

Roumanian 

Russian 

Serbo-Croatian.. 

Swedish 

Swiss 

Syrian 

Ukrainian 



. 37 

2,765 

517 

68 

295 

. 197 

360 

. 1.434 

368 

. .869 

7,563 

189 

.362 

448 

610 

2,162 

618 

1,554 

338 

1,313 

. 1,663 

604 

2,202 

. 112 

1,161 

190 

. 194 

2,564 



5 

37 

....49 

16 

10 

.19 

124 

623 

15 

. 4 

1,273 

52 

7 

. .59 

27 

240 

6 

25 

13 

297 

60 

.20 

.97 

10 

250 

70 

. 28 

17 



. 13-5 

1-3 

. ..9-.5- 

23-5 
3-4 
.9 -.6 

34-5 

43-4 
4-1 

. 0-.S 

16-8 

27-5 
. .1-9 

13-2 
4-4 

111 
1-0 
1-6 
3-8 

22-6 
3-6 
3-3 

' 4.4 

8-9 
21-5 
36-8 
14-4 

0-7 



...30 

2,873 

.. 522 

37 

277 

. 231 

246 

. 1,371 

401 

. .87.7 

7,833 

103 

403 

.528 

714 

1,789 

609 

1,529 

366 

. 1,384 

1,645 

594 

2,064 

91 

1,175 

. .134 

145 

2,570 



1 
45 
59 



1 

26 

97 

. 552 

20 

3 
1,470 

1 
20 
114 
62 
25 


11 

2 

321 

64 

7 
76 

4 
290 
50 
.4 
11 



3-3 

1-6 

11-3 

0-4 
11-3 

39-4 

40-3 
50 
0-3 

18-8 
1-0 
5-0 

21-6 
8-7 
1-4 

0-7 

0-5 

23-2 

3-9 

1-2 

3-7 

. 4-4 

24-7 

37-3 

2-8 

0-4 



122 ORIGINS AND INTERMARRIAGE IN THE REGISTRATION AREA 

TABLE 65.^PERCENTAGES OF MARRIED MEN AND WOMEN OF CONTINENTAL EUROPEAN ORIGIN 
MARRIED INTO THE BRITISH STOCKS AND HAVING CHILDREN BORN TO THEM IN 1921, BY 
GEOGRAPHICAL GROUPING. 



Origin 



Men 



Women 



P.O. 


P.c. 


married 


married 


into 


into 


British 


British 


stocks 


stocks 


p.c. 


p.c. 


43-4 


40-3 


13-2 


21-6 


16-8 


18-8 


34-5 


39-4 


38-8 


37-3 


21-5 


24-7 


22-6 


23-2 


9-5 


11-3 


213 


22-3 


11-1 


1-4 


0-5 


0-3 


9-6 


11-3 


8-9 


4.4 


4-4 


3-7 


36 


3-9 


1-3 


1-6 


1-9 


50 


27-5 


10 


0-7 


0-4 


3-3 


12 


41 


50 


23-5 


- 



North Western Europeans — 

Dutch 

Icelandic — 

German — 

Danish — 

Swiss 

Swedish 

Norwegian 

Belgian 

Total 

South, Eastern and Central Europeans — 

Italian 

Galician 

Czechoslovak 

Serbo-Croatian 

Russian 

Polish 

Austrian 

Hungarian 

Greek 

Ukrainian 

Roumanian 

Finnish ; 

Bulgarian 

Total 



4-2 



2-1 



TABLE 66 -PERCENTAGES OF MARRIED MEN AND WOMEN OF CONTINENTAL EUROPEAN ORIGIN 
MARRIED INTO THE BRITISH STOCKS AND HAVING CHILDREN BORN TO THEM IN 1921, BY 
. LINGUISTIC GROUPING. 



Origin 



Scandinavian- 
Icelandic 

Norwegian 

Swedish 

Danish 

Total... 

Germanic — 

Dutch 

Belgian 

German 

Total... 

Latin and Greek— 

Greek 

Italian.... 

Roumanian 

Total... 

Slavic — 

Austrian.. 

Bulgarian 

Galician 

. Polish 

Russian 

Serbo-Croatian 
Czechoslovak. . 
Ukrainian.. :.. , 

Total... 



Men 



Percentage 

married 

into 
British 
stocks 



p.c. 



13-2 

22-6 
21-5 
34-5 



1-3 

23-5 
0-5 
3-6 
4-4 



0-7 



2-5 



Women 



Percentage 
married 

into 
British 
stocks 



p.c. 



21-6 

23-2 
24-7 
39-4 



22-2 


24-7 


43-4 
9-5 
18-S 


40-3 
11-3 

18-8 


20-5 


21-4 


27-5 
111 
3-3 


1-0 
1-4 
1-2 




10-6 


1-3 



0-3 
3-9 
3-7 
4-4 
11-3 
0-4 



2-2 



INTERMARRIAGE WITH BRITISH AND FRENCH' 



123 



Bank 


Origin 


Per cent 
of married 
men mar- 
ried into 
British 
stocks 


Kank 


Origin 


Per cent 
of married 
men mar- 
ried into 
British 
stocks 


1 




43-4 
36-8 
34-5 
24-0 
23-5 
22-6 
216 
168 
14-4 
13-5 
13-2 
111 . 

9-6 

9-5 


IS 
16 
17 
13 
19 
20 
21 
22 
23 
. 24 
25 
26 
27 
28 




8-9 


2 






4.4 


3 






4.4 


4 






.41 


5 






3-8 


6 




Polish 


3-6 








3-4 








3-3 


9 






1-9 


10 






1-6 


11 






1-3 


12 






10 


13 






0-7 


14 






0-5 



That the Bulgarians, Italians and Greeks appear in the upper half of the list is attribu- 
table to the very large surpluses of adult males in Canada. It is significant that the women 
of these origins showed such small percentages as 0, 1-4 and 1-0 intermarrying with the 
British. Generally speaking, the Scandinavian and Germanic peoples showed a relatively 
large amount of intermarrying with the British, while the Slavs show very low percentages. 
Were the figures for the women examined a similar distribution would be found. Reasons 
for these differences will! be discussed in the next section. 

Before leaving this phase of the analysis, however, attention is drawn to the absolute 
magnitude of the figures. Important as are the differences between the various stocks in 
the relative degrees to which they have mixed with British stock, the absolute magnitude 
of the proportions is of as great, if not greater, significance, for they indicate the amount 
of assimilation by marriage which has already. taken place. Assimilation by this means has 
made some progress among most; of the' North Western European .peoples. It has scarcely 
begun with the South, Eastern and Central Europeans. About one-fifth of the men and 
women of Scandinavian and Germanic origin had intermarried with British stock by 1921, 
as against less than 3 p.c. of the Slavs. About one-tenth of the Greek and Italian married 
men have married with the British, but only one in a hundred of their women have taken 
husbands from the British stocks. It is apparent that many of the ingredients in Canada's 
" melting pot " have not yet begun to dissolve. 

TABLE 67— SUMMARY TABLE SHOWING PERCENTAGE OF MARRIED MEN AND WOMEN OF CONTI- 
NENTAL EUROPEAN ORIGIN MARRIED INTO BRITISH STOCKS BY GEOGRAPHICAL AND LING- 
UISTIC GROUPS, 1921 (AS INDICATED BY THE PARENTAGE OF CHILDREN BORN IN THE 
REGISTRATION AREA). 





Men 


Women 


Origin 


Per cent 
married to 

women 

of British 

origin 


Per cent 
married to 

men 
of British ' 

origin 




p.c. 

21-3 
4-2 
22-2 

20-5 
10-6 
2-7 


p.c. 

22-3 




21 




24-7 




21-4 




1-3 




2-4 







Intermarriage with those oj French Origin. — As was pointed out at the beginning, the 
data on- intermarriage do not include the province of Quebec. Next to the English speak- 
ing peoples, however, the French is the largest element numerically in the Registration 
Area. Yet it is questionable whether the difference in numbers alone is adequate to account 
for the spread between the figures in TaHe 68, showing the extent of intermarriage of Con- 
tinental European groups with French stock, and those in Table 67 showing intermarriage- 
of Continental Europeans with the British. 



124 ORIGINS AND INTERMARRIAGE IN THE REGISTRATION AREA 

TABLE 68— PERCENTAGE OF MARRIED MEN AND WOMEN OF CONTINENTAL EUROPEAN ORIGIN 
MARRIED TO FRENCH IN THE REGISTRATION AREA, BY GEOGRAPHICAL AND LINGUISTIC 
GROUPS, 1921 (AS INDICATED BY THE PARENTAGE OF CHILDREN BORN IN THE REGISTRA- 
TION AREA). 





Origin 


Men 


Women 




Per cent 

married to 

women 

of French 

stock 


Per cent 
married to 

men 

of French 

stock 




2-7- 

10 

1-9 

2-8 

2-9 

0-5 


2-3 




0-4 




1-7 




2-4 




0-2 




0-4 







TABLE 69— PERCENTAGE OF MARRIED MEN AND WOMEN OF CONTINENTAL EUROPEAN ORIGIN 
MARRIED INTO FRENCH AND BRITISH STOCKS IN THE REGISTRATION AREA, BY GEOGRAPHI- 
CAL AND LINGUISTIC GROUPS (AS INDICATED BY THE PARENTAGE OF CHILDREN BORN IN 
THE REGISTRATION AREA IN 1921). 





Origin 


Men 


Women 




Per cent 
married to 

women 

of British 

and French 

stocks 


Per cent 
married to 

men 

of British 

and French 

stocks 




p.c. 

24-0 
5-2 
24-1 
22-8 
13-5 
3-2 


p.c. 

24-6 




2-5 




26-4 




23-8 




1-5 




2-8 







Table 69 is a summary of tables 67 and 68. It gives an index of the total amount of 
assimilation by intermarriage of the Continental European stocks with the basic stocks of 
ths country, by geographical and linguistic groups. Combining the two tables does not 
alter the order found to obtain in Table 67 showing the amount of intermarriage with the 
British stocks alone, and the remarks made in connection with that table apply with equal 
force to Table 69. 

While botih tables 1 agree in showing a great amount of intermarriage on the part of 
those of North Western European . origin with the French and British, there are significant 
differences in the behaviour of the linguistic groups. The relative amount of intermarriage 
for the males of the Scandinavian, Germanic and Latin and Greek origins follows the 
reverse order in the two tables. That is to say, those who marry least with .the British, 
marry to the greatest extent with the French, and vice versa. To be specific, the men of 
Scandinavian extraction have intermarried with the British proportionately more than have 
those of Germanic origin, and they in turn more than the Latins and Greeks. On the other 
hand, the Latin and Greek males have intermarried to a greater extent with the French 
than have those of Germanic extraction, and the Germanic more than 1 the Scandinavian. It 
would thus appear that the men of Scandinavian and Germanic origin are relatively more 
easily assimilable by marriage with the British than are the Latin and Greeks, while the 
Latin and Greeks more readily assimilate with the French. In this connection it may be 
pointed out that the data on intermarriage are based on experience outside Quebec, so that 
the smallness of the numbers of Scandinavians and Germans in that province does not 
invalidate the above conclusion. 



1 That is, Tables 67 and 



RELATION BETWEEN INTERMARRIAGE AND LENGTH OF RESIDENCE 125 

THE RELATION BETWEEN INTERMARRIAGE, LENGTH OF RESIDENCE, 
SURPLUS MALES AND SIZE OF ORIGIN GROUPS 

The aim hitherto has been to examine the extent of intermarriage in the Registration 
Area in Canada. The experience of the 150,000 fathers and mothers has been taken as 
typical of all married men and women. The extent to which the various origins and groups 
of origins had intermarried up to 1921 has been noted; and particular attention was paid 
to the amount of assimilation by marriage which had taken place with the British and 
French stocks in Canada. It was found that the different stocks varied greatly in respect 
to the progress of this process of fusion, and an attempt will now be made to determine how 
far those differences were due to causes associated with the origins, and how far to extraneous 
causes such as length of residence, sex distribution and actual magnitude of the origin 
groups in Canada. 

Such factors are of great importance in explaining the proportions of exogamous 
marriages. The mere fact of recent arrival may have .precluded the possibility of inter- 
marriage, and certain peoples which show small percentages intermarrying may not be averse 
to mixing with other stocks but may merely have lacked opportunity. Other things being 
equal, the longer a group has been resident in Canada or the United States, the larger will 
tend to be the percentage of intermarriage. Again, the larger the surplus of males of 
marriageable age in a given group, the greater will be the proportion who will have to find 
partners in other stocks if they intend to marry. Further, the larger the percentage a given 
group constitutes of the total population, the greater is the chance of that group being self- 
contained in respect to marriage. This may be stated conversely and made clearer by a 
concrete illustration such as the following : The mathematical probability of a German taking 
a German wife is greater if there are fifty German women in every one hundred women of 
the population than if there are only five or ten. Such factors are more or less independent 
of the characteristics of particular stocks, and we will now proceed to determine how. far 
they account for the differences which appear. 

Lenyth oj Residence. — The first problem is to -secure a satisfactory index of length of 
residence. In Chapter III the percentages of Canadian and United States born in the several 
stocks were used in discussing this question. For rough comparisons they served fairly 
well, but while long residence is probably the most important cause of the high percentage 
North American born, it should be kept in mind that other factors are involved. First, 
birth rate: a stock with a high birth rate will show a higher percentage Canadian and 
United States born than one with a low birth rate, assuming that other things are equal in 
all respects. Further, a group of immigrants among whom the numbers of the sexes are 
nearly equal will show a higher percentage born in North America after a given period, 
than one with a largo surplus of males. A surplus of unmarried males does not reproduce 
itself, while, when the numbers are approximately equal, the implication is that a larger 
percentage of the adult men and women are married and making additions to the numbers 
of their respective origins born on this continent. Finally, in cases where immigration has 
been very recent and in comparatively great volume, the percentage Canadian and United 
States born may be temporarily reduced. Where, on the other hand, immigration has been 
arrested for a few years, a moderately prolific stock may show a high proportion born on 
this continent within a comparatively short time. However, with all these qualifications, 
in most normal cases the longer the people of a particular origin have been resident in 
Canada or the United States, the larger will tend to be the percentage North American 
born. Since it is the best index available for the purpose, we will venture to use it again in 
examining the data on intermarriage. 

It is recalled in passing that large percentages of certain origins, notably Scandinavian, 
have immigrated to Canada from the United States, and because of this and the similarity 
of the cultures in the two countries, the total Canadian and United States born was con- 
sidered more suitable for the purpose of the analysis of Chapter II than the Canadian born 
alone. In so far as the tendency to intermarriage is related to length of residence, residence 
in the United States is the equivalent of residence in Canada. 



126 ORIGINS AND INTERMARRIAGE IN THE ' REGISTRATION AREA' 

The influence of length of residence as indicated by percentage North' American borti 
may be illustrated from Table 70. Some 74 p.c. of the married men of Danish extraction 
had married outside their own stock, and. over 91 p.c. of the Danes in Canada were born on 
this continent. The proportions on both counts were exceptionally high. The figures for 
the Swiss were 73 p.c. for intermarriage and 75 p.c. North American horn. On the other hand 
only 23.5 p.c. of the Roumanian men had contracted exogamous marriages, and that group 
showed the small proportion of 46 p.c. North American born. Less than 38 p.c. of the 
Belgians were born in Canada and the United States, and they showed the small figure of 
28. 2 p.c. males marrying with other peoples. From these examples it is obvious that length 
of residence and intermarriage are related. 

Yet we have ample evidence that length of residence in itself is by no means adequate 
to account for the varying proportions. The colour barrier is more important. The data 
for the Japanese, Indians and Negroes show this fact very clearly. Further, time seems to 
have little effect on the Hebrew aversion to intermarriage, and as a result that people may 
also be regarded as permanently unassimilable by marriage with the other peoples of Canada. 
The Ukrainians, with nearly 55 p.c. North American born, have intermarried to an almost 
negligible extent. The proportion of North American born is larger than that for any other 
Slavic people, yet the amount of intermarriage for their men is not appreciably greater 
than that for the Negroes and Chinese. The percentage of their women intermarrying is also 
very small. Nor are considerations as to length of residence in themselves adequate to 
explain the intermingling of the Austrians or Galicians with other stocks. Their men have 
married into other stocks to an extent only equal to the aboriginal Indians and their 
women to a smaller extent than the Negroes. Yet over half of both of these groups are 
North American born. The Poles and Russians are the other two important Slavic peoples 
in Canada. About the same proportions of these as of the Galicians and Austrians were 
born on this continent, yet twice the amount of intermarriage has taken place. Further, 
the Swedes with virtually the same percentage North American born as the four Slavic stocks 
mentioned, show a proportion married outside their own stock double that of the Poles 
and Russians and more than four times 'greater than that for the Austrians and Ukrainians. 
Such examples could be multiplied. Important as is length of residence, other influences 
are at work. Causes associated with origin naturally suggest themselves, but other more 
or less extraneous conditions exist, and attention is next directed to sex distribution. Since 
this factor is subject to definite measurement' it can be isolated and receive separate treat- 
ment. 

Sex Distribution. — It has been suggested that sex distribution is something apart from 
origin, yet that is not strictly accurate. Indeed, in one sense it is primarily a matter of 
stocks, for, as was pointed out in Chapter III, certain peoples send as emigrants to Canada 
large proportions of unattached men, while emigration from other parts is composed chiefly 
of married men with wives and families. In some easeis, however, the large surplus of males 
is due mainly to legal restrictions on immigration, as in the case of the Chinese and Japanese ; 
and it might be argued that Europe furnishes many instances where the proportions of the 
sexes emigrating are determined by economic and other conditions in the homeland, quite 
apart from considerations of the stocks. But the principal reason why sex distribution was 
referred to above as extraneous to origin is that, given different .proportions of males and 
females of marriageable age in a population group, the mathematical chance of a man 
marrying a woman of the same origin is entirely different from that of a woman choosing a 
husband of like stock. The men- and the women are of the same origin, but the extent of 
endogamous marriage is influenced by their relative numbers. The differences in the rates 
for the two sexes are conditioned by the accident of sex distribution, even though that 
accident may be regarded as partially attributable to the characteristics of the particular 
stocks. 

By way of illustrating the influences of sex, a few examples may be chosen from the 
data in Table 70. Nearly seven times as large a proportion of Chinese men as women inter- 
marry, which is in part due to the fact that there are thirty-three times more adult males 
than females of that origin in Canada. The Greeks, with a five times greater proportion of 



RELATION OF SEX DISTRIBUTION TO INTERMARRIAGE 1*7 

men intermarrying and a surplus of 370 p.c. adult males, furnish, a second illustration. 
Other similar cases are the Bulgarians, Japanese, Serbo-Croatians and Italians All of those 
peoples are characterized by large surpluses of males. .Generally speaking, where the 
surplus of males is great, the proportion of males. intermarrying is large as compared with, the 
proportion for the women. Conversely, where the inequality in the numbers is not marked, 
the proportions of men and women marrying outside the group usually tend to be' more 
nearly equal. 

But there appears to be yet another factor involved, quite apart from differences in 
the relative numbers of the sexes. If one selects the 7 non-British and non-French peoples 
with the smallest surpluses of males 21 years and over in Canada, they are found to be 
the following: Icelandic, Indian, Hebrew, Dutch, Germ an, Negro and Hungarian; the Ice- 
landers with only 2 p.c. surplus males being the lowest, and the others mentioned in ascend- 
ing order. Now in 5 out of those 7 cases, larger proportions of the women have contracted 
exogamous marriages than of the men. This points to the conclusion that when sex 
inequalities are eliminated women are less conservative than men in crossing the line in 
marriage. 

However, before dwelling on that point, the two exceptions should be dealt with, viz., 
the Jews and the Dutch. The first case, that of the Jews, is readily explained by the rigid 
attitude of the Jews with regard to intermarriage acting as a greater deterrent to a daughter 
contemplating an exogamous. marriage than to a son. While other factors may be involved, 
it is probable that the one mentioned is the most important. At least it seems adequate 
to explain the situation. 

With the Dutch the explanation is more difficult. The pecularity may be a distinct 
characteristic of the group in respect to •marriage preferences, but other factors are involved 
in terms of which at least a plausible explanation may be found. . The Dutch, in the eastern 
provinces are, as a group, the. oldest non-British and non-French residents in Canada, and 
they show the largest proportions marrying with the British. Indeed in the East the Dutch 
have already intermarried with the British to so great an extent that they are almost 
indistinguishable from those appearing on the census records as of British stock. Conse- 
quently, it tends to be a matter of indifference to one of Dutch origin in Ontario whether 
he marries a wife of British or Dutch stock. The same tends to obtain with the women. 
Since there is no barrier in the case of either sex, no occasion arises for the women to 
appear less conservative than the men in crossing the line. Further, that the men appear 
to intermarry to a greater extent, can.be explained by the fact that men •move about and 
meet more people than do the women. In the West the situation as to barriers .to inter- 
marriage is entirely different. The majority of those classified as Dutch in the three 
prairie provinces in 1921 are Menaionites, who have intermarried to no great extent with the 
British or French nor indeed with any other stock in Canada. They live in more or less 
isolated communities and are entirely agricultural people. The women rarely leave the 
farms or villages, but the men are able to move about the country, -and although they do 
not congregate in the cities in the. West, the young men are seen very frequently in the 
towns and villages adjacent to their communities. So with the Mennonites also one would 
not be surprised to find the men, because of the opportunity of meeting people of other 
origins, marrying outside their group to a greater extent than the women. 

Having disposed of the two exceptions, one again puts forward the suggestion and with 
greater confidence, that the tendency among women, of most stocks other than British and 
French to marry outside their respective groups is greater than that among the men. If 
further research establishes the existence of such a tendency, it may prove to be the result 
of a true sex difference or it may be largely a matter of residence. In Chapter V it was 
shown that in the case of immigrants from virtually every foreign country, larger percent- 
ages of females than males live in urban districts. Urban life is more cosmopolitan, and 
with large proportions of women of a given origin living in incorporated cities, towns and 
villages, it is natural to expect, other things being equal, that they would show a large pro- 
portion marrying into other stocks. Thus, in examining Table 70 both the difference in 



128 ORIGINS AND INTERMARRIAGE IN THE REGISTRATION AREA 

sex distribution and in the behaviour of the sexes (entirely apart from their relative num- 
bers), should be kept in mind as possible factors in explaining the differences in the per- 
centages of males and females married to wives and husbands of origins other than their 
own. 

Attention is now directed to another aspect of sex distribution and probably the most 
important one. How far do differences in the proportions of surplus men account for the 
differences appearing in the percentages of men of the several origins who have inter- 
married with other stocks? Obviously they are related. The Greeks with 370 p.c. surplus 
males shoiw an intermarriage figure of 51-3 p.c. for their men, while the Belgians with only 
38 p.c. surplus males show the small-figure of 28-2 p.c. of their married males married to 
wives of different origin. The length of residence of the two peoples on the North American 
continent is about the same. While there are instances where the connection is not so 
obvious, it will be demonstrated that a positive relation between surplus males and pro- 
portions intermarrying always exists. 

TABLE 70.— INTERMARRIAGE, SEX DISTRIBUTION, PERCENTAGE NORTH AMERICAN BORN 
AND PROPORTIONS OF TOTAL POPULATION IN CANADA, FOR SPECIFIED ORIGINS, 1921. 



Origin 


1 

Per cent 
of married 

males 

ma ried to 

wives of 

different 

origin 1 


2 

Per cent 
of married 

females 

married to 
husbands of 

different 
origin 1 


3 

Per cent 
of surplus 
males in 
population 
21 years 
of age 
and over 


4 

Per cent 

of origin 

North 

American 

born 


5 

Per cent 

which 

adults of 

each origin 

constitute 

of total 

adult 

population 

of Canada 




29-7 
10-6 
28-2 
48-5 

71 
34-5 
74-2 
53-0 

9-2 
10-5 
24-8 
51-3 

4-2 
14-4 
16-7 
100 
19-3 

1-8 

71 
41-3 
20-0 
23-5 
22-8 
33-0 
44-6 
73-7 
29-9 

7-5 


13-3 

14-0 

28-9 

5-4 

11 

44-2 

62-2 

50-8 

16-7 

11-3 

27-3 

10-7 

2-6 

23-1 

29-4 

23-1 

2-5 

0-2 

14-2 

44-3 

19-1 

22-2 

17-6 

17-6 

45-3 

62-7 

6-2 

7-7 


57 
38 
738 
3,263 
41 
67 
13 
61 

15 

370 

10 

28 

2 

3 

116 

153 

20 

60 

48 

101 

57 

228 

74 

34 

63 

48 


28-4 
53-4 
• 37-0 
15-6 
7-6 
55-8 
91-4 
61-7 
43-6 
52-6 
85-3 
32-8 
44-2 
54-4 
61-4 
99-8 
45-9 
27-4 
91-8 
66-5 
54-6 
45-8 
55-8 
42-3 
54-2 
75 
52-8 
54-4 






0-97 




0-23 




003 




0-71 




009 




0-24 


Dutch 


1-33 


Finnish 


0-24 








3-26 




0-08 


Hebrew 


1-27 




0-12 


Icelandic 


0-18 


Indian 






0-70 




0-22 




0-22 




0-77 


Polish 


0-50 




014 




0-92 




0-05 




0-73 




0-16 




0-08 




0-91 







1 As shown by parentage of children born in the Registration Area in 1921. 

The Size oj the Group. — A third factor which is in no way hereditary and at the same 
time can be definitely measured, is the proportion that the several groups constitute of the 
total population. Other things being equal, the smaller the group the more easily it will 
be assimilated by marriage with the numerically dominant groups among which it is 
placed, and conversely, the larger the group the greater the difficulty. One might cite 
instances from Table 70 to illustrate the point. As in the case- of length of residence aind 
sex distribution, however, there are many cases where it is submerged toy other influences. 

Correlation. — The method, of analysis followed hitherto has obvious limitations. When 
the amount of intermarriage is compared with any one of the factors mentioned above, 
namely, length of residence, sex distribution or size of group, it is found that the other two 
exercise a disturbing influence sometimes counteracting and sometimes accentuating the 
effect of the factor under consideration. The fact is that all three are operative at the 



RELATION SEX DISTRIBUTION, SIZE OF GROUPS TO INTERMARRIAGE 129 



same time. Now it is of prime importance to determine both their combined and several 
effects on intermarriage— their combined effect, because if they do not account for the 
actual proportions of intermarriage occurring other influences must be at work. The sepa- 
rate influence of each is significant because it assists .in explaining the present situation 
and also constitutes a basis for prediction as to the future. The method of multiple and 
partial correlation enables one to generalize on the basis of the experience of the stocks 
examined, and the regression equation makes possible prediction of the expected amount 
of intermarriage for each group in terms of the three independent variables, namely, length 
of residence, surplus males and size of the " origin " group. 

In computing the correlation, the proportion of exogamous marriages among males of 
each origin was taken as the dependent variable. Data for all European peoples except 
the Bulgarians and Greeks were used, making 20 cases in all. The Greeks and Bulgarians 
were omitted, because the extremely large proportions of surplus males would exercise an 
undue influence and distort the result. Only white stocks were included, for the colour 
barrier places the Negroes, Indians and Orientals in a class by themselves. 

The value R = + -76 was obtained for the multiple coefficient and suitable tests were 
applied to prove its reliability. The coefficient is quite large and demonstrates that length 
of residence, surplus males and size of the population combine to exert a very important 
influence on the proportion of males who have intermarried'; and what is of equal importance, 
it incidentally makes clear that these three factors of themselves are by no means adequate 
to account for the entire spread between the figures for the several stocks. There is a 
residuum which must be explained in terms of physical, psychological, social and other 
peculiarities associated with the various groups. This will be elaborated in due course. 

The regression equation is as follows — 

Xi = 1-37X 2 + 0-I2X s — 15- lOX-j — 46-56. 
Where Xi.= the percentage of married males in a given stock who have intermarried. 
X2 = the percentage of the stock North American born. 
X 3 = the surplus males per 100 females (21 years and over) . 
X 4 = the percentage which the adults of each origin constitute of the total 
adult population of Canada. 

The equation reveals several interesting facts; first, other things being equal, an addition 
of one p.c. in the percentage North American born increases the expected proportion of males 
intermarrying 1-37 p.c, and an addition of one p.c. in the surplus of adult males increases 
intermarriage 0-12 p.c. As was suggested above the influence of both, increasing length of 
residence and an excess of males is to raise the proportion of men marrying outside their 
own stock. 

A second point of interest is that a difference of one p.c. in the percentage of North 
American born is between 11 and 12 times more important from the point of view of the 
proportion of males intermarrying than a similar percentage difference in the surplus of 
males (21 years of age and over). 

In the third place it is made clear by the equation that other things being equal the 
larger the group the less marked is the tendency to intermarry. An increase of one p*. 
in ithe proportion that the adults of a given origin constitute of the total adult population 
of Canada exerts a negative influence on intermarriage many times greater than the com- 
bined influence of an increase of one p.c. in the proportion North American born and one 
p.c. in the surplus 06 males. 

Of course the chances of a change of one p.c. are by no means equal in the three cases. 
A more definite idea of their actual importance under the conditions existing in 1921 is 
obtained by substituting the standard deviations of X 2 , X 3 and X 4 , respectively, in the 
regression equation. It is found that fluctuations which actually occurred in the percentage 
North American born had an influence on fluctuations in intermarriage over three times 
greater than had differences in the proportions of surplus males. Similarly, the size of the 
group, though a third less important than length of residence, was twice as potent as sex 
distribution in determining the deviations of the proportions of males intermarrying from 
74422—9 



130 



ORIGINS AND INTERMARRIAGE IN THE REGISTRATION AREA 



the figure for . the average group. One finds also that the combined positive influence of 
length of residence and surplus of males was a little over twice as great as was the negative 
influence of large numbers. 

By substituting values for X2, X3 and X4 in the above equation for each of the specified 
stocks (using data given in Columns 3, 4 and 5 of Table 70) the expected value of Xi was 
computed for each group. These are plotted in Chart 28 and the several points are con- 
nected by straight lines. The actual values of Xi, as given in Column 1, Table 70, are also 
indicated on the chart and attention is directed to their distribution and its significance. . 

In the light of length of residence (as shown by percentage North American born), 
percentage surplus males and the size of the group in Canada, the expected percentage of 
intermarriage for the men of Swedish origin was 25 p.c; the actual amount which had 
occurred was 45 p.c, a proportion four-ififths greater than expectation. On the other hand, 
the expected percentage of intermarriage for the men of Ukrainian origin was 20 p-c.; the 
actual only 9 p.c. or less than half the expected. Of the 20 stocks, 19 are listed below, with 
the actual amount of intermarriage expressed as a percentage of the computed expectation 
in ,each case. The twentieth is the Hebrew stock, and as the expected rate in this case 
worked out to practically zero, to express the 4 p.c. which actually occurred as a percentage 
of expectation would be meaningless. 



Hank 


Origin 


Actual 

intermarriage 

as percentage 

of expected 

(for males) 


1 . 




p.c. 
538 


2 




176 


3 




173 


4 




127 


5 •. 




109 


6 




102 


7 




101 


8 




08 


9 




97 


10 




92 


11 . 




89 






89 






88 




Polish 


74 






58 






53 


17 




50 


18 




48 






39 









The reason the coefficient of correlation was not higher than + -76 is made evident by 
the above table. For many of the peoples the actual amount of intermarriage was con- 
siderably in excess of the expected; for others, the actual rate fell 1 far short of expectation:. 
Thus length of residence, sex distribution and numerical strength combined, are not adequate 
to account for the behaviour of the different stocks in' respect of intermarriage. The per- 
formance of many of the groups differs very considerably from what' was anticipated. The 
question naturally arises as to why this should be so, and in seeking an answer one finds it 
necessary to pass from the realm of extraneous and more or less accidental causes to a 
consideration of influences m'ore intimately associated with hereditary and cultural 
characteristics of the various stocks. Indeed there could be no more conclusive proof 
that peculiarities of the different origin groups aTe of major importdhce in the matter of 
assimilation than the fact that these external factors are not adequate to account for the 
behaviour of the data. 

What then are the differences in terms of which an explanation must be found? There 
are many types and only a few of the principal ones will be mentioned. 

(1) Physiological. — This, coupled with associated psychological implications, oocurs 
first to the mind of the biologist when the term " stock " is mentioned. Indeed the connota- 
tion of the word is often confined to such characteristics. We have seen that between stocks 
of different colour such barriers are of major importance. How important physical differences 



ACTUAL AND EXPECTED INTERMARRIAGE 



131' 



Chart XXVIII 



ACTUAL PERCENTAGEop INTERMARRIAGEfciRCLEsiCOMPAREDwiiH 
PERCENTAGES PREDICTED cmUd line) from CONDITIONS of E XCE SS 
ofMALES, NORTH AMERICAN BIRTH ano SIZE of ORIGIN GROUPS 



5 I 



i I 



< < < 

i i 3 

Jj UJ 3 



a 2 























tc 




E 






" •* 


z 






-as 

-80 

- 75 

- 70 
-SS 

- 60 
-SS 
-SO 

-*s- 

-3S- 
. 30- 




















































































































































i <> 














































































O ACTUAL 






A 


























— 


PRED 


ICTEC 


> 






























' ( 
















































































































































< 


> 








-25- 


< 


> 


































■ 20- 
- 16- 


















< 


) 




























< 


















< 












- 10- 






< 
















< 


















- •> - 




J < 




i 
































( 

-■o J" 









































are in arresting intermarriage between the white stocks is a matter of opinion. They 
certainly exist, but there appears to be no method of isolating or measuring their influence. 
(2) Social and Cultural.— One may include under this heading the general manner of 
life, social standards and ideals, customs and religions, etc. For some stocks these are very 
similar to those obtaining in Canada, and in such cases assimilation by intermarriage is 
comiparatively easy. For others, differences of this sort raise allmost, insuperable barriers 
which can only be lowered by a long and tedious process, for the simple reason that inter- 
marriage, the most potent agency of destroying them, tends to be precluded by their very 
existence. 

(4) Occupational— While occupation is not properly a characteristic of particular stocks, ' 
Canadian experience provides many illustrations of groups following certadn occupations 
almost exclusively, and doing grades of work which the dominant stocks of Canada either 
avoid or are forced to relinquish. Occupational segregation is invariably a hindrance to 
intermarriage. 
7M22-91 



132 ORIGINS AND INTERMARRIAGE IN THE REGISTRATION AREA 



(5) Rural and Urban Distribution.— -This is to some extent a matter of " origin ", using 
the term, of course, in its broad sense. Certain- groups, as we find them in Canada at least, 
are essentially urban and others are predominantly rural. Special reference will be made to 
this factor in the subsequent discussion. 

(6) Segregation— The herd instinct is much more highly developed with some of the 
foreign stocks in' Canada than with others. It is in evidence among rural people as well as 
among urban. By merely reducing the chance of meeting and mixing with other people, 
it is a great hindrance to intermarriage, and, when coupled with social and cultural 
characteristics incompatible with Canadian ideas, it is a barrier of the first importance. 

' Returning now to the table showing the extent to which the various stocks under review 
had measured up to expectation in respect to intermarriage, let us first note those at the 
top and those at the bottom of the list, and then see what light is thrown on the subject 
by such of the differences as are capable of statistical treatment. 

In 7 cases, out of 19 the amount of intermarriage up to 1921 exceeded expectation. All 
of those groups, except the Czechoslovaks, are North Western Europeans. With the excep- 
tion of the Dutch and. Icelanders, those showing percentages less than. 100 are South, Eastern 
and Central Europeans. The broad statement is justified that those of North Western 
European origin, as presently located in Canada, are distinctly more amenable to assimi- 
lation by marriage with other stocks, while with the South, Eastern and Central Europeans 
assimilation is abnormally difficult. 

Moreover, these differences in assimilability are of no mean order. Confining attention 
to foreign stocks of numerical importance in Canada, one finds that intermarriage for the 
'Swedes and Danes exceeded the expected amount by 75 p.c; that for the Austrians fell 
short by 42 p.c, and the. figure for the Ukrainians was 61 p.c. below expectation. From 
75 p.c. above expectations to 61 p.c. below is a wide spread, and denotes a great gulf between 
such important groups as the Swedes and Ukrainians in respect to assimilability by inter- 
marriage with other peoples in Canada. 

When the several stocks are arranged in linguistic groups some interesting facts appear. 



Origin 



Scandinavian — 

Swedish 

Danish 

Norwegian 

Ioelandic 

Germanic — 

Belgian 

German 

Dutch 

Latin and Greek — 

Italian 

Roumanian 

Slavic — 

Czechoslovak.. 

Russian 

Serbo-Croatian 

Polish 

Austrian 

Ukrainian 



Actual 

intermarriage 

as percentage 

of expected 

(for males) 



176 
173 
101 
48 

538 
109 
89 



102 



74 
58 
39 



All of Scandinavian and Germanic extraction .except the Icelandic and Dutch show 
percentages above expectation (100 p.c.) ; all the Latin and Greek and Slavic peoples except 
the Czechoslovaks show percentages below. This seems to be conclusive evidence of the 
existence of differences as between the groups of stocks in regard to assimilability by inter- 
marriage with other stocks in Canada. For the first two, racial characteristics and geogra- 
phical distribution favour intermarriage and in several cases to a very marked degree; for 
the lattter two they are unfavourable and for a number of important origins notably so. 

Segregation. — The exceptional cases call for comment. Three of them, namely, the 
[celanders, Ukrainians and Dutch, are splendid illustrations of the influence of segregation. 



RELATION OF SEGREGATION TO INTERMARRIAGE 133 

In Chapter IV dt was pointed out that the bulk of the Scandinavians and Ukrainians are 
found in the western provinces, consequently a survey of their distribution in Manitoba, 
Saskatchewan and Alberta is adequate for our purpose. 

Of all those of foreign origin in the Prairie Provinces, the Icelanders and Ukrainians 
show the greatest tendency to rural segregation. In Manitoba, 55 p.c. of the Icelanders 
are in one out of the 15 electoral districts existing in 1921 ; in Saskatchewan, 65 p.c. in 
one out of 16; in Alberta, though their numbers aTe comparatively small, a total of 55 p.c, 
are in two out of 12 electoral districts. The Ukrainians are much more numerous than the 
Icelanders in each of the three provinces and there are more cases of segregation. In- 
Manitoba, 80 p.c. of this group is found in five electoral distracts, in Saskatchewan 41 p.c, 
in one and S3 p.c. in five, and in Alberta 55 p.c. in one and 79 p.o, jin two out of the 
dozen districts in that province. When the analysis is carried to the smaller districts within 
the electoral areas, the tendency to segregate is even more marked. For example, 87 p.c. of 
the Ukrainians in Census Division I of Manitoba are located in 'one- subdistrict of which 
they constitute 77 p.c. of the population. In Census Divisions 5, 12 and 13 totals of 79 p.c, 
85 p.c. and 89 p.c. respectively are found in three of the subdistricts in each division. 
Similar cases occur in Saskatchewan and Alberta. 

A comparison of the Icelanders and the other Scandinavians throws further light on the 
subject. In Manitoba and Saskatchewan, the Icelanders show as high proportions as 55 p.c. 
and 65 p.c. of their number in one electoral district; 23 p.c. is the highest figure shown for 
any of the other three Scandinavian peoples and that is for the Norwegians, for whom actual 
intermarriage exceeded expectation by the smallest percentage. The behaviour of the 
different stocks in the Scandinavian group furnishes additional confirmation of the thesis 
that segregation is an important influence in preventing intermarriage. 

The case of the Dutch provides a further illustration. There were about as many 
Dutch in the three Prairie Provinces as in Ontario. In Ontario they were widely scattered, 
but in Manitoba 64 p.c. were found in one and 76 p.c. in two electoral districts, and in 
Saskatchewan 38 p.c. in one. In Alberta they are more evenly divided. The figure for the 
Dutch is only moderately below the expected amount of intermarriage, which seems to 
be consistent with their segregating in two provinces and failing to do so in the others. 
The Mennonites called themselves Dutch in 1921, and it is in the districts where Mennonites 
are settled that segregation appears. 

That segregation is an important influence may be illustrated in another way by the 
data for those of Dutch origin. The tendency to segregate becomes less marked in passing 
from Manitoba west. If segregation is an important influence one would expect a smaller 
percentage of intermarriage for the Dutch in the province of Manitoba than in Saskatchewan 
and in Saskatchewan than Alberta. The Annual report on Vital Statistics for 1925 shows 
the origin of parents of children born in that year. In Manitoba, 19 p.c. of the Dutch 
fathers had married into other stocks; 32 p.c. in Saskatchewan and 57 p.c. in Alberta. 
Segregation is not the sole explanation of these differences, but is probably a significant one. 

Passing to the Czechoslovaks, it is not surprising that they exceeded expectation in 
respect to the amount of intermarriage, while other people from South, -Eastern and, 
Central Europe fell short. Czechs are quite different from the Russians, Austrians, Poles 
and Ukrainians, and appear to be much more easily assimilated. 

The influence of city as opposed to country residence on intermarriage is difficult to 
demonstrate, as the rural and urban distribution of the various " origin " groups in 
Canada is not conveniently available. Other things being equal, however, people who 
congregate in cities would be expected to intermarry more than those who prefer rural 
life and follow rural occupations. On this basis, one would expect intermarriage for the 
Italians to far exceed expectation, because they show much larger percentages in larger 
cities. The failure to do so may be attributed, at least in part to the marked tendency 
to segregate in large cities or quarters — a tendency which also characterizes the Hebrew 
and other stocks. 

A similar examination of the data for other stocks, furnishes conclusive evidence' that 
segregation is much less marked than in the case of those stocks which are backward in 



134 ORIGINS AND INTERMARRIAGE IN THE REGISTRATION AREA 



the matter of intermarriage. It is not a coincidence that those who segregate most, fall 
furthest short of expectation in intermarriage. 

Data are available in the census which could be used to throw considerable light on 
the relation between 1 origin, religion and intermarriage, but the purpose in this chapter is 
not primarily to examine the various characteristics which are favourable and unfavourable 
to assimilation. Important as are these considerations, such detailed analysis is beyond 
the scope of this report. Attention, however, has been given to the influence of segregation 
partly bcause of its importance and partly by way of explaining certain exceptional results. 
The principal purpose of this section has been to demonstrate that aside from the extraneous 
influence of length of residence, sex distribution and numerical strength, particular stocks 
differ very radically in assimilability by intermarriage with the other stocks in Canada. 

ASSIMILABILITY WITH THE BRITISH 

In the previous section an attempt was made to demonstrate that the " origin " groups 
differ in respect to ease of assimilation by marriage with other stocks in general. This 
section has to do with their assimilability with the British stocks in particular. In the. 
discussion of the general question of assimilation, it was necessary to eliminate more or 
less extraneous influences before the intrinsic differences could be isolated and studied. 
It is possible, however, to secure in a very simple manner what might be termed' an index 
of comparative assimilability with a single stock like the British. This may be best illus- 
trated by an example. According to the figures for 1921, 82 p.c. of the Dutch males who 
married outside their group married British wives, but only 12-6 p.c. of the Austrian men 
who intermarried chose mates of British origin. 

What exactly is implied in these figures? In the first place the difference is only slightly 
influenced by length of residence, because the percentages are taken of those who actually 
married outside. It is true that length of residence is eloseily connected with the amount of 
intermarriage which has taken place at any given time, but correlation makes it clear that 
it has a very moderate influence on the proportion of those who married into the British • 
rather than into the other stocks. The coefficient of correlation by method of rank differ- 
ences with the percentage North America born was only + -21. Sex distribution was found 
to be even less closely related, and it is difficult to trace any connection between 
the proportion of those marrying outside their stock who married ,British and the 
numerical strength of the group in Canada. These three more or less extraneous factors, 
which were given prominence in discussing the general problem of intermarriage, may be 
considered as of minor consequence in investigating the present aspect of the problem of 
assimilation. 

It is necessary at this point to raise the question as to what proportion of exogamous 
marriages should be contracted with the British on the basis of mere chance. In no province 
in the Registration Area was there less than '50 p.c. of the population of British origin. 
Consequently, assuming no discrimination against the British as compared with the other 
stocks and assuming no discrimination on the part of the British against any foreign stock, 
at least 50 p.c. of those of each foreign origin, who married outside their group might be 
expected to have taken mates of British stock. Now, when a group shows so small a per- 
centage as 12-6 p.c. in the face of an expected rate of at least 50 p.c, the inference is that 
one of two things interfered. Either hereditary barriers stood in the way or there was a 
lack of opportunity of meeting the British because of segregation, or both. As was pointed 
out above, even the tendency to segregation is largely a matter of " origins". It would 
seem, then, that the percentages of the several groups marrying out who married into the 
British stocks may be regarded as a very fair indication of relative assimilability with the 
British, under existing conditions of geographical distribution. 

It should be kept clearly in mind that these percentages do mot constitute an absolute 
measure of assimilability. To get an absolute index one would have to take into con- 
sideration the proportion of the total married who married British, and follow a procedure 
similar to that in the last subsection. Perhaps this may be made clearer as follows: — Total 
intermarriage may be either large or small without affecting the percentage of those crossing 



ASSIMILABILITY WITH THE BRITISH 



135 



the lines of their own stock who marry into Anglo-Saxon stock. The index 'here con- 
sidered compares the barriers to marriage with the British with those to marriage with all 
other Stock, including among such barriers those arising out of the territorial distribution of 
the population as at the date of the last census. The data on which the analysis is based 
are presented in Tables 71 and 72. 

A cursory examination of the foregoing tables will be adequate to show that there is 
wide variation not only in the proportions of men and women who had married outside 
their respective " origin " groups, but also in the percentages of those who had married into 
the British stocks. Taking first the men as shown in Table 71, while 74 pjc. of the Danes 
had married outside their own stock, and 46 p.c. of these had married women of British 
origin, only 7-5 p.c. of the Ukrainians had married outside that "origin" group, and of those 
less than 9 p.c. married women of British origin. Or compare the Icelanders and Swedes. 
More than half the Swedes had married' into other stocks, and almost half of these had 
married British. On the other hand, fewer than a fifth of the Icelanders had married outside 
their own stock, but of those who had done so, over three-quarters married women of British 
origin. The Finns do not mix, from the marriage standpoint, with any other stock. Only 
a tenth of the Galicians had contracted mixed marriages, and of these less than a twentieth 
married British. 

Quite as diverse examples may be found in Table 72 giving the same data for the 
women. Half the Dutch women had intermarried, and four-fifths of them had married men 
of British stock. The Danes, Norwegians, Swedes and Swiss show similarly high percentages. 
Yet only a tenth of the Greek women had intermarried, and scarcely a tenth of these 
married men of British origin. Two and a half p.c. of the Jewish women had married 
outside the Jewish stock. Roughly, a quarter of that two and a half p.c. had married British. 

If the peoples in Tables 71 and 72 be arranged in rank, according to the percentages of 
mixed marriages which had been contracted with men and women of British origin, and also 
grouped according to colour, original geographical habitat and language, a clear idea will 
be given as to the differences between the " origin ". groups in this regard. 

TABLE 71— NUMBER AND PERCENTAGES OF MARRIED MEN MARRIED TO WIVES OF DIFFERENT 
ORIGINS, AND THE PROPORTION OF THOSE WHO MARRIED INTO BRITISH STOCKS. 

(As indicated by parentage of children born in the Registration Area in 1921). 



Origin 


(i) 

Number 

of married 

men 


(2) 

Number 

married 

outside 

their origin 

group 


(3) 

Number 

married to 

British 


(4) 

Per cent 
col. (2) 
of (1) 


(5) 

Per cent 

col. (3) of 

col. (2) 




37 

2,765 
517 
68 
295 
197 
360 

1,434 

368 

17,908 

869 

7,563 
189 
362 
448 
610 

2,162 
618 

1,554 
338 

1,313 

1,663 
604 

2,202 
112 

1,161 
190 
194 

2,564 


11 

294 

146 

33 

21 

•68 

267 

760 

34 

2,703 

91 

1,872 

97 

52 

75 

61 

418 

10 

65 

24 

542 

333 

142 

502 

37 

518 

140 

58 

192 


5 

37 

49 

16 

10 

19 

124 

623 

15 

2,199 

4 

1,273 

52 

7 

59 

• 27 

240 

6 

25 

13 

297 

60 

20 

97 

10 

250 

70 

28 

17 


29-7 

10-6 

28-2 

48-5 

7-1 

34-5 

74-2 

53-0 

9-2 

15-1 

10-5 

24-8 

51 3 

14-4 

16-7 

10-0 

19-3 

1-6 

4-2 

7-1 

41-3 

20-0 

23-5 

22-8 

330 

44-6 

73-7 

29-9 

7-5 


45-5 




12-6 




33-6 




48-5 




47-6 




27-9 




46-4 


Dutch 


82-0 




44-1 




81-4 




4-4 




68-0 




53-6 




13-5 




78-7 




44-3 




57-4 




60-0 




38-4 




54-2 




54-8 


Polish 


180 




14-1 




19-3 




27-0 




48-3 




50-0 




48-3 




8-9 







13b ORIGINS AND INTERMARRIAGE IN THE REGISTRATION AREA 



™*LE 72.— NUMBER AND PERCENTAGES OF MARRIED WOMEN MARRIED TO HUSBANDS OT? 

DIFFERENT ORIGIN, AND THE PROPORTION OF THOSE WHO MARRIED INTO BRITISH STOCK 

(As indicated by parentage of children born in the Registration Area in 1921) 



Origin 



Armenian 

Austrian 

Belgian 

Bulgarian 

Chinese 

Czechoslovak.. 

Danish 

Dutch 

Finnish 

French 

Galician 

German 

Greek 

Hungarian 

Icelandic 

Indian 

Italian.^ 

Japanese 

Jewish 

Negro 

Norwegian 

Polish 

Roumanian 

Russian.... 

Serbo-Croatian 

Swedish 

Swiss 

Syrian 

Ukrainian 



(1) 

Number 

of married 

women 



30 
,873 
622 

37 
277 
231 
246 
,371 
401 
858 
877 
833 
103 
403 
528 
714 
789 
609 
528 
366 
384 
645 
594 
064 

91 
175 
134 
145 
570 



(2) 

Number 

married 

outside 

origin 

group 



4 

402 

151 

2 

3 

102 

153 

697 

67 

3,653 

99 

2,142 

11 

93 

155 

165 

45 

1 

39 

52 

613 

315 

132 

364 

16 

532 

84 

9 

204 



(3) 

Number 

married to 

British 



1 

45 

59 



1 

26 

97 

522 

20 

2,751 

3 

1,470 

1 

■ '20 

114 

62 

25 



11 

2 

321 

64 

7 

76 

4 

290 

50 

4 

11 



(4) 

Per cent 

col. (2) of 

col. (1) 



13-3 
14-0 
28-9 
5-4 
11 
44-2 
62-2 
50-8 
16-7 
19-4 
11-3 
27-3 
10-7 
23-2 
29-4 
23-1 
2-5 

2-6 
14-2 
44-3 
191 

22-2 
17-6 
17-6 
45-3 
62-7 
6-2 
7-7 



(5) 

Per cent 

col. (3) of 

col. (2) 



25-0 
11-1 
39-1 

33-3 

25-5 
63-4 
79-2 
29-9 
75-8 
30-3 
68-6 
9-1 
21-5 
73-6 
37-6 
65-6 

28-2 
3-8 
52-3 
20-3 
5-3 
20-9 
25-0 
54-5 
59-5 
44-5 
5-6 



TABLE "-PERCENTAGES OF MIXED MARRIAGES CONTRACTED WITH MEN AND WOMEN OF 
BRITISH ORIGIN, ARRANGED IN DESCENDING ORDER OF MAGNITUDE 
. (As indicated by parentage of children born in the Registration Area in 1921) 



Origin 



Dutch 


N. 




N 




N 




N. 






s. 




NT. 














E. 




-NT. 








N 












N. 




E. 

E. 


Polish 


E. 




E. 

E. 








E. 







Men 



r, (1) 

Per cent 
married 
outside 
to total 
married 



53-0 
151 
16-7 
24-8 

1-6 
19-3 
41-3 

71 
51-3 
73-7 
48-5 
44-6 
29-9 

7-1 
74-2 
29-7 
10-0 

9-2 

4-2 
28-2 
34-5 
330 
22-8 
20-0 
23-5 
14-4 
10-6 

7-5 
10-5 



„ (2) 
Per cent 

of col. (1) 

married 

into 

British 

stocks 



82-0 
81-4 
78-7 
68-0 
60-0 
57-4 
54-8 
54-2 
53-6 
500 
48-5 
48-3 
48-3 
47-6 
46-4 
45-5 
44-3 
44-1 
34-8 
33-6 
27-9 
270 
19-3 
18-0 
14-1 
13-5 
12-6 
8-9 
4-4 



Origin 



Dutch N. 

French N. 

Icelandic N. 

German N. 

Danish N. 

Swiss N, 

Italian S. 

Swedish ; N. 

Norwegian N. 

Syrian 

Belgian N. 

Indian 

Chinese 

Galician E. 

Finnish N.E. 

Jewish 

Czechoslovak : E. 

Serbo-Croatian E. 

Armenian E. 

Hungarian E. 

Russian E. 

Polish E. 

Austrian E. 

Greek S. 

Ukrainian E. 

Roumanian E. 

Negro 

Bulgarian E. 



Women 



„ (1) 
Per cent 

married 

outBide 

to total 

married 



50-8 
10-4 
29-4 
27-3 
62-2 
62-7 

2-5 
45-3 
44-3 

6-2 
28-9 
23-1 

11 
11-3 
16-7 

2-6 
44-2 
17-6 
13-3 
231 
17-6 
19-1 
140 
10-7 

7-7 
22-2 
14-2 

5-4 

0-2 



Note.— N— North and Western European. E— Eastern and Central European. S— Southern European. 



„< 2) 
Per cent 

of col. (1) 

married 

into 

British 

stocks 



79-2 

75-3 
73-5 
68-6 
63-4 
59-5 
55-6 
54-5 
52-4 
44-5 
391 
37-6 
33-3 
30-3 
29-9 
28-2 
25-5 
250 
25-0 
21-5 
20-9 
20-3 
11-2 
91 
5-6 
5-3 
3-8 





MIXED MARRIAGES WITH BRITISH STOCK 



137 



The capital letters in the above table indicate roughly the part of Europe from which 
the different peoples come. The predominance of ' N's ', signifying Northern Europe, in the 
upper half of the table where the percentages of those intermarried with the British stocks 
are high, is as significant as is the predominance of ' E's ' for Eastern and Central Europe in 
the lower part of the table. The inference is very clear. The people from South, Central 
and Eastern Europe, not only have not intermarried as much as those from North Western 
Europe, but those who have intermarried, with one or two exceptions, have not married to 
any great extent into the British stocks. This important fact is presented more clearly in 
Table 74 below. 

In the North Western European group, over one-third of both men and women had 
intermarried and from 64 p.c. to 65 p.c. of these had married into stocks of British origin. 
By way of contrast, the South, Eastern and Central Europeans had intermarried onJy to the 
extent of from 13-5 p.c. (women) to 16-2 p.c. (men), and of these smaller percentages, 
roughly from a fifth to a quarter had married men and women of British extraction. It is 
obvious that the North Western Europeans in Canada are several times more easily 
assimilated with the British stocks than are the South, Central and Eastern Europeans. 



TABLE 74— PER CENT OF MIXED MARRIAGES CONTRACTED BY CONTINENTAL EUROPEANS WITH 
MEN AND WOMEN OF BRITISH ORIGIN, BY GEOGRAPHICAL GROUPING. 

(As indicated by parentage of children born in the Registration Area in 1921) 





Men 


Women 


Origin 


r, (1) 

Per cent 
married 
outside 
to total 
married 


(2) 
Per cent 
of col. fl) 
married 

into 
British 
stocks 


(1) 
Per cent 
married 
outside 
to total 
■ married 


(2) 
Per cent 
of col. (1) 
married 

into 
British 
stocks . 


North Western European — \ 


28-2 
74-2 
53-0 
24-8 
16-7 
41-3 
44-6 
73-7 


33-6 
46-4 
82-0 
68-0 
78-7 
548 
48 3 
50-0 


28-9 
62-2 
50-8 
27-3 
29-4 
44-3 
45-3 
62-7 


391 




63-4 


' Dutch 


79-2 




68-6 




73-5 




52-3 




54-5 




59-5 






Total : 


33-3 


63-6 


34-3 


65-2 






South, Eastern and Central European — 


10-6 
48-5 
34-5 

9-2 
10-5 
51-3 
14-4 
19-3 
20-0 
23-5 
22-8 
33-0 

7-5 


12-6 
48-5 ■ 
27-9 
44-1 

4-4 
53-6 
13-5 
57-4 
180 
141 
19-3 
27-0 

8-9 


14-0 

5-5 

44-2 

16-7 

11-3 

10-7 

23-0 

2-5 

191 

22-2 

17-6 

17-7 

7-8 


11-2 




•0 




25-5 




29-9 




30-3 




9-1 




21-5 




55-6 


Polish 


20-3 




5-3 




20-9 




25-0 




5-6 






Total 


16-2 


26-4 


13-5 


16-9 







Table 75 presents the data for the Continental Europeans by linguistic divisions. A 
careful study of this table will repay the reader. Suffice it to say that the preference of the 
Germanic and Scandinavian peoples for the British (or the preference of the British for 
them) is brought out clearly, as well as the existence of' unusual resistance to intermarriage 
between those of Latin and Greek and Slavic origin and the British. 

A very small proportion of the non-whites cross the colour line in marriage. When 
they do, the extent to which they marry inito stocks of British origin varies. It ia significant 
that in all cases the percentage of men crossing the colour line who married into the 



138 ORIGINS AND INTERMARRIAGE IN THE REGISTRATION AREA 



British stocks was larger than obtained for the non-white women. (See Table 76.) It is 
questionable whether the terms " assimilation " or " assimilability " should be applied in 
respect of intermarriage between the whites and non-whites. 

TABLE 75— PER CENT OF MIXED MARRIAGES, BY LINGUISTIC GROUPING, CONTRACTED BY 
CONTINENTAL EUROPEANS WITH MEN AND WOMEN OF BRITISH ORIGIN. 

(As indicated by parentage of children born in the Registration Area in 1921.) 





Men 


Women 


Origin 


(1) 
Per cent 
married 
outside 
to total 
married 


(2) 
Per cent 
of col. (1) 
married 

into 
British 
stocks 


(1) 
Per cent 
married 
outside 
to total 
married 


(2) 
Per cent 
of col. (1) 
married 

into 
British 
stocks 


Germanic— 

Dutch 


53-0 
28-2 
24-8 


82-0 
33-G 
68-0 


50-8 
28-9 
27-3 


79-2 




39-1 




68-6 






Total 


- 20-2 


70-0 


30-8 


69-6' 






Scandinavian— 


16-7 
41-3 

44-6 
74-2 


78-7 
54-8 
48-3 
46-4 


29-4 
44-3 
45-3 
62-2 


73-5 




52-3 




54-5 




63-4 






Total : 


42-7 


' 52-1 


43-0 


56-6 






Latin and Greek — 


51-3 
19-3 
23-5 


52-6 
57-4 
14-1 


10-7 
2-5 
22-2 


9-1 




55-6 




5-3 








22-2 


47-4 


7-6 


17-8 






Slavic — 


10-6 
48-5 
34-5 
10-5 
20-0 
22-8 
330 
7-5 


12-6 
48-5 
27-9 

4-4 
18-0 
19-3 
27-0 

8-9 


14-0 
5-5 
44-2 
11-3 
19-1 
17-6- 
17-6 
7-7 


11-2 




0-0 




25-5 




30-3 




20-3 




20-9 




25 




5-6 






Total 


14-8 


16-8 


14-4 


15-3 







TABLE 76.— INTERMARRIAGE BETWEEN NON-WHITES AND THOSE OF BRITISH STOCKS. 
(As indicated by parentage of children born in the Registration Area in 1921.) 





Men 


Women 


Origin 


^ (1) 
Per cent 

married to 

women of 

different 
stocks 


(2) 

Per cent 

of col. (1) 

married to 

women of 

British 

stocks 


(i) 

Per cent 
married to 

men of 
different 

stocks 


(2) 
Per cent 
of col. (1) 
married to 
men of 
British 
stocks 




1-6 

7-1 

10-0 

71 


60-0 
47-6 
44-3 
54-2 


0-2 

1-0 

231 

14-2 


0-0 




33-3 




37-6 




3-8 







THE EXTENT TO WHICH CONTINENTAL EUROPEAN STOCKS HAVE MARRIED 
WITHIN THEIR OWN GEOGRAPHICAL GROUPS 
For those of European origin who have not married 1 to a great extent either into the 
French or British stocks in Canada, it is of interest to discover into what stocks they do 
marry when they, intermarry with other peoples. The following table presents a summary 
for the North Western and South. Eastern and Central European groups. 



MIXED MARRIAGES WITH RELATED STOCKS 



139 



TABLE 77— PERCENTAGE OF MARRIED MEN AND WOMEN OF CONTINENTAL EUROPEAN STOCKS 
WHO HAD CONTRACTED MIXED MARRIAGES, AND PERCENTAGE OF THESE CONTRACTED 
WITH PEOPLES FROM THE SAME PART OF EUROPE. 

(As indicated by percentage of children born in the Registration Area in 1921). 





Men 


Women 


Origin 


CD 
Per cent 
of total 
married 
outside 
their own 
stock 


• (2) 
Per cent of 
Column (D 

married 
into stocka 

of same 

geographical 

group 


„ (1) 

Per cent 
of total 
married 
outside 
their own 
stock 


(2) 
Per cent of 
Column (1) 

married 
into stocks 

of same 

geographical 

group 




33-3 
16-2 


16-9 
39-8 


34-3 
13-5 


14-2 




52-2 







1 British and French not included. 

With the North Western group, over 30 p.c, of the men and women had married 
outside their respective stocks, and only about 15 p.c. of these had married into races from 
the section of Europe from which they came. In striking contrast, those in the South, 
Eastern and Central European group show less than half the amount of marriage outside 
their individual stocks and between 40 and 50 p.c. of that smaller amount has been with 
people coming from the same part of Continental Europe. This fact is very significant. 

This concludes the analysis of the data on intermarriage, but there is one further point 
which should be mentioned. Little has been said of the proportions of those of British and 
French origin who have intermarried. They are the numerically dominant stocks in Canada. 
The extent of their intermarriage with those of other origins is limited by their over- 
•whelming numbers. But in addition to that, -aversion to intermarriage with certain stocks 
would also be an important factor in keeping the percentage low. The British and French 
themselves may block the assimilation by marriage of certain peoples and sometimes t!he 
onus of. preventing intermarriage may rest primarily on the native Canadian stock. It is 
a matter of indifference, however, whether foreign stocks fail to marry with the British and 
French because of aversion on their own part or on the part of the British and French, or 
indeed for any other reason whatever except length of residence. The result is the same 
60 far as Canadian population structure is concerned. Such stocks are inassimilable in 
Canada by marriage, and the preceding analysis suggests that there are many approaching 
that class. 



CHAPTER VII 
THE NATURALIZATION OF IMMIGRANT PEOPLES 

THE PROPORTION OF FOREIGN BORN NATURALIZED IN CANADA IN 1921 

Naturalization does not mean "Ganadianization". It merely signifies the intention of 
the immigrant to make a more or less permanent home in Canada and the desire to 6hare 
in determining the country's political destiny. Whether the influence of the newly natural- 
ized immigrant -will be to the best interest of Canada and whether he will be able to use 
the franchise wisely, is determined by many forces of far greater importance than the mere 
act of swearing allegiance to the adopted country and receiving thereupon the full rights 
and responsibilities of citizenship. Indeed it is quite possible for naturalization, when carried 
out prematurely, to be an actual menace to Canada's democratic ideals as well as to her 
political and social institutions. 

However, the mere fact that an immigrant wishes to become a citizen is an assurance of 
his permanent interest in the country, and may normally be taken as an indication that the 
assimilative process has proceeded to a moderate extent at least. The fact of naturalization 
is indicative of an attitude towards the country very different from that of the immigrant 
who .shows no desire to take out naturalization papers. Other things being equal, therefore, 
immigrants from those countries and of those stocks which are readily naturalized are to be 
preferred as settlers to those among whom naturalization is unduly delayed, or among whom 
naturalization is the exception rather than the rule. 

This chapter analyses the extent to which naturalization has progressed among the 
different types of immigrants, examines the causes of the differences and compares the various 
nationalities as to the speed with which naturalization has taken place. The study, of 
course, includes only foreign born; those born in Great Britain or in other dominions or 
dependencies of the Empire are not required to " take out papers ". 

It might be well before proceeding with the analysis to mention a few of the general 
provisions of the Canadian naturalization laws which should be kept in mind in reading this 
chapter. First, if the head of the family is naturalized, the children under 21 years of age 
automatically become Canadian citizens. Second, if the husband is naturalized, the wife is 
automatically a citizen. Third, if the head of the family immigrates into Canada unaccom- 
panied and afterwards becomes naturalized, the wife and dependants under 21 become 
naturalized on arrival in Canada. Fourth, if a Canadian woman marries an alien, she 
becomes an alien. Five years' residence is required of those applying for naturalization. 

Table 78 shows the percentages naturalized of the foreign, born by country of birth. 
The percentages measure the extent to which naturalization had taken place' by 1921 ; and 
in so far as naturalization is an index of political assimilation the percentages, when 
compared one with another, indicate the relative degrees to which that process had 
advanced in the different groups of immigrant peoples up to that date. 

The outstanding fact in Table 78 is the remarkable difference between the various immi- 
grants. At the top stand the Icelanders with 86-4 p.c'. naturalized; at the bottom are the 
Chinese with only 4-8 p.c. With percentages varying between such wide limits, the pro- 
portions naturalized of immigrants from 25 other foreign countries are arranged in order. 
Along with the Orientals at the bottom of the list are the Greeks and the Italians. The 
Scandinavians and Germans are at the top, where also are found the Hungarians. 

Lest it be thought that inclusion of women and children who are ipso facto naturalized 
when the husband or father takes out Canadian citizenship has an appreciable effect on the 
rank of the nationalities as shown in Table 78, a second table is presented (Table 79) which 
shows the proportions naturalized of foreign born male immigrants over 21 years of age 

140 



PROPORTION NATURALIZED AMONG FOREIGN BORN POPULATION 141 

for the several countries of birth. The order of the different nationalities is practically the 
same in the two tables. In fact the identity is so close that the rank coefficient of corre- 
lation works out to the high figure of + -98. There are only three marked excep- 
tions out of the 27 countries. Syria moves up four places in Table 79 and France moves 
up three, while Jugo-Slavia moves down three ranks. The dose correspondence 
between the percentages naturalized, as shown in the two tables for Syria and France, 
respectively, reveals the fact that these two exceptions are purely incidental. Not only is 
the somewhat lower proportion of males over 21 naturalized among the Jugo-Slavs 
unimportant because of their small ouinbers, but the disturbing influence of the dower 
figure on the averages discussed in the succeeding tables is insignificant. Thus, after removing 
the influence of children and married females, the relative progress of the different nationalities 
in the matter of naturalization is practically the same as when both sexes and all ages are 
included. We will proceed then to a further examination of Table 78, keeping in mind that- 
the conclusions reached apply to adult males as well as to the .whole population, including 
women and children. 

TABLE 78— PERCENTAGE OF FOREIGN BORN NATURALIZED. FOR CANADA, 1921, BY COUNTRY 

OF BIRTH. 



Country of birth 


Per cent 
naturalized 


Country of birth 


Per cent 
naturalized 




86-4 
72-3 
71-7 
67-4 
65-9 
65-3 
63-3 
62-4 
60-6 
59-4 
58-4 
56-3 
55-7 
55-2 




54.7 










Poland ■ 

Holland 


51-0 
48'4 






46-0 












424 






33.7 






33 '5 




Italy 


30-2 












22-4 






4-8 













TABLE 79.-PERCENTAGE OF FOREIGN BORN MALES, 21 YEARS AND OVER, NATURALIZED, 
FOR CANADA, 1921, BY COUNTRY OF BIRTH. 



Country of birth 


Per cent 
naturalized 


Country of birth 


Per cent 
naturalized 




88-5 
1 72-3 
70-3 
65-8 
64-2 
62-0 
60-6 
59-3 
57-7 
56-9 
56-2 
65-6 
54-6 
54-4 




52-9 




Holland 


49-7 






49*2 




Poland 


47*0 


















41-0 






32-8 






28-5 




Italy 


28*2 












16-4 






3-8 













Table 80 classifies the Europeans by geographical groups. The percentage naturalized 
for the average North Western European is considerably higher than that for the average 
South, Eastern and Central European country. In the former case the percentages range 
between 42-1 p.c. and 86-4 p.c, and in the latter between 22-4 p.c. and 72-3 p.c. Both the 
upper and lower limits are higher for the North Western European group. Thus, in so 
far as naturalization is an index, political assimilation has proceeded further in the case of 
• 'the immigrants' from the average North Western European country than for those from the 
average South, Eastern and 'Central European country. 



142 



THE NATURALIZATION OF IMMIGRANT PEOPLES 



Yet with so wide a range within each group and with such marked overlapping, the con- 
trast between North Western and South, Eastern and Central Europe, though valid on the 
whole,, is unfair to certain groups of immigrants. While, for example, the percentages for 
the Jugc-Slavs, Italians, Greeks and Bulgarians are below any of those for the North 
Western Europeans, the proportions naturalized for many of the other countries in the 
South, Eastern and Central group compare very favourably with those from the North 
Western countries. The percentage for the Hungarians is larger than that for any North 
Western European country except Iceland; the proportion of the Galicians naturalized is 
almost as great as that of the Germans; those for the Russians, Roumanians, Austrians, 
Czechs and Ukrainians are about on a par. with the centre group in the North Western section 
of the Continent, and much higher than the percentage for the immigrants from Holland 
and Belgium. 

Table 81, which classifies the European countries by linguistic groups, further emphasizes 
the danger of generalization. While it is safe to say that the Scandinavians as a group 
have naturalized to a greater extent than the Latins and Greeks, one must keep in mind 
that, unlike the immigrants from the south of, Europe, those from Roum&nia have become 
Canadian citizens to an extent even more marked than the Danes. And when comparing 
the Germanic and Slavic groups one cannot go much further than to state that the Germans 
have shown a higher percentage than any of the Slavs, and that the Dutch and Flemish 
have smaller proportions naturalized than the six Slavic countries from which the bulk of 
our Eastern and Central European immigrants come. 

The tables must be studied in detail, and the relative rank of each of the important 
countries noted. Certain suggestions by way of explanation of the marked differences are 
made below. A complete explanation of a high or low percentage is a most difficult matter, 
but among the chief causes are probably biological and cultural differences in the people 
from the various countries, occupational differences in this country (naturalization or 
intention to naturalize being required of homesteaders), varying distribution as between 
rural and urban districts, diverse proportions of males and females, and that most important 
factor, differences in length of residence in Canada. 

TABLE 80— PERCENTAGE OF EUROPEAN BORN NATURALIZED, BY GEOGRAPHICAL GROUPS, 1921. 



Country of birth 


Percentage 
naturalized 


Country of birth 


Percentage 
naturalized 


North Western Europe — 


p.o. 

86-4 
71-7 
67-4 
65-9 
56-3 
55-2 
53-9 
48-4 
42-1 


South, Eastern and Central Europe — 


p.c. 

72-3 






65-3 






62-4' 






60-5 






59-4 






55-7 






54-7 


Holland 




51-0 






.45-7 






33-7 


Percentage for all North Western 


62-7 ' 


Italy 


30-2 




29-3 






22-4 




Percentage for all South, Eastern 






56-1 









NATURALIZATION OF IMMIGRANTS FROM THE UNITED STATES 143 

TABLE 81— PERCENTAGE OF EUROPEAN BORN NATURALIZED, BY LINGUISTIC GROUPS, 1921. 



Groups and countries of birth 



Percentage 
naturalized 


p.e. 

86-4 
71-7 
67-4 
56-3 


69-7 

65-9 
48-4 
42-1 


56-5 



Groups and countries of birth 



Percentage 
naturalized 



Scandinavian — 

Iceland 

Norway 

Sweden 

Denmark 

Average 
Germanic — 

Germany 

Netherlands 

Belgium 

Average. 



Latin and Greek — 

Roumania 

Italy 

Greece 

Average. 
Slavic — 

Galicia 

Russia 

Austria 

Czechoslovakia 

Ukraine 

Poland 

Jugo-Slavia 

Bulgaria 

Average. 



60-5 
30-2 
29-3 



41-3 

65-3 
62-4 
59-4 
55-7 
54-7 
51-0 
33-7 
22-4 



59-9 



NATURALIZATION AMONG IMMIGRANT PEOPLES FROM THE UNITED STATES 

Data on the naturalization of the United States born immigrants are presented by origin 
in Column 1 of Table 82 (p. 145) . Those of French origin show the highest proportion. This 
fact is not unexpected, in view of the rather marked movement of the children of French 
Canadian emigrants to the Eastern and Southern States back to the. Canadian soil, and 
especially to the provinces of Quebec and New Brunswick. The IceJandic stock, with a 
proportion of 73-4 p.c. naturalized, ranks second; and the Norwegians, Roumanians, British, 
Swedish and Hungarians follow closely behind in the order named. The Greeks and Italians 
again appear at the foot of the list. 

But the significance of this table is not so much in the rank of the various stocks as 
in a comparison between the United States born immigrants and the foreign immigrants 
who come directly to Canada from their ancestral home, without a generation of residence 
in the United States. Column 2 shows the percentage of the immigrant population natural- 
ized in 1921 by countries of birth, corresponding to the specified origins. In a previous 
chapter, the difficulties involved in comparing data of origin and country of birth data were 
discussed, and the reader is recommended to refer again to page 68, Chapter HI, before 
proceeding further. 

Were the two columns of percentages strictly comparable, one would expect the United 
States born to have assimilated to a much greater extent than those coming from other 
foreign countries. A Swede, for instance, born and brought up in the United States, 
attending the schools of the republic and speaking the English language, would seem much 
more easily assimilated than one coming direct from Sweden, speaking a different language 
and trained under a different educational system. Other things being equal, one would look 
for the percentages in column 3 to be normally positive and of considerable magnitude. 
That result obviously does not obtain in about half of the cases, and the problem presents 
itself as to whether a generation pf residence in the United States is favourable or unfavour- 
able to naturalization for immigrants of foreign stocks coming to Canada. 

Table 83 Shows the differences, by linguistic groups, in the percentages naturalized of 
United States born immigrants of European stocks and the percentages of immigrants 
naturalized who have come direct from the countries corresponding to the specified origins. 
It is pointed out that the percentages are negative for all the Scandinavians, which means 
that a smaller percentage of the Scandinavians born in the United States and emigrated to 
Canada have become Canadian citizens, than immigrants who have come direct from the 
Scandinavian countries. The same remark applies to the Dutch and Germans in the 
Germanic group and to the Austrians, Poles and Russians among the Slavs. It will be seen 
also by referring to the previous table that negative percentages obtained in the cases of 
the Hungarians, Swiss and Syrians. In the Latin and Greek group, on the other hand, those 



144 THE NATURALIZATION OF IMMIGRANT PEOPLES 

born in the United States appear to have naturalized to a greater extent than immigrants 
from the corresponding countries in Europe. The same holds true for the Czechs, Serbo- 
Croaitians and Ukrainians on the Slavic group, and for the Belgians and the Finns. 

To the question as to whether a generation's residence in the United States for those 
of foreign extraction is or is not favourable to naturalization, it is difficult to give any 
categorical answer. The chief difficulties appear to be the following: — first, in certain cases 
the figures for origins and countries of birth are not comparable without making great 
allowances for admixtures of other stocks among the immigrants from the corresponding 
countries of birth. A second important difficulty is in respect to date of arrival, for no 
material is available showing the comparative length of residence for immigrants of the 
various origins born in the United States and of those who have come direct from overseas. 
Finally, there is in some cases a marked difference in the occupation followed by settlers 
from across the water and those of the same origin from across the land frontier. An 
examination of the figures in detail will illustrate the interplay of these factors. 

The more recent nature of Scandinavian immigration from the United States is prob- 
ably an important factor in explaining the negative .percentages for the Scandinavian group. 
This applies with special force to the Icelanders, who, as a group, have been longer in 
Canada than any other of the Scandinavian peoples. Then a large number of the 
Scandinavians coming to Canada from the United States work in the lumber woods, in 
contrast with the agricultural occupation* of those who come direct from the Scandinavian 
peninsula. As compared with agriculture ihe work of a lumiber-jack is obviously compara- 
tively unfavourable to naturalization. 

As with the Scandinavians, it is also probable that there is a considerable spread between 
the length of the time that the United States and European bora Dutch and Germans have 
been in this country, which in some measure may account for the smaller percentage natur- 
alized among the immigrants of those origins from across the line. Further, it is probable 
that a larger percentage of those from the United States go to cities and pursue commercial 
occupations than of those who come direct from Europe. Whether the atmosphere of, say, 
Illinois is such as to predispose immigrants of German extraction from .that state to 
assimilate readily in Canada is a further matter for consideration. 

It is not surprising that immigrants from Austria, with such a considerable admixture 
of German stock, show the same characteristics as the Germans themselves. Yet immigra- 
tion from both Austria and Russia contains a large percentage of Jews who, as a stock, 
have naturalized to a much smaller extent than immigrants of either Austrian or Russian 
origin. The influence of this group would operate in the opposite direction, tending to 
reduce the percentage naturalized of those coming direct from Austria and Russia, as 
compared with the figure for the Slavs listed among the United States born immigrants 
as of Austrian and Russian origin.' Just how far length of residence is a factor cannot be 
determined, though probably it is important. The negative figure for the Poles may be 
explained in part by the probability that those who come from the United States include 
a larger percentage of the wandering type found in our cities and in certain of our mining 
districts. A larger percentage of such men is probably found also in many of the other 
groups of immigrants of United States birth, The difficulty of weighing the relative influence 
of these factors must be obvious. 

The immigrants from Finland, on the other hand, are almost entirely of Finnish stock, 
and the Finns from the United States as from Europe are primarily an agricultural people. 
That they show a larger percentage naturalized seems to substantiate the logical assumption 
that the influence of a generation's residence in the United States normally is to make 
the political assimilation of immigrants to Canada easier. The occupations of the Italians 
are the same whetheT they come from the United States or from Italy. Italian immigrants 
are also free from admixture of other stocks, and it is probable that there is no great 
difference in the length of residence of United States and European born Italians in Canada. 
There we have a case where most of the disturbing factors are inoperative, and it is found 
that those born in the United States are naturalized to a considerably greater extent than 
those who have come from overseas. Similar remarks apply to the Roumanians. The 
comparison for the United States born French and the European born French immigrants, 



RELATION OF URBAN RESIDENCE TO NATURALIZATION 



145 



though very favourable to the above thesis, is not valid because the former are mostly 
the children of French Canadians who are merely returning to the country of their own 
people. 

In conclusion it may foe stated that where the European born have naturalized to a 
greater extent than the United States born immigrants of the same stocks, various outside 
factors have entered in which suggest that such cases are abnormal. On the other hand, 
where outside influence is a minimum the percentages appear to be positive. It is probable, 
therefore, other things being equal, that a generation's residence in the United States makes 
political assimilation of foreign stocks in Canada somewhat easier. It must be 1 kept in 
mind, however, that the above generalization is tentative pending further investigation. 

TABLE 82.-NATURALIZATION OF UNITED STATES BORN IMMIGRANTS, BY ORIGINS, AND OF OTHER 
FOREIGN BORN BY CORRESPONDING COUNTRIES OF BIRTH, 1921. 





(1) 


(2) 

Percentage of 

immigrant 


(3) 


(4) 




Percentage of 


population 




Percentage of 




immigrant 
U.S. born 


naturalized, 


Difference 


population 


Origin 


by countries 


Col.(l)-Col. 


of various 




population 


of birth 


(2). 


origins 




naturalized, 


corresponding 


Per cent 


U.S. born 




1921 


to origins, 
1921 








631 
77-3 
56-7 


55-2 
59-4 


22-1 
- 2-7 






206 
130 






45-2 


42-1 
55-7 
56-3 


31 

0-8 

— 0-6 


3-63 
11-81 
19-51 






55-7 


Dutch 


56-1 
56-0 
57-9 


48-4 
45-7 
65-9 


7-7 

10-3 

— 8-0 


8-66 
6-64 
13-58 








33-6 
48-5 
61-4 


29-3 
72-3 


40 
-10-9 


213 
3-84 
4-36 








73-4 
39-4 
45-1 
690 


86-4 
30-2 

71-7 


-13-0 
9-2 

- 2-7 


6-35 
2-86 








32-22 


Polish 


46-3 
63-9 
59-0 
59-8 
45-9 
62-5 


51-0 
60-5 
62-4 
33-7 

67-4 


- 4-7 
3-4 

- 3-4 
26-1 

- 4-9 


2-82 
107 








5-99 
13-99 
18-90 










53-9 
58-4 
54-7 


- 0-3 

-14 1 

4-2 


1317 

•3-05 

0-28 




44-3 
58-9 




' 



TABLE 83.— DATA IN COLUMN 3, TABLE 82, ARRANGED BY LINGUISTIC GROUPS. 



Scandinavian — 

Danish 

Icelandic. . . 

Norwegian. 

Swcdisn. . . . 
Germanic — 

Belgian 

Dutch 

German 



- 0-6 
-130 

- 2-7 

- 4-9 

3-1 
7-7 

- 8-0 



Latin and Greek — 

French 

Greek 

Italian 

Roumanian 

Slavic — 

Austrian 

Czech 

Polish 

Russian 

Serbo-Croatian. 

Ukrainian 



22-1 
4-0 
9-2 
3-4 

- 2-7 
0-8 

- 4-7 

- 3-4- 
26-1 

4-2 



THE EFFECT OF URBAN RESIDENCE ON NATURALIZATION 

Somewhat more definite conclusions may be drawn as to the effect of urban as opposed 
to ruraJ residence on the naturalization of any people. Table 84 (p. 147) shows the. percentages 
of immigrants naturalized in cities 25,000 and over by countries of birth and the proportions 
of all immigrants (that is, both rural and urban) from these countries who have become 
Canadian citizens. Column- 3 gives the percentages by which the proportion naturalized of 
the total foreign born (rural and urban) differs from the proportion naturalized among the 
residents of large cities, for each country of birth. 
74422—10 



146 THE NATURALIZATION OF IMMIGRANT PEOPLES 



For immigrants from all but five of ths specified countries, the percentage naturalized 
in cities 25,000 and over is smaller than that naturalized in urban and rural communities 
combined. The same holds true for the total foreign born. Were separate figures available 
for the rural population, greater differences would be expected. Either living in large cities 
is generally less favourable to naturalization or a radical change occurred between 1911 
and 1921 in the nature of immigration from foreign countries in respect of rural and urban 
distribution. For example, if immigration in the decade had been continuous on the same 
scale and if during the last five years of the decade all the new arrivals had gone to the 
large cities, such cities would show a larger percentage unnaturalized merely because they 
had a disproportionate number of the newer immigrants. This, of course, did not happen. 
There is no reason to believe that there was a radical change in the rural and urban 
distribution of immigrants arriving between 1911 and 1914, and from that time to 1921 
immigration greatly declined. The first alternative is obviously the principal explanation— 
viz., that residence in large cities is less favourable to naturalization. Moreover, the fact 
that the average of the negative deviations in Column 3 is only — 1-41 p.c. as against an 
average of + 7.30 p.c. for the positive deviations is additional evidence that ordinarily that 
section of an immigrant population which lives in large cities naturalizes less rapidly than 
the section residing in rural districts and smaller communities. 

The variation in the differences between Column 1 and Column 2 is worthy of passing 
notice. A 22.06 p.c. larger proportion of all Galicians in Canada had naturalized than 
of the Galicians living in the larger cities, as against a 2.96 p.c. smaller proportion for the 
Jugo-Slavs. The question as to why this spread is so large is a subject for further 
investigation. 

With the exception of immigrants from France the foreign born who show large positive 
deviations are essentially rural. Positive deviations greater than 9 p.c. occur in <Jhe following 
cases, the Galicians, Norwegians, French, Hungarians, Austrians, Ukrainians, Belgians, 
Swedish and Dutch. The figure for the Galicians is the highest and the countries are 
arranged in descending order. It is recalled that the foreign born Galicians, with only 
24.39 p.c. of their numbers in all urban communities, and the Norwegians, with 21.86 p.c. 
urban, were mentioned as being the most rural immigrants in Canada. Further, in none 
of the nine cases, except that of the French, did as high a proportion as 42 p.c. live in 
urban centres, while the percentage urban for the total immigrant bom population in 
Canada was 56.4 p.c. Even the percentage urban for those born in France (52.40 p.c.) 
was 4 p.c. lower than the average for all immigrants. The position of the French immigrants 
is 'peculiar because of the presence of so large a body of their own people among the basic 
stocks of Canada. In the districts to which they go they are foreign in none but the legal 
sense of the term. Their behaviour, therefore, is not important from the point of view of 
assimilation nor is it any criterion for the others. They constitute no problem. The data 
for the bona fide foreigners suggest that residence in large cities is relatively more unfavour- 
able to naturalization in the case of those immigrants who show marked rural proclivities. 

The five groups of foreign born showing negative deviations are the Jugo-Slavs, Italians, 
Finns, Poles and Chinese. Two of these cases are not significant because of the smallness 
of the numbers on which the percentages are based. In 1921 there were onlly 182 naturalized 
Jugo-Slavs in cities 25,000 and over and some 400 Finns, representing only between 
3 and 4 p.c. of all Finns in Canada. The other three classes of immigrants, namely, Italians, 
Chinese and Poles, are among the most urban in Canada, with 75.8 p.c, 71-7 p.c. and 67-3 
pc. respectively in incorporated cities, towns and villages. This suggests the correlative 
hypothesis, that residence in urban communities is relatively less unfavourable (and in these 
extreme cases actually favourable), to naturalization for those who naturally -congregate 
there. Both these suggestions have been- confirmed by a more complete analysis of the 
data, but the matter does not appear to be of sufficient consequence to occupy further space 
in this report. 

In conclusion, attention is recalled to the essential point of the discussion in this section. 
Immigrants settling in large cities show a smaller percentage naturalized than immigrants 
from the same cquntry who have settled in rural districts and in small urban centres. Urban 



RELATION OF URBAN RESIDENCE TO NATURALIZATION 



147 



residence per se appears to be unfavourable to naturalization, if only because urban popu- 
lations are generally more mobile than .rural populations. 

Turning now to a comparison between immigrants from the different countries of origin, 
it will be demonstrated that those nationalities which show a preference, for residence in cities 
show smaller percentages naturalized than those among whom large proportions are rural. 

TABLE 84— PERCENTAGE NATURALIZED OF ALL FOREIGN BORN, COMPARED WITH PERCENTAGE 
NATURALIZED IN CITIES 25,000 AND OVER, 1921. 



Birthplace 


(1) 

P.O. 

naturalized 

in cities 

25,000 and 

over 


(2) 
P.c. of total 
foreign born 
population 
naturalized 
(Urban and 
Rural) 


(3) 

Excess- 
Col. (2)' 

over 
Col. (1) 




49-48 

54-88 
47-56 
32-41 
20-32 
48-32 
55-46 
. 46-49 
40-70 
43-22 
59-63 
28-52 
38-85 
59-89 
79-74 
33 15 
36-62 
55-31 
51-40 
55-84 
59-63 
57-79 
48-41 
44-50 
34-11 

13-07 
4-80 
25-43 
54-72 
45-81 
41-77 

57-22 

45-24 
52-39 


57-75 

57-88 
59-39 
42-08 
22-39 
55-71 
56-34 
45-72 
55-16 
65-28 
65-89 
29-32 
48-39 
72-32 
86-36 
30-22 
33-66 
71-65 
51-04 
60-52 
62-40 
67-43 
53-92 
54-73 
42-92 

15-86 
4-78 
33-49 
58-39 
46-63 
49-74 

63-63 
51-22 
55 16 


8-27 

300 
11-83 
9-67 
2-07 
7-39 
0-88 

- 0-77 
14-46 
22-06 

6-26 
0-80 
9-54 
12-43 
6-62 

- 2-93 

- 2-96 
16-34 

- 0-36 
4-68 
2-77 
9-64 
5-51 

10-23 
8-81 

2-79 

- 0-02 
8-06 
3-67 
0-82 
7-97 

6-41 

5-98 
2-77 
























Holland 












Poland 






















Turkey 













Table 85 shows the percentage of foreign born naturalized for each country of birth and 
the corresponding percentage dwelling in urban districts in Canada. The census definition 
bf the term ' urban ' includes all incorporated cities, towns and villages. The percentages 
naturalized are arranged in order of size, Iceland standing at the 'top with the highest, and 
China at the bottom with the lowest. 

While the coefficient of correlation between the two series was found to be only 
r = — "386± ••16, 'the conclusion is not warranted that no relation exists. There are many 
iforces at work other than urbanization, which affect different peoples in different ways and 
iin different degrees, sometimes diminishing and sometimes increasing the influence of urban 
environment on naturalization. For example, difference in length of residence, in sex dis- 
tribution, and in occupation are most potent disturbing factors, as is the diversity of 
cultures. Yet in spite of the interference of all those factors, the -fact that a coefficient of 
correlation was obtained of even such moderate size suggests that there is an appreciable 
inverse relationship between urban residence and the extent of naturalization, when com- 
paring immigrants from one country with those from another. 

A cruder method of determining whether any relationship exists is by comparing the 
averages for the upper and lower halves of the table. The percentage naturalized for the 
average of the upper 13 countries was found to be 65.0 p.c., while the percentage for the 

74422— 101 



148 



THE NATURALIZATION OF IMMIGRANT PEOPLES 



average country in the lower half of the table was only 39-4 p.c. When the proportions of 
'40-5 p.c. urban for the average country in the upper section, and 55.9 p.c. urban for the 
average country in the lower section, are compared with the averages for Column 1, a high 
(percentage naturalized (65.0 p.c.) is associated with a comparatively small percentage urban 
(40-5 p.c.) and a low percentage naturalized (39-4 p.c.) with a high percentage urban 
(55-9 p.c). Of course, there are many exceptions where extraneous forces arrest or intensify 
the operation of urban influences on naturalization. There seems to be little doubt, however, 
Ithat, on the whole, the tendency has been for the countries whose immigrants have shown 
a higher percentage living in urban districts in Canada, to have a smaller proportion 
naturalized and vice versa. This conclusion seems to go hand in hand with the thesis 
established in the earlier part of this section that urban life per se is comparatively unfavour- 
able to naturalization. 



TABLE 85 —PERCENTAGE OF FOREIGN BORN (1) NATURALIZED AND (2) URBAN, IN CANADA 

COUNTRY OF BIRTH, 1921. 


, BY 


Country of Birth 


(i) 

P.O. 

naturalized 


(2) 

P.c. 

Urban 




57-8 

86-4 
72-3 
71-7 
67-4 
65-9 
65-3 
63-6 
62-4 
60-5 
59-4 
58-4 
56-3 
55-7 
55-2 
54-7 
53-9 
51-0 
48-4 
46-6 
45-7 
421 
33-7 
33-5 
. 30-2 
29-3 
22-4 
4-8 

65-0 
39-4 




56-4 




37-B 




37-fl 




21-9 




24-« 




37-2 




24<4 




42-fl 




fifi-3 




fill 




35-3 




85-0 




31-5 




41-4 




52-4 




41-9 




44-6 




67-3 




40-9 




84-5 




33-3 




40-6 




49-7 




38-2 




75-8 




89-3 




52-8 




71-7 




40 -fl 




fifl-9 







PERCENTAGES NATURALIZED BY SEX 

Table- 86 shows the percentage of males and females naturalized by countries of birth. 
At first glance it may appear singular that in every country except Iceland and Syria a 
larger proportion of the females than of the males have become Canadian citizens. Yet 
that is only to be expected. The foreign born females in Canada over 15 years of age show a 
(percentage married some 17 p.c. greater than do the males of the same age group, and it is 
generally conceded that married immigrants with homes and families are much more 
permanent settlers and should normally show a higher percentage naturalized. It is to be 
remembered also that females are naturalized by the mere fact of marriage with a Canadian 
■citizen. 

A word in reference to the two exceptions mentioned above will not be out of place. 
The case of the Syrians is unimportant, for their numbers are very small in Canada, but 
the figure for the Icelanders, showing a smaller proportion of females naturalized than of 
males, is remarkable. It is recalled, however, that Icelandic immigration is unique in other 
respects and in particular as to the relative number of males and females in the population. 
It is the one important country from which the numbers of females in Canada was greater 
in 1921 than the number of males. That being the case, there is probably a small surplus 
of unattached females which accounts for the lower percentage of that sex naturalized, just 



THE RELATION OF SEX TO NATURALIZATION 



14<? 



>as in the case of the other nations the excess of males in the population may be considered 
.as having a direct relation to the higher percentage of females who have become Canadian 
citizens. ■ 

That there is a connection between the proportion of surplus males (or females) and the 
percentages of each naturalized, may be seen by comparing the percentages given in this 
table and Tables 87 and 88 with those in Table 35 in Chapter III. With only minor 
(variations, which are more or less to be expected because of the differing characteristics of 
the various stocks and the varying degrees to which disturbing factors enter in, the rank of 
the countries, when arranged according to the percentage surplus of males, follows very 
closely the order of arrangement of the percentages by which the proportions of females 
naturalized exceeds the proportion of males. 

To test this out superficially, the cases of Denmark and Sweden may be taken, being 
the two countries in North Western Europe showing the highest surpluses of women 
naturalized. The surplus of men among those immigrants amounts to 132 p.c. and 102 p.c. 
respectively, the highest for North Western European countries. A like test applied to 
South, Eastern and Central European groups would show similarly high percentages of 
surplus males in the foreign born population where the proportions of females naturalized 
exceeded that of the males by the largest percentage. And so with the linguistic groups, 
with certain exceptions which are more or less easily explained. 

To pursue this analysis further would be of interest, but the main object of this 
section is to emphasize the importance of the difference between immigrant men and women 
in respect to naturalization. Tables 87 and 88 have been inserted 1 merely to show that the 
degree to which females have surpassed males in respect to naturalization is not directly 
related to geographical origin nor to linguistic characteristics. There is no uniformity 
within the geographical or linguistic groups. Each origin is virtually a law unto itself. 



TABLE I 



-CITIZENSHIP OF FOREIGN BORN POPULATION IN CANADA, CLASSIFIED ACCORDING 
TO BIRTHPLACE AND SEX, 1921. 



Country of Birth 



All Foreign Countries 

Europe 

Austria 

Belgium 

Bulgaria 

Czechoslovakia 

Denmark 

Finland 

France 

Galicia 

Germany 

Greece 

Holland 

Hungary 

Iceland 

Italy 

Jugo-Slavia 

Norway 

Poland 

Roumania 

Russia 

Sweden 

Switzerland 

Ukraine 

Other European Countries 

Asia 

China 

Japan 

Syria 

Turkey 

Other Asiatic Countries. . . 

United States 

West Indies 

Others 



P.c. of 
foreign born 

males 
naturalized 



52-4 



54 

55 

41 

17 

53 

52 

41 

54 

62 

64' 

28' 

47- 

71- 

87' 

27- 

29-. 

69- 

48- 

56- 

59- 

64-i 

51- 

50- 



P.c. of 
foreign born 

females 
naturalized 



65-3 

62-8 
65-1 
43-2 



Percentage 

excess of 
naturalized 
females 
over natural- 
ized males 



12-4 

4-0 
31-7 
59-2 
42-1 
46-1 

58'9 
39-6 
51-3 



59-5 


58-6 


640 


52-4 


55-9 


69-4 


68-0 


34-4 


49-7 


73-3 


85-7 


35-4 


46-2 


74-7 


55-2 


65-6 


66-2 


74 


57-9 


61-6 


49-7 


41-5 


27-2 


38-0 


57-1 


57-6 


56-8 


68-9 


60-0 


60-8 



+12-9 

+ 8-2 
+ 9-6 
+ 1-9 
+41-9 
+ 4-9 
+11-2 
+11-0 
+ 1-4 
+ 7-1 
+ 3-8 
+ 6-2 
+ 2-2 
+ 1-8 

- 1-4 
-t- 7-6 
+16-9 
+ 4-8 
+ 7-2 
+ 8-8 
+ 6-7 
+10-0 
+ 63 
+11-2 
+10-2 

+29-1 
+23-2 
+ 6-3 

- 2-1 
+15-5 
+10-7 

+10-0 
+20-4 
+ 9'5 



150 



THE NATURALIZATION OF IMMIGRANT PEOPLES 



TART E 87 —PERCENTAGE BY WHICH THE PROPORTION OF FOREIGN BORN FEMALES NATURAL 
IZED EXCEEDS I THE PROPORTION OF FOREIGN BORN MALES NATURALIZED IN CANADA, BY 
GEOGRAPHICAL GROUPS OF COUNTRIES OF BIRTH, 1921. 



Country of Birth 



North Western Europe- 
Belgium 

Denmark 

France 

Germany 

Holland 

Iceland 

Norway 

Sweden 

Switzerland 



South, Eastern and Central Europe— 

Austria 

Bulgaria 

Czechoslovakia 

Finland 

Galicia 

Greece 

Hungary 

Italy 

Jugo-Slavia 

Poland 

Roumania 

Russia 

Ukraine 



Per cent 



+ 1-9 
4-11-2 

+ 1-4 
+ 3-8 
+ 2-2 
- 1-4 
+ 4-8 
+10-0 
+ 6-3 



+ 9- 
+41- 
+ 4- 
+11- 
+ 7- 
+ 6^ 
+ 1' 
+ 7- 
+16' 
+ 7' 
+ 8> 
+ 6' 
+11' 



TABLE 88 -PERCENTAGE BY WHICH THE PROPORTION OF FOREIGN BORN FEMALES 1 NATURAL- 
IZED EXCEEDS 1 THE 1 PROPORTION OF FOREIGN BORN MALES NATURALIZED, IN CANADA, 
BY LINGUISTIC GROUPS OF COUNTRIES OF BIRTH, 1921. 



Country of Birth 



Scandinavian — 

Denmark 

Iceland 

Norway 

Sweden 

Germanic — 

Belgium 

Germany 

Holland 

Latin and Greek— 

Greece 

Italy 

Roumania 

Slavic — 

Austria 

Bulgaria 

Czechoslovakia. 

Galicia 

Jugo-Slavia 

Poland 

Russia 

Ukraine 



Per cent 



+ 

+ 

+ 

+ 
+ 

+ 
+ 
+ 

+ 

+ 
+ 
+ 
+ 
+ 
+ 
+ 



11-2 
1-4 
4-8 

10-0 

1-9 
3-8 
2-2 

6-2 
7-6 
8-8 



41-9 
4-9 
7-1 

16-9 
7-2 
6-7 

11-2 



PERCENTAGES NATURALIZED BY PROVINCES 
Table 89 shows the percentages of immigrants naturalized for Canada and for the 
respective provinces in 1921, by country of birth. Attention is first directed- to the 
percentages for the total foreign born. Considerable fluctuation is Shown as between the 
various provinces. For Canada the proportion naturalized was 57-8 p.c. In Prince Edward 
Island the proportion was 81-3 p.c, while in British Columbia only 40-5 p.c. of the foreign 
born had been naturalized by 1-921. Thus, while Prince Edward Inland shows a 23-5 p.c. 
(81-3 p.c— 57-8 p.c.) larger proportion of foreign born naturalized than the Dominion as a 
whole, British Columbia shows a percentage naturalized some 17-3 .p.c. (57-8 p.c-^0-5 p.c.) 
smaller than that for the Dominion. It is apparent that the extent to which naturalization 
has proceeded in the various provinces fluctuates very violently, and it is extremely 
significant, for example, that twice as large -a proportion of the foreign born are naturalized 
in Prince Edward Island as in British Columbia, and over half again as large a proportion 
in Saskatchewan as in Ontario. 



NATURALIZED FOREIGN BORN IN VARIOUS PROVINCES 



151 



TABLE 89 —PERCENTAGE OF FOREIGN BORN NATURALIZED/FOR CANADA AND THE PROVINCES, 

BY COUNTRY OF BIRTH, 1921. 



Birthplace 


Canada 
Per cent 
natural- 
ized 


Prince 
Edward 

Island 
Per cent 
natural- 
ized 


Nova 
Scotia 
Per cent 
natural- 
ized 


New 
Bruns- 
wick 
Per cent 
natural- 
ized 


Quebec 
Per cent 
natural- 
ized 


Ontario 
Per cent 
natural- 
ized 


Mani- 
toba 
Per cent 
natural- 
ized 


Saskat- 
chewan 
Per cent 
natural- 
ized 


Alberta 
Per cent 
'natural- 
ized 


British 
Colum- 
bia 
Per cent 
natural- 
ized 




57-9 

59-4 
42-1 
22-4 
55-7 
56-3 
45-7 
55-2 
65-3 
65-9 
29-3 
48-4 
72-3 
86-4 
30-2 
33-7 
• 71-7 
51-0 
60-5 
62-4 
67-4 
53-9 
54-7 

4-8 
33-5 
58-4 
46-6 

63-6 


80-6 
82-2 


29-7 

12-8 
17-3 

28-7 
52 

26-5 
18-5 
28-4 
31-3 
15-7 
30-7 

17-4 
56-3 
61-8 
25-8 
22-4 
50-0 
57-4 

13-9 

60 

71-3 

79-2 


47-4 

40-3 
27-8 

581 

47-5 

45-5 
14-3 
21-9 

141 

58-7 
58-9 
44-0 
60-4 
50-4 

18-1 
65-6 

73-1 


43-6 

45-8 
28-8 
30-1 
33-3 
451 
36-0 
33-7 
18-2 
45-5 
23-0 
28-0 
45-6 

26-8 
33-3 
38-5 
34-4 
55-7 
57-6 
42-0 
37-7 
24-8 

6-7 
40-0 
45-4 
39-3 

711 


39-6 

24-2 
18-5 
10-3 
31-6 
47-8 
35-4 
51-5 
22-1 
66-6 
32-0 
41-1 
34-8 
67-7 
281 
17-4 
52-6 
43-7 
29-9 
51-4 
48-6 
54-7 
16-7 

9-3 
40-8 
57-4 
45-9 

58-7 


67-3 

631 
49-8 

63-2 
58-2 
48-5 
77-1 
69-6 
69-2 
30-8 
44-3 
76-3 
87-6 
44-3 
58-7 
71-3 
65-8 
65-5 
69-0 
74-3 
54-9 
63-6 

5-9 

. 23-8 

80-0 

73-1 

55-1 


74-0 

73-3 

61-9 
630 
72-1 
65-7 
72-3 
79-2 
76-2 
72-8 
40-3 
67-1 
82-5 
85-8 
51-7 
63-0 
79-8 
67-7 
76-8 
71 
78-8 
61-4 
73-6 

5-6 
50-5 
83-7 

69 


65-5 

65-8 
53-8 
491 
60-7 
53-7 
76-1 
63-6 
71-7 
641 
34-6 
48-7 
73-2 
90-9 
40-0 
31-9 
74-4 
58-7 
67-8 
65-4 
73-7 
60-2 
66-0 

7-8 
29-1 
68-8 
42-6 

61-4 


49-9 




43-8 




60-1 




20-6 




53-7 
57-6 




57-5 




58-2 




251 




58-6 




28-8 


Holland 


53-2 




52-4 




73-8 


Italy 


36-8 




30-6 
58-5 


Poland 


44-4 




45-8 




45-7 




55-2 




51-0 




38-4 




2-7 




33-4 




73-8 




37-0 




57-0 






Total 


57-8 


81-3 


55-5 


67-2 


54-5 


46-3 


64-1 


70-9 


61-9 


40-5 







Table 90 (p. 154) presents the differences between the provinces in a striking manner. 
Where the proportion naturalized for the foreign born from a given country of birth is 
greater than the figure for the Dominion, the difference is recorded with a positive sign. 
Where the reverse holds true the difference is prefixed with the negative sign. When the immi- 
grants in Prince Edward Island are distributed to their respective countries of birth their 
numbers are not sufficiently great to be representative, so deviations in detail are given only 
for provinces from Nova Scotia west. 

The first feature to catch the eye in the table is Uhe preponderance of negative signs 
in the case of Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Quebec, Ontario and British Columbia, and 
the frequency of positive signs in the case of each of the Prairie Provinces. What is 
generally applicable to the various immigrant groups in each province holds true for the 
total foreign born with one exception, viz., New Brunswick. While naturalization has not 
advanced so far in New Brunswick as in Canada as a whole for the great majority of 
immigrant peoples, it has proceeded to a very marked extent among the United States 
immigrants, who are largely the returning sons and daughters of French Canadian emigrants. 
Under the existing 'laws, naturalization is unusually rapid and easy for such immigrants, and 
when it is recalled that 60 p.c. of the total foreign born immigrants in New Brunswick 
are from the United States, it is easily understood how that province, while Showing lower 
proportions naturalized for most of the immigrant stocks, shows on the total a higher 
average than the Dominion. The influence of the rapid naturalization among so large a 
body of United States born French immigrants outweighs the backwardness of the other 
foreign people in assimilating politically. The case of New Brunswick is unique among the 
provinces of Canada. 

Reverting then to the main line of our analysis, in respect to naturalization British 
Columbia lags farthest behind the average for Canada and Ontario comes next, while Prince 
Edward Island, at the other extreme, is far ahead of the other provinces. Saskatchewan 
stands second highest in the Dominion. 



152 THE NATURALIZATION OF IMMIGRANT PEOPLES 

It is of interest to relate the figures on naturalization for the provinces to the figures 
showing the percentages of foreign born in the population of each provincial jurisdiction. 
This is presented in Table 91, as is also the percentage in each province that the naturalized 
foreign born citizens constitute of the total population. For the statesman and political 
scientist this table is fraught with great significance. In the three Prairie Provinces, not 
only is the naturalized percentage of foreign born about half again as large as in a province 
like Ontario, but the proportion which the foreign born constitute of the total population 
is from three to five times as great. The result is that the naturalized foreign born form 
almost four times the percentage of the population in Manitoba that they do in Ontario, 
and in Saskatchewan and Alberta over six times. These differences would be even more 
marked were the naturalized foreign born expressed as percentages of the native and British 
born for each province. 

Further, were allowances made for the preponderance of adults among the foreign born, 
using the data in Chapter III, it would be found that the percentages that the foreign born 
votes constitute of the total vote would be considerably higher than the figures shown 1 in 
Column 3 of Table 91. Yet even taking that factor into consideration, in the East the 
voting power of the foreign born is a very small fraction of the total vote. In the West, 
on the other hand, it represents well over one-fifth of the total votes in one province and 
very considerable proportions in the others. 

Attention has already been called to the vital national significance of such a radical 
■difference as exists between East and West in the " origin " structure of the population of 
the provinces, and it was pointed out that while the proportion of non-British and non-French 
stocks in Canada as a whole is as yet comparatively small, its distribution is such as to 
make for a marked difference in the composition of the population in various provinces, 
which cannot but reflect itself in differences of culture and of educational and political 
outlook. Further, emphasis was laid on the fact that those differences are becoming more 
•marked. Attention is now directed to the distribution of that proportion of the foreign 
stocks born abroad. When certain sections of the Dominion have so marked a concentration • 
of foreign-born citizens accustomed to different systems of government and finding it diffi- 
cult to understand the genius of British political institutions, the situation is undoubtedly 
one which demands attention not only in the present, but as to what lies ahead — the more 
so as, with the United States enforcing a rigorous policy of exclusion, the pressure of immi- 
gration during the coming years bids fair to be heavy. If the progressively uneven distri- 
bution of incoming foreign people continues, and the uneven rate of naturalization also 
persists, a problem of serious import will almost certainly emerge. 

Passing now to a more detailed examination of Table 90, if we discard those figures 
which represent less than 500 immigrants of a given nativity resident in a province as being 
unimportant, in Nova Scotia there is only one case of an exceptionally large percentage 
naturalized, viz., the United States born. They show a percentage naturalized above the 
average for Canada. That is easily understood, however, for what has been said of the 
United States born in New Brunswick applies also to Nova Scotia, though perhaps not to so 
marked an extent. In New Brunswick also, the United States born constitute the only 
significant exception to the general rule for the province. In Quebec there are two, the 
Chinese and the United States born. In respect to the latter the same explanation applies 
as in New Brunswick and Nova Scotia. That the Chinese should show a slightly larger per- 
centage naturalized in that province than the average for Canada may be due to longer 
residence and a relatively high percentage of females. There are four significant exceptions 
to the general rule for Ontario. First, a higher percentage naturalized for the Chinese is due. 
in part at least, to length of residence (as in Quebec) and also to a relatively large propor- 
tion 'of females. The percentage of females in the Chinese population in Ontario is second 
only to that in British Columbia. The second case is the Swiss, among whom the percentage 
of females in Ontario is higher than in any province west of Quebec; this alone would be 
adequate to account for the slight positive deviation. ProbaMy length of residence is the 
principal explanation of the Greeks showing a higher percentage naturalized in Ontario 



EXTENT OF NATURALIZATION IN THE VARIOUS PROVINCES 153 

ithan in Canada as a whole, though numerical strength may also be a factor. All the 
influences mentioned above are operative in fixing the percentage for . the fourth case 
above the average in the province of Ontario, that of the Germans. 

In Manitoba, the Dutch, Norwegians and United States immigrants, contrary to the 
general rule for the province, show lower percentages naturalized than for Canada as a 
whole No explanation is offered in the case of the immigration from the Netherlands, 
though the fact that the Dutch are much more urban in Manitoba than in Alberta and 
Saskatchewan may have considerable influence. Probably a difference in occupation might 
also help to explain the case, but occupational data by countries of birth are unfortunately 
not available. The same remarks apply to the Norwegians. However, in comparison with such 
•large negative deviations in the eastern provinces, the small negative deviation of minus 
0-4 p.c. indicates a situation very much more favourable to naturalization in Manitoba, and 
that is the significant thing. The Japanese in Manitoba are abnormally urban and have a 
relatively small percentage of females as compared with other provinces. These two facts 
seem adequate to explain the behaviour of these immigrants there, though of course other 
factors may enter in. 

In Saskatchewan only one group fails ito run true to type, namely, the Icelanders. For 
them Saskatchewan appears to be slightly unfavourable to naturalization, but that .fact may 
be explained on the basis of an unduly large surplus of males in that province. Of the three 
important groups of immigrants for whom Alberta has a smaller percentage naturalized than 
for Canada as a whole, the figures for the Danes and Germans seem explicable only on the 
grounds of recent arrival, and the figure for the United States may be attributed to recent 
arrival, coupled with a comparatively small percentage of females among the immigrants 
to that province. The exceptions are more difficult to explain in British Columbia, and in 
'the absence of occupational data a detailed analysis of the figures for that province is left 
to those who are familiar with the conditions there and in particular with the vocations of 
the various groups of immigrants. 

If the percentage naturalized for • each group of foreign born be traced through the 
iprovincial figures, it will be seen that on passing from east to west the percentages fluctuate 
with remarkable uniformity of direction though not as to extent. As will be emphasized 
below, the several immigrant groups show marked differences in the amount of fluctuation, 
but the point of emphasis here is on the fact that in passing from one province to another, 
the direction of fluctuation tends to be the same for virtually all groups of immigrants. 
The exceptions are comparatively few, and in most cases a're traceable to very obvious causes. 

If it be true, then, that for most groups of immigrants naturalization has proceeded 
'further in the three Prairie Provinces and to an unduly small extent in British Columbia 
and the older provinces of Ontario and Quebec, the question arises as to what underlying 
forces are at work. The following suggestions are made: In the first place, the provinces 
differ as to rural and urban distribution of the foreign born. The people in cities are more 
mobile. A greater percentage might be described as a "floating population." In the rural 
districts, on the other hand, and especially in the Prairie Provinces under the homesteading 
system of acquiring land, permanency of residence is more marked, and a much more definite 
interest is to be expected in the local and ultimately in the provincial and Dominion Gov- 
vernments. Besides, the homestead laws have definitely stimulated naturalization. The 
above factors are suggested as the main explanation of the general differences between 
provinces, though length of residence, proportion of men and women, occupational differences 
and many other factors are important in explaining the differing behaviour in respect to 
■naturalization of the different sections of a given nativity group in the various parts of the 
Dominion. 



154 



THE NATURALIZATION OF IMMIGRANT PEOPLES 



TABLE 90.-PERCENTAGE BY WHICH THE PROPORTIONS OF FOREIGN BORN NATURALIZED IN 
EACH PROVINCE DIFFERED FROM THE PROPORTION NATURALIZED FOR CANADA, BY 
COUNTRY OF BIRTH, 1921. 



Country of Birth 


Prince 
Edward 
Island 


Nova 
Scotia 


New 
Bruns- 
wick 


Quebec 


Ontario 


Manitoba 


Saskat- 
chewan 


Alberta 


British 
Columbia 




p.o. 

+22-7 

+ 18-6 


P.O. 

- 28-2 

- 46-6 

- 24-8 

- 27-0 
-. 4-3 

- 28-7 

- 46-8 

- 37-5 
+ 2-0 

- 32-7 

- 41-6 

- 12-8 
+ 22-6 

- 9-9 

- 25-2 

- 38-1 

- 12-4 

- 100 

- 40-8 
+ 1-2 
+ 12-9 

+ 15-6 


p.o. 

- 10-5 

- 19-1 

- 14-3 

+ 1-8 

- 7-7 

- 20-4 

- 15-0 

- 26-5 

- 16-1 

- 13-0 
+ 7-9 

- 16-S 

- 2-0 

- 17-0 

+ 13-3 
+ 7-2 

+ 9-5 


p.o. 

- 14-3 

- 13-6 

- 13-3 

+ 7-8 

- 22-4 

- 11-1 

- 9-6 

- 21-5 

- 47-1 

- 20-4 

- 6-3 

- 20-4 

- 26-7 

- 3-4 

- 0-4 

- 33-2 

- 16-6 

- 4-8 

- -4-8 

- 25-4 

- 16-2 

- 29-9 

+ 1-9 
+ 6-5 

- 13 

- 7-3 

+ 7-5 


p.o. 

- 18-3 

- 35-2 

- 23-6 

- 121 

- 24-1 

- 8-5 

- 10-3 

- 3-7 

- 43-2 
+ 0-7 
+ 2-7 

- 7-3 

- 37-5 

- 18-7 

- 2-1 

- 16-3 

- 19-1 

- 7-3 

- 30-6 

- 11-0 

- 18-8 
+ 0-8 

- 38-0 

+ 4-5 
+ 7-3 

- 10 

- 0-7 

- 4-9 


p.c. 
+ 9-4 

+ 3-7 

+ 7-7 

+ 7-5 
+ 1-9 
+ 2-8 
+ 21-9 
+ 4-3 
+ 3-3 
+ 1-5 

- 4-1 
+ 4-0 
+ 1-2 
+ 141 
+ 25-0 

- 0-4 
+ 14-8 
+ 5-0 
+ 6-6 
+ 6-9 
+ 1-0 
+ 8-9 

+ 1-1 

9-7 

+ 21-6 

+ 26-5 

- 8-5 


p.c. 

+ 16-1 

+ 13-9 
+ 19-8 
+ 40-6 
+ 16-4 
+ 9-4 
+ 26-8 
+ 24-0 
+ 10-9 
+ 6-9 
+ 11-0 
+ 18-7 
+ 10-2 
- 0-6 
+ 21-5 
+ 29-3 
+ 8-1 
+ 16-7 
+ 16-3 
+ 8-6 
+ 11-4 
+ 7-5 
+ 18-9 

+ 0-8 
+ 17-0 
+ 25-3 

+ 5-4 


p.o. 

+ 7-6 

+ 6-4 
+ 11-7 
+ 26-7 
+ 5-0 

- 2-6 
+ 30-4 
+ 8-4 
+ 6-4 

- 1-8 
+ 5-3 
+ 0-3 
+ 0-9 
+ 4-5 
+ 9-8 

- 1-8 
+ 2-7 
+ 7-7 
+ 7-3 
+ 3-0 
+ 6-3 
+ 6-3 
+ 11-3 

+ 3-0 
4-4 

+ 10-4 

- 40 

- 2-2 


p.c. 
- 8-0 




- 15-6 




+ 18-0 




- 1-8 




- 2-0 




+ 1-3 




+ 11-8 




+ 3-0 




- 40-2 




- 7-3 




- 0-5 


Holland 


+ 4-8 




- 19-9 




- 12-6 


Italy 


+ 6-6 




- 31 




- 13-2 




- 6-6 




- 14-7 

- 16-7 




- 12-2 




- 2-9 




- 16-3 




- 2-1 




- 0-1 




+ 15-4 


Turkey 


- 9-6 




- 6-6 






Total 


+ 23-5 


- 2-3 


+ 9-4 


- 3-3 


- 11-5 


+ 6-3 


+ 13-1 


+ 4-1 


- 17-3 







TABLE 91— PERCENTAGE OF FOREIGN BORN NATURALIZED, BY PROVINCES, AND THE FOREIGN 
BORN AND NATURALIZED FOREIGN BORN AS PERCENTAGES OF TOTAL POPULATION IN 
EACH PROVINCE, 1921. 



Province 


Percentage of 
Foreign born 
naturalized 


Foreign born 

as percentage 

of total 

population 


Naturalized 

Foreign born 

as percentage 

of total 

population 




81-3 
55-5 
67-2 
54-5 
46-3 
64-1 
70-9 
61-9 
40-5 


1-46 
2-67 
2-77 
4-18 
6-21 
17-91 
26-31 
29-56 
19-02 


119 




1-48 




1-86 




2-28 




2-87 




11-48 




18-65 




18-30 




7-71 








57-8 


10 13 


5-86 







It is of interest in passing to compare the immigrants from the different countries as to 
consistency of 'behaviour in respect to naturalization in the various parts of Canada. Table 
92 shows the range of fluctuations by country of biTth. The range is admittedly a very 
crude index of consistency or dispersion, and were the subject of sufficient importance from 
the point of view of this study, -the average or standard deviations would 1 have been- com- 
puted. However, our purpose here is merely to show that marked differences do appear in 
the consistency of behaviour of the various foreign born people in respect to naturalization 
as between different sections of the country; or, to put it in another way, that the naturali- 
zation of certain peoples is influenced to a great extent by differences in rural and urban 
distribution, geographical and occupational environment, and distribution as to time of 
arrival, etc., while in other cases the influence of these factors is comparatively small. 

The range of 60-5 p.c. for the Austrians in Table 92 was computed by taking the 
lowest percentage of that immigrant group naturalized for any province, from the highest. 
In that case the lowest occurred in Nova Scotia, wthere only 12-8 p.c. were naturalized in 



RELATION OF NATURALIZATION TO BIRTHPLACE OF IMMIGRANTS 155 



1921 and the highest in Saskatchewan, where the figure was 73-3 p.c. The difference is 60-5 
p.c. (73-3 p.c. minus 12-8 p.c), which figure indicated that the Austrians differ widely between 
provinces as to percentage naturalized. 

The ranges of 20-5 p.c. for the Danes and 23-2 p.c. for the Icelanders are at the other 
extreme. The small magnitude of the range of fluctuations indicate marked consistency in 
respect to naturalization in the case of each of these immigrant peoples. With them 
naturalization has advanced not only to a marked extent but to a very uniform degree in 
all provinces. In the case of the Greeks with a 25 p.c. range, consistency, but of a different 
sort, is shown. The Greeks have been consistent throughout Canada in the small percentage 
naturalized up to 1921. The same applies to an even more marked extent to the Chinese, 
and so the tables may be examined. Tables 93 and 94 show the countries of birth of the 
European born, grouped into geographical and linguistic classes. 

TABLE 92 —RANGE OF FLUCTUATIONS OF PERCENTAGES OF FOREIGN BORN NATURALIZED, AS 
BETWEEN PROVINCES, BY COUNTRIES OF BIRTH, 1921. 



Country of Birth 



Austria 

Belgium 

Bulgaria 

Czechoslovakia. . 

Denmark 

Finland 

France 

Galicia 

Germany 

Greece 

Holland 

Hungary 

Iceland 

Italy... 



Percentage 

range of 
fluctuation 



Country of Birth 



Jugo-Slavia. . 

Norway 

Poland 

Roumania.. . 

Russia 

Sweden 

Switzerland.. 

Ukraine 

China 

Japan 

Syria 

Turkey 

U.S.A 



Percentage 

range of 
fluctuation 



TABLE 93 -RANGE OF FLUCTUATIONS OF PERCENTAGES OF FOREIGN BORN NATURALIZED AS 
BETWEEN PROVINCES; BY GEOGRAPHICAL GROUPING OF COUNTRIES OF BIRTH, 1921. 



Country of Birth 



North Western Europe — 

Belgium 

Denmark 

France 

Germany 

' Holland 

Iceland 

Norway 

Sweden 

Switzerland 



Percentage 

range of 
fluctuation 



44-6 
20-5 
52-7 
44.4 

51-2 
23-2 
41-3 
36-8 
23-7 



Country of Birth 



South, Eastern and Central Europe — 

Austria 

Bulgaria 

Czechoslovakia 

Finland 

Galicia 

Greece 

Hungary 

Italy. 

Jugo-Slavia 

Poland 

Roumania 

Russia 

Ukraine 



Percentage 

range of 
fluctuation 



60-5 
52-7 
43-4 
40-7 
58-0 
250 
51-8 
38-3 
45-6 
41-9 
54-4 
25-3 
59-7 



TABLE 94.-RANGE OF FLUCTUATIONS OF PERCENTAGES OF FOREIGN BORN NATURALIZED AS 
BETWEEN PROVINCES, BY LINGUISTIC GROUPING OF COUNTRIES OF BIRTH, 1921. 



Country of Birth 



Scandinavian — 
Denmark.. 

Iceland 

Norway. . . 
Sweden — 

Germanic — 
Belgium... 
Germany.. 
Holland... 



Percentage 

range of 
fluctuation 



20-5 
23-2 
41-3 
36-8 



44-6 
44.4 

51-2 



Country of Birth 



Latin and Greek — 

Greece 

Italy 

Roumania 

Slavic — 

Austria 

Bulgaria 

Czechoslovakia. 

Galicia 

Jugo-Slavia 

Poland 

Russia '. 

Ukraine 



Percentage 

range of 
fluctuation 



25-0 
38-3 
54-4 

60-5 
52-7 
43-4 
58-0 
45-6 
41-9 
25-3 
59-7 



156 • THE NATURALIZATION OF IMMIGRANT PEOPLES 



SPEED OF NATURALIZATION 

No adequate record is at present available of immigrants who have come to 
Canada and, after remaining a time, have returned home or passed on to some other 
country. So when it is stated that 59-4 p.c. of the Austrians in. Canada on June 1, 1921, 
were naturalized citizens, reference is made only to those who were actually here at that 
time and no direct account is taken of the thousands of immigrants from that country 
who during the preceding years lhad come and gone. Certain individuals we know come 
to 'Canada to stay; others come with the idea of remaining only a short time. It is 
popularly assumed, for instance, that the Italians and Greeks are of the latter type. While 
not a direct measure, the low percentage naturalized for such peoples indirectly reflects the 
tendency of large numbers to leave the country after a few years, as well as being directly 
related to the average time required for naturalization on the part of those who remain. 
The reason for -that is explained below. The crude percentage naturalized is thus the result 
of several factors. An attempt is made in this subsection to eliminate the time element and 
to present a rough idea of what may be called, for want of a better term, the speed- of 
naturalization. 

When immigrants from a given country show relatively high proportions naturalized 
for the specified dates of arrival, the inference is not only that they naturalized more 
rapidly but, because of that fact, that larger proportions come to the country to stay. Unless 
it happens that there has been a radical change in the type of immigration, from a country, 
the one type coming to stay and the other to leave after a shout time, the validity of the 
above inference seems beyond question. One knows of no such change taking place during 
the latter part of the period under review. Of course, it is possible that, say, liarger 
proportions of the Russians or Poles immigrating between 1880 and 1900 and perhaps during 
the early years of the present century came merely to build railways and left in greater 
numbers than the more recent immigrants from those countries. If such be the case, their 
presence in Canada at that time is not reflected in the percentage naturalized among those 
resident in Canada in 1921. Consequently in certain exceptional cases the percentages 
naturalized for the earlier years may be somewhat unreliable in so far as they are expected 
to reflect the presence of temporary immigration. By the same token they would measure 
more accurately the speed of naturalization of those who remained. 

Aside from such a possibility, it is a matter of common knowledge that some immi- 
grants in most groups come to this country with the idea of leaving after having won the 
smile of fortune. Many find that the winning takes 10, 20 or more years. They are not 
permanent settlers. Canada is not their home and the presence of such a. group reduces the 
percentage naturalized all along the line. Certain immigrant peoples, as has been said, have 
larger proportions of this temporary type than have others, and when one speaks of speed 
of naturalization, the influence of such classes must be kept in mind, as we'll as the rapidity 
with which those who come to stay take out naturalization papers. 

Another point should also be made clear in connection with the speed of naturalization. 
Up to 1914 the law required a minimum of three years' residence in Canada prior to 
naturalization. In that year the residence requirement was changed to five years, and after 
the war a ten year clause was inserted to apply to all subjects of enemy States. Further, 
naturalization was arrested during the war period for all enemy peoples. Thus the percent- ■ 
ages naturalized from 1914 on must be interpreted with great caution. 

It may appear strange that in spite of the five year requirement Table 95 (p. 159) shows 
that certain proportions arriving after 1919 were naturalized by 1921. The majority of such 
cases are women and children who have joined their husbands and fathers who had previously 
come to this country, and had by that time completed all necessary residence requirements. 
There are also a certain number of repatriated Canadians in the group, but no new male 
immigrants of foreign birth. 

Passing now to the analysis and comparison of the speed of naturalization of the various 
immigrant peoples, we have in Table 95 the percentage naturalized of foreign born in 



THE RATE OF NATURALIZATION AMONG IMMIGRANT STOCKS 157 

Canada in 1921 by date of arrival and country of birth. At the foot of the table will also 
be found the 'percentages for specified groups of countries of birth. These have been 
compiled from the census table showing the actual numbers for the separate nationalities. 

The data are grouped into four periods of arrival. The figures for separate years were . 
not available, so in the chart which presents the material in graphic form it was necessary 
to choose some date within each period at which the percentage might most fittingly be 
plotted. For the first two periods the middle point was chosen in all cases, that is, for the 
periods 1919 to June, 1921, and 1915 to 1918 inclusive. The error in following that procedure 
was considered unimportant, first, because the immigration laws make comparisons invalid 
as between many of the groups of immigrants arriving during those years and secondly, 
because those years are relatively unimportant from the standpoint, of actual numbers coming 
to Canada. For the periods 1911 to 1914 and 1901 to 1910, the yearly immigration figures 
svere examined for each country of birth and the date was found at which half of those 
coming within each period had arrived. The percentages were plotted in each case at the 
point so determined. Immigration figures for individual countries of birth were not avail- 
able prior to 1897, so it was impossible to follow the same procedure for those classed as 
arriving prior to 1901. The only alternative was to arbitrarily choose some date and apply 
it to all. The date chosen was January 1, 1895. Of course, in many cases that may be 
wide of bhe mark, but two or three years make little difference to naturalization after 
settlers have been in the country more than two decades. Such an assumption, therefore, 
is sufficiently accurate for the present purpose. 

The data so charted appear on the semi^logarithmic- Chart 29. For those who are 
familiar with interpreting graphs of this kind the following comments will be unnecessary. 
The meaning and implication of the curves will be seen at a glance. However, the follow- 
ing explanations may not be out of place. Chart 29 shows the percentage naturalized 
of specified immigrants in Canada in 1921, by length of residence. ' The fact that 
the curves ascend from left to right indicates that larger percentages are naturalized 
of those who have been in the country for a greater length of time than obtain for the 
recent arrivals. 

Approximately the same proportion naturalized is shown for present residents who 
arrived in Canada prior to 190il from North Western Europe as for those from South, 
Eastern and Central Europe, but of the immigrants who have come between 1901 and 1919, 
considerably larger proportions of the North Western Europeans have naturalized than of 
immigrants from the South, Eastern and Central parts of the continent. Since 1919, the 
record shows that large numbers of women and children have come from Slavic countries to 
join their husbands and fathers. The same does not hold for the Germanic and Scandinavian 
countries, so the percentage naturalized for the South, Eastern and Central European group 
appears higher than: for the North Western European group in recent years. That fact, 
however, is purely accidental. It may be said that, as a group, the South, Eastern and 
Central Europeans have naturalized less readily than those from North Western Europe, 
yet the unqualified statement is misleading. 

Further light is thrown on the subject by an examination of the language classification. 
Of the linguistic groups the Scandinavians have naturalized most rapidly, and it is very 
significant that next to the Scandinavians, the Slavs show the greatest speed in becoming 
Canadian citizens. They naturalize more rapidly than the Germanic immigrants, and did 
Bo even before the war was in sight. Actually higher percentages of the Slavs who arrived 
before 1911 and were still resident in Canada in. 1921, had been naturalized by that date 
than occurred for the immigrants from the Germanic countries as a group. Of alll four 
linguistic groups of Europe the immigrants from the Latin and Greek countries are the 
slowest to naturalize, and a large proportion of them never naturalize at all. The latter 
applies especially to the Italians and Greeks, who, as we have seen, are essentially urban 
people. It is largely due to their inclusion that the South, Eastern and Central Europeans as 
a group appeared averse to naturalization. The Roumanians are quite different; they are 



158 



THE NATURALIZATION OF IMMIGRANT PEOPLES 



Chart XXIX 



PERCENTAGE NATURALIZED, by LENGTH or RESIDENCE.for 
IMMIGRANTS from SPECIFIED COUNTRIES or BIRTH 



NUMBER OF YEARS IN CaNADA PRIOR TO 1921 



(0 



IS 



20 



'25 



10 




100 
90 

SO 
70 
60 



10 



20 



2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 II 12 O 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 2l 22 23 24 25 

dumber of Years in Canada prior to 1921 



THE RATE OF NATURALIZATION AMONG IMMIGRANT STOCKS 



159 



dominantly rural and' their behaviour in respect of naturalization is more similar to that 
of the Slavic people than to that of the Italian and Greeks. They naturalize comparatively 
rapidly. 

Other things being equal, iimmigranits who settle in rural parts naturalize more rapidly 
than those going to cities. That is only to be expected from the homestead laws and the 
tendency for settlers on the land to be more permanent than those following most other 
occupations. 

The chart also presents the curve for the immigrants from the United States. The 
United States imtmigrants naturalize as rapidly as the Scandinavians. Indeed, those coming 
in recent years have naturalized more rapidly. That is due probably to the large percent- 
age of British stock and repatriated French Canadians included in the United States immi- 
gration, to which reference has been made in an earlier section. A detailed analysis of this 
chart is left to 'the reader. 

It is interesting to note, in conclusion, that the data presented in Table 95 substantiate 
the thesis postulated earlier in this chapter, that immigrants who settle in rural parts 
naturalize more rapidly than those who congregate in cities. 

TABLE 95.— PERCENTAGE NATURALIZED OF FOREIGN BORN RESIDENTS IN CANADA IN 1921, 

BY DATE OF ARRIVAL. 



Birthplace 


Total 
naturalized 


1919 to 
June, 1921 


1915 
' to 1918 


1911 
to 1914 


1901 
to 1910 


Before 
1901 




59-4 
42-1 
22-4 
55-7 
563 
45-7 
55-2 
65-3 
65-9 
29-3 
48-4 
72-3 
86-4 
30-2 
33-7 
71-7 
51-0 
60-5 
62-4 
67-4 
53-9 
54-7 
4-8 
33-5 
58-4 
466 

63-6 
51-2 

62-70 
56-07 
69-69 
56-47 
41-28 
59-87 


17-8 
10-0 
28-6 
13-3 

5-3 

7-1 
25-4 
19-0 
13-4 

9-7 

7-7 
131 

6-8 

5-9 
18-3 

9-4 
33-4 
16-9 
21-8 

7-7 

8-8 
20-9 

4-9 
18-7 
17-9 
42-3 

24-6 
22-6 

12-28 
15-96 

7-64 
10-00 

7-20 
24-67 


21-9 
160 
13-3 
28-1 
12-6 
■ 11-9 
27-9 
35-0 
16-8 
11-9 
16-5 
28-6 
27-8 
13-4 
17-4 
25-0 
18-4 
19-8 
19-5 
21-4 
17-9 
28-6 
3-4 
18-0 
23-4 
23-5 

33-6 
50-0 

21-05 
17-76 
21-61 
16-32 
14-01 
20-60 


27-8 
35-8 
12-3 
31-4 
53-2 
37-5 
43-7 
311 
33-7 
24-1 
41-6 
35-0 
59-4 
22-6 
19-9 
70-8 
33-7 
31-9 
431 
61-6 
44-1 
24-3 
3-7 
30-3 
45-7 
29-7 

62-4 
67-7 

50-79 
33-48 
64-00 
35-92 
25-98 
35-17 


70-8 
63-1 
49-5 
68-7 
79-8 
58-6 
62-5 
77-3 
77-8 
40-2 
70-6 
83-9 
86-9 
43-8 
47-6 
84-8 
65-9 
74-9 
78-1 
79-0 
71-6 
69-1 
4-7 
38-1 
65-7 
64-1 

80-9 
50-0 

76-26 
70-95 
81-98 
72-47 
57-66 
74-00 


90-3 




79-2 




86-4 




81-4 




79-6 




73-7 




74-2 




93-2 




78-5 




60-5 


Holland 


75-9 




89-6 




93-9 


Italy 


63-2 




75-5 




82-5 


Poland 


80-9 
89-6 




77-0 




85-3 




79-6 




911 




7-6 




69-3 




76-6 


Turkey 


66-7 




85-9 




100-0 




81-37 




82-50 




87-31 




78-82 




75-77 




83-70 







CHAPTER VIII 

ORIGIN AND LANGUAGE— USE OF ENGLISH AND FRENCH BY 

IMMIGRANT PEOPLES 

Canada is the meeting place of many peoples. Within her boundaries many tongues are 
spoken. The development and use of a common medium of communication has in the 
past, as the sociologist avers, conditioned the emergence of human societies. Unless indi- 
viduals -can make known to the other members of' the group their feelings and thoughts, 
and unless they in turn are able to understand and appreciate the emotions and ideas of 
their fellows, a group consciousness is impossible. The " animated moderation " which has 
gradually been replacing the rule of force is based on discussion which, in turn, is conditioned 
by the ability of converse. Common media of communication are as important in modern 
democracies as with primitive peoples. 

In Canada, there are two official languages, French and English. Before considering 
the extent to which immigrants from other countries are learning one or both of these, it is 
of interest to examine how far those of French origin have learned to speak English and 
those of British origin to speak French. The following percentages have been computed 
from the tables on language spoken by the population 10 years and over, resident in Canada, 
June 1, 1921, (Census, Vol. 2, page 314) :i— 

TABLE 96— PERCENTAGE OF THE POPULATION OF BRITISH ORIGIN REPORTED AS ABLE TO 
SPEAK FRENCH. PERCENTAGE OF THE POPULATION OF FRENCH ORIGIN REPORTED AS 
ABLE TO SPEAK ENGLISH, 1921. 



Origin 


Percentage 

reported 

as being able 

to speak 

English 


Percentage 

reported 

as being able 

to speak 

French 








57-7 
45-0 
50-8 








Females 
Total 








Total 4-8 



Two points are of interest in the above table. First, the striking difference between 
the proportion of French who have learned English, and the proportion of those of English 
speaking origins who have 'learned French. While approximately half of the French people 
10 years of age and over reported themselves as able to speak English, less than one-twentieth 
of the English of similar age claimed to be able to speak French at the time of the Census. 
However, this comparison is somewhat misleading. The learning of a language other than 
the mother tongue is largely a matter of social and especially of economic convenience, and 
the proportions of the British and French stocks among whom it 13 a matter of convenience 
to learn the other language are very different. While 23-0 p.c. of the French in Canada are 
domiciled outside Quebec, i.e., in provinces where English is the dominant language of the 
people, only 7.3 p.c. of the English speaking peoples are resident in the province of Quebec 
where French is the native language of the vast majority of the population. When the 
number of English who have acquired French is expressed as a proportion of the total of 
English speaking origins in Canada, of whom perhaps only 10 to 15 p.c. ever come into 
contact with French-speaking Canadians, the result is hardly comparable with that for the 
French, with 25 to 30 p.c. living among English-speaking Canadians. 

A much, fairer comparison is between the English-speaking stocks in the province of 
Quebec, and the French in parts of Canada outside that province. Of the former, 30.7 p.c. 
(10 years and over) were able to speak French at the date of the Census; of the latter, 

160 



PROPORTION UNABLE TO SPEAK ENGLISH OR FRENCH 161 



83-3 p.c. (10 years and over) reported themselves as being able to speak English. These 
percentages are much more representative, for they apply where conditions affecting the learn- 
ing of the other language are more or less equal. ' 

The second point of note in Table 96 is that in each case the percentage of males able 
to speak the language of the other was greater than the percentage of females reported a3 
able to do so. The influence of business and economic forces in stimulating among the 
males the learning of the language of the other dominant stock is undoubtedly of con- 
siderable moment. 

PROPORTION UNABLE TO SPEAK ENGLISH OR FRENCH 

Turning now to the extent to which the immigrant peoples have related themselves to 
the language spoken by those of French and British origins in Canada, Table 97 shows the 
percentages, 10 years of age and over, unable to speak (1) English and (2) English or 
French, for the principal non-British, non-French origins. The Indians, Japanese and 
Chinese show the highest proportions. As in the case of assimilation by intermarriage 
with the basic stock in the country, so in the matter of learning the languages of the 
nation, these stocks are far behind the others. In respect of language, they are in a class 
quite by themselves, within the neighbourhood- of 40 p.c. unable to speak French or English. 
The Syrians have learned one of the languages to within a very small percentage of their 
population 10 years and over in the country. Many of them have learned French. Of the 
Jewish residents, 5-4 p.c. are still unable to speak either of the languages. 

Over five times as large a proportion of the South, Eastern and Central Europeans 
were unable to speak either English or French as of the North Western European group. 
In the North Western group the proportion of the Belgians unable to speak English was 
exceptionally high at 17-1 p.c. The great majority of these, however, spoke French as their 
mother tongue. Thus, the percentage unable to speak either French or English is quite 
small, being 4-1 p.c. 

Of the stocks from South, Eastern and Central Europe, the Czechs and Greeks are 
exceptional in having comparatively small numbers unable to speak one of the languages of 
this country. The others in this group show considerably higher proportions unable to speak 
French or English than any of the peoples from the North and West of Europe. Those of 
Ukrainian origin seem to have made least progress in learning the Canadian languages; the 
Austrians and Russians have made considerably more progress on the whole, though the 
percentage unable to speak either is still very high. As far as inability to speak English is 
concerned, the Italians stood second in the group, but quite large numbers of them speak 
French, so when both languages are counted their position is much more favourable than 
either the Austrians or Russians. 

It is instructive to reclassify the origins according to linguistic groups. Such classi- 
fication is shown in the lower part of Table 98. The Flemish were omitted from the 
Germanic group because, while 60 p.c. of the Belgians by origin classification speak Flemish 
as their native language, the major part of the balance speak French as the mother tongue. 
Large numbers of these have not learned 1 English, and their inclusion with the Germanic 
group would be misleading when considering the question of language. It appears from the 
table that those of Scandinavian origin on the whole speak either English or French in the 
Jargest numbers. Indeed most of them speak English, and comparatively few speak French. 
Of the Scandinavian stocks, the Icelandic shows the largest percentage unable to speak the 
languages of the country. It is interesting to recall that they also showed the least tendency 
to intermarry with the native British or French stock in Canada. 

The Germans came next to the Danes and Norwegians, showing only a very slightly 
larger percentage unable to speak English or French. In all three cases the proportions were 
very small. The Dutch were on a par with the- Greeks in the Latin and Greek group, where 
considerably larger percentages were unable to speak the dominant languages of Canada than 
in the Germanic group. The Slavic group had the highest percentage of all. Of the Slavs, 
the Czechs showed the lowest proportion unable to speak our languages, and in this respect 
were ahead even of the Dutch and Greeks. 

74422—11 



162 



THE LANGUAGE OF IMMIGRANT PEOPLES 



TABLE 97.— PERCENTAGES, 10 YEARS OF AGE AND OVER, UNABLE TO SPEAK (l)ENGLISH, 
(2) FRENCH OR ENGLISH, FOR THE PRINCIPAL NON-BRITISH, NON-FRENCH ORIGINS IN 
CANADA, 1921. 



Origin 


Per cent 
10 yrs. 

and over 
unable 

to speak 

English 


Per cent 
10 yrs. and 
over unable 

to speak 
French or 

English 




18-3 

171 

180 

38-2 

6-4 

14 

7-7 

14-8 

1-9 

7-6 

10-5 

5-9 

45-6 

190 

411 

5-7 

1-4 

13-8 

13-7 

17-0 

8-9 

2-3 

2-5 

9-2 

26-2 


18-2 








180 




32-1 




6-2 






Dutch 


7'7 




14 1 




1-7 




C-5 








5-9 




43-9 




12-3 




41-1 




5-4 




1-3 


Polish 


13-6 




13-4 




16-9 




8-9 




2-2 




0-6 




3-9 




26-2 







Chart XXX 



PERCENTAGES or SPECIFIED GROUPSorORIGINS UNABLE to 
SPEAK either ENGLISH or FRENCH.n CANADA, 1921 



%0 



10 



20 



7. 



NsWestern Europe 
S.,Eastern and Cent. Europe 

Scandinavian 

Germanic 

Latin and Greek 

Slavic 



h 








I 






_____ 









The totals in Table 98 are presented graphically in Chart 30. 

The differences between the other stocks in respect to the extent to which they were 
unassimilated linguistically in 1921, is brought out in Table 98, which arranges the data by 
original geographic habitat and broad language groups. 



PROPORTION OF IMMIGRANT PEOPLES LEARNING ENGLISH 



163 



TABLE 98.-PERCENTAGES 10 YEARS OF AGE AND OVER UNABLE TO SPEAK (l)ENGLISH 
(2) FRENCH OR ENGLISH, BY GEOGRAPHICAL AND LINGUISTIC GROUPS OF NON-BRITISH 
AND NON-FRENCH ORIGINS, 1921. 



Origin 


Per cent 
lOyrs. 

and over 
unable 

to speak 
English 


Per cent 
10 yrs. and 
over unable 

to speak 
French or 

English 


North Western European — • 


p.c. 

17-1 
1-4 
7-7 
1-9 
5-9 
1-4 
2-3 
2-5 


p.c. 
4-1 




1-4 




7-7 




1-7 




5-9 




1-3 




2-2 ' 




0-6 








3-6 


"3-0 






South, Eastern and Central European — 


18-3 

6-4 
14-8 

7-6 
10-5 
190 
13-8 
13-7 
170 
26-2 


18-2 




6-2 




141 




6-5 




104 




14-0 




13-6 ■ 




13-4 




16-9 




26-2 








18-3 


17-5 






Scandinavian — 


1-4 
5-9 
1-4 
2-3 


1-4 




6-9 




1-3 




2-2 








2-1 


2-1 






Germanic 2 — 


7-7 
1-9. 


7-7 




1-7 








3-6 


3-4 






Latin and Greek — 


7-6 
190 
13-7 


6-5 




. 12-3 




13-4 






Total. 


17-3 


13-3 






Slavic — 


18-3 

18-0 
6-4 
13-8 

17-0 
8-9 
26-2 


18-2 




18-0 




6-2 


Polish 


13-6 




16-9 




8-9 




26-2 








19-0 


18-9 



Notes: — 1 40 p.c. of the Belgians speak French as mother tongue; the figure 17*1 omitted from average. 
> Flemish omitted as it is impossible to separate them from the total for Belgians. 

PROPORTIONS OF NON^BRITISH AND NON-FRENCH ORIGINS ACQUIRING 

ENGLISH 
Larger percentages of the Dutch and Germans and Swiss and Danes, for instance, spoke 
English or French as their mother tongue than of the Bulgarians and Finns and Hungarians 
and Ukrainians. So, while the figures in Table 98 above constitute an index of the amount 
of linguistic assimilation already having taken place, they indicate nothing definite as to 
the progress made by those who did not speak English or French in the home. Table 99 
gives the numbers and percentages of the principal European stocks, 10 years of age and 
over, who did not speak English as the mother tongue yet had learned it by June 1, 1921, 
the date of the census. 

74422— U J 



164 



THE LANGUAGE OF IMMIGRANT PEOPLES 



TABLE 99.-NUMBERS AND PERCENTAGES OF PRINCIPAL NON-BRITISH AND NON-FRENCH 
ORIGINS, 10 YEARS AND OVER, IN CANADA. WHO HAD ACQUIRED ENGLISH BY 1921. 



Origin 


(1) 

Total 

10 years 

and 

over 


(2) 

Number 
unable 
to speak 
English 


(3) 

Number 
speaking 
English 
as mother 
tongue 


(4) 

Number 
who did 

not speak 
English 

as mother 
tongue 


(5) 

Number 
who had 
acquired 
English 


„ (6) 
Per cent 

of those 
not knowing 

English 

as mother 

tongue 

who had 
acquired it 




69,653 

15,416 

6,351 

15,798 

88,381 

15,795 

221,280 

4,201 

8,742 

12,308 

45,386 

93,412 

50,379 

35,412 

8,715 

67,131 

47,041 

9,935 

5,573 

67,654 


12,726 

2,637 

408 

221 

6,823 

2,339 

4,220 

• 317 

916 

727 

8,599 

5,277 

685 

4,878 

1,190 

11,406 

1,061 

245 

515 

17,753 


2,398 

3,852 

659 

4,917 

63,782 

470 

101,437 

358 

280 

748 

2,518 

3,264 

8,579 

1,928 

245 

2,798 

8,189 

6,008 

432 

395 


iCol. 1-Col. 3) 
67,215 
11,563 

5,692 

10,881 

24,599 

15,325 

199,843 

3,843 

8,462 
11,560 
42,868 
90,148 
41,800 
33,484 

8,470 
64,333 
38,853 
-3,927 

5,141 
67,259 


tCol. 4-Col. 2) 

54,529 

8,926 

5,284 

10,660 

17,776 

12,986 

115,623 

3,526 

7,546 

10, 833 

34,269 

84,871 

41,115 

28, 606 

7,280 

52,927 

37,792 

3,682 

4,626 

49,506 


81-1 
77-2 
92-8 
98-0 
72-3 
84-7 
96-5 
91-8 
89-2 
93-7 
80-0 
94-2 
98-4 
85-4 
86-0 
82-3 
97-3 
93-8 
900 
73-6 








Dutch 


















Polish . 

















The significance of the above table becomes clearer when the percentages in Column 6 
are arranged in descending order of magnitude. 



TABLE 100.-PERCENTAGES OF PRINCIPAL ORIGINS, 10 YEARS OF AGE AND OVER, WHO DID 
NOT KNOW ENGLISH AS THE MOTHER TONGUE BUT HAD LEARNED IT BY 1921. 



Origin 



Norwegian N 

Danish !..".."!!!!!""!"!! n 

Swedish !!.'!!".'!!.'.'!.'!!.'!!!!!!!!!!!! n 

German *""!.*".'!].'!!.'!!"!".*.'.*.'.'.'.'!.' N 

Jewish ' . \ ' " * ' ' "'"'.. 

Swiss.. 



Czechoslovak !.!.!.!!!"!!!!!!!! e 

Icelandic !!"!!!"!!!"!! N 

Greek. ~ 



Syrian !.!!!!!][!!!!!!... 

Hungarian ; !..!""!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !e ' 

Roumanian ]...]."!.!!!!!" ]*!!"! E 

Polish "I!"!.!!!!!""!!!"!"!!"!!!! e 

Finnish !..!""!.."!!!"! 

Russian !.!...!.!..!!!!!!!!!!!!""!!!!!!"!!!!" e 

Austrian "!."!.."!!!""!! E 

Italian ] \ \ '.'.'.'.'.WW '. '.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.".'.'' S 

Ukrainian !..!!!!!!!!"!!!]!"]'". E 

Dutch [ ].] ] Y.'. .'.'.['.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.' [ N 



P.O. 



98-4 
98-0 
97-3 
96-5 
94-2 
93-8 
92-8 
93-7 
91-8 
90-0 
89-2 
86-0 
85-4 
84-7 
82-3 
81-1 
80-0 
73-6 
72-3 



N = North Western, S =Southern, E =Eastern European stocks. 
The figure of 77-1 p.c. for the Belgians is omitted for the reason referred to in connec- 
tion with the previous 'tables, viz., some 40 p.c. of those classed as of that origin speak 
French as the mother tongue and many of them have not learned English because they 
already knew one of the official languages of the country. To the extent that the Belgians 
know French, they are linguistically assimilated in Canada though they may be ignorant of 
English. 

Table 98 indicates the actual extent to which assimilation in the 'matter of language had 
taken place; Tables 99 and 100 show the extent to which those who did not speak English in 
the home, had learned that language outside the home, — in school or in business. The 
capital letters following the origin names indicate roughly the part of Europe from which 
the several stocks have come. The predominance of "N's" in the top part of the table is 
balanced by the predominance of "E's" in the lower part. Not only do marked differences 



PROPORTIONS SPEAKING ENGLISH OR FRENCH AS MOTHER TONGUE 165 

appear between the individual peoples in the matter of learning the languages of Canada, 
but those from the North Western part of Europe, as a group, show proportions much 
larger than do those of South, Eastern and Central European origins. 

That the Dutch, a northern people, should be so exceptional as to appear at the bottom 
of the list in Table 100, can only be explained by the practice among the Mennonites in 
the West of reporting themselves as of Dutch origin. This was very common, especially in 
the 1921 Census. The attitude of that people toward Canadian schools and other Canadian 
institutions is well known. 

How far these differences are clue to distinctively '' origin " causes and how far they are 
due to length of residence in the country, etc., is discussed in detail later in this section. 

English and French as Mother Tongue. — An additional aspect of the relation between 
origin and language in Canada, is the extent to which the non-British and non-French 
stocks speak English and French as the Mother Tongue, to which a passing reference has 
already been made. One would expect the data on this point to show a somewhat marked 
relation to the figures for intermarriage with (-he two Canadian basic stocks. Where English 
or French is spoken in the home as the mother tongue, the inference is that intermarriage has 
taken place and also that a larger percentage of the stock has lived for a considerable time 
in Canada. While the relation between length of residence and amount of intermarriage 
will not be examined at this point, the data in respect to the numbers of the non-British 
and non-French origins who speak English or French as the mother tongue, are presented in 
Tables 101, 102 and 103 below., 

Had the Japanese, Chinese and Indians been shown in the above table the percentages 
for those origins would have appeared as very small. Only 3-0 p.c. of the Finns and 3-5 p.c. 
of the Hebrew or Jewish origin spoke English or French as the mother tongue. The Syrians 
showed a somewhat higher proportion, and it is noted that a number of them spoke French 
as mother tongue, which is in accordance with the fact mentioned above, that quite a pro- 
portion spoke French rather than English. 

The difference between the peoples of North Western Europe and those of the South, 
East and Centre, is more marked here than in any table presented heretofore. The Icelanders 
are the outstanding exception in the North. Their proportion of 6-1 p.c. speaking English or 
French as the mother tongue, is below that of either the Czechs (10-5 p.c.) or Greets 
(8-8 p.c). With those exceptions, however, there is no overlapping of the groups. The 
balance of the northern stocks showed proportions several times as great as the Icelandic, 
and the percentages for the other South, Eastern and Central European peoples were all 
below those of the Czechs and Greeks The percentages for the North Western Europeans 
as a group were more than ten times greater than for the South, Eastern and Central 
Europeans. 

The Swiss, with a percentage of 60-5 speaking English as mother tongue (and of 61-8 
speaking either English or French as mother tongue), came second only to the Dutch for 
the whole group of immigrant stocks. It is significant in this connection that Table 73 in 
Chapter VI places the Swiss women at the top of the list in respect to marrying outside 
their " origin " group aaid the men of that origin just below the Danes who top the list for 
the men. 

Table 103 below, classifies the principal European stocks by linguistic groups. In this 
table the Belgians are shown as Flemish and, as is to be expected, they reduce the average 
for the Germanic group. 

A marked disparity is indicated between those of Scandinavian and Germanic origin in 
respect to speaking English or French as their mother tongue. The percentages for those 
of Dutch and German origin are considerably higher than are those for the Scandinavians. 
Yet the strange point is that, with .the exception of the Icelanders, the Scandinavian peoples 
on the average show a percentage unable to speak either French or English, about as low as 
the Germans and lower than the Dutch. (See Table 98.) The explanation is found in the 
fact that somewhat larger proportions of the Norwegians, Swedes and Danes had learned 
English outside the home, than was found in the case of the Germans, and far larger pro- 
portions than in the case of the Dutch. 



m 



THE LANGUAGE OF IMMIGRANT PEOPLES 



Both the Northern groups (the Germanic and Scandinavian) speak English or French as 
the mother language to a far greater extent that do the Southern and Eastern groups. There 
is not much difference between .the Latin and Greek and the Slavic peoples in this respect. 
The Czechs are quite exceptional among the Slavs with a percentage of 10-5, which is also 
higher than that for any dn the Latin and Greek group. The Ukrainians had the lowest pro- 
portion of all European origins speaking one of the Canadian languages in the home, 0-6 
p.c, and it is recalled that of those coming from Europe they showed the smallest percentage 
marrying outside their own group. Further, when they did marry outside, they showed the 
smallest percentage marrying into the British stocks. 



TABLE 101— PERCENTAGES 10 YEARS AND OVER OF PRINCIPAL NON-FRENCH OR NON- 
BRITISH ORIGINS SPEAKING (1) ENGLISH (2) ENGLISH OR FRENCH, AS MOTHER TONGUE, 1921. 



Origin 


Percentage 
speaking 
English 

. as mother 
tongue 


Percentage 

speaking 

English or 

French as 

mother tongue 




3-4 

25-0 

3-2 

10-4 

31-1 

72-2 

30 

45-9 

8-5 

3-5 

3-2 

61 

5-5 

170 

5-5 

2-8 

4-2 

5-0 

17-4 

60-5 

7-8 

0-6 


3-5 




37-8 




3-4 




10-5 




31-2 




72-3 




30 




46-0 




8-8 




3-5 




3-2 




61 




7-5 




171 




5-5 




2-9 




4-2 




5-1 




17-4 




61-8 




9-5 




0-6 







TABLE 102.-PERCENTAGES 10 YEARS AND OVER OF PRINCIPAL EUROPEAN ORIGINS SPEAKING 
(1) ENGLISH AND (2) ENGLISH OR FRENCH AS MOTHER TONGUE, BY GEOGRAPHICAL GROUPS 
1921. 



Origin 



Percentage 
speaking 
English 

as mother 
tongue 



Percentage 

speaking 

English or 

French as 

mother tongue 



North Western European — 

Belgian 

Danish 

Dutch 

German 

Icelandic 

Norwegian 

Swedish 

Swiss 

Total 

South, Eastern and Central European 

Austrian 

Bulgarian 

Czechoslovak 

Finnish 

Greek 

Hungarian 

Italian '. — 

Polish 

Roumanian 

Russian 

Serbo-Croatian 

Ukrainian 

Total 



25-0 
31-1 
72-2 
45-9 
6-1 
17-0 
17-4 



37-8 
31-2 
72-3 
46-0 
61 
17-1 
17-4 
61-8 



42-9 


43-4 


3-4 


3-5 


3-2 


3-4 


10-4 


10-5 


30 


30 


8<5 


8-8 


3-2 


3-2 


5-5 


7-5 


5-5 


5-5 


2-8 


2-9 


4-2 


4-2 


50 


51 


0-6 


0-6 



3-7 



4-0 



LANGUAGE, INTERMARRIAGE AND LENGTH OF RESIDENCE 



167 



TABLE 103 —PERCENTAGE 10 YEARS OLD AND OVER OF PRINCIPAL EUROPEAN ORIGINS SPEAKING 
(1) ENGLISH AND (2) ENGLISH OR FRENCH AS MOTHER TONGUE, BY LINGUISTIC GROUPS, 1921. 



Origin 


Percentage 
speaking 
English 

as mother 
tongue 


Percentage 
speaking 
• English 
or French 
as mother 
tongue 


Scandinavian — 


p.e. 

311 
6-1 
17-0 
17-4 


p.c. 

31-2 




6-1 


i? • ■ ■ 


17-1 




17-4 








17-9 


17-9 






Germanic- 


25-0 
72-2 
45-9 


37 '8 




72-3 




460 








52-0 


52-7 






Latin and Greek- 


8-5 
5-5 
2-8 


8-8 




7-5 




2-9 








5-4 


6-9 






Slavic— 


3-4 ■ 
3-2 
10-4 
4-2 
5-5 
5-0 
0-6 


3-5 




3-4 




10-5 




4-2 




. 5-5 




51 




0-6 








3-3 


3-4 




- 



LANGUAGE, INTERMARRIAGE AND LENGTH OF RESIDENCE 



Table 104 (p. 169) presents for specified non-British and non-Frenoh stocks (1) the .per- 
centages 10 years of age and over unaMe to speak'either English or French, (2) the .percentage 
speaking English or French ae mother tongue, (3) the percentages of those who did not know 
English as mother tongue, but had learned to speak it by 19211, (4) the percentages i North 
American born, (5) the percentage of males intermarried with British and French, (6) the 
percentage of males intermarried with British stocks, (7) the percentages of Canadian born 
in cities of 25,000 and over, and (8) the average number of years immigrants arriving since 
1901 from the corresponding countries of birth had been in Canada in 1921. 

Intermarriage and Mother Tongue. — That intermarriage and the proportions speaking 
English and French as the mother tongue a>re very closely connected may be seen at a glance 
on comparing Columns No. 2 and No. 5. With four exceptions, a high percentage speaking 
the official languages of Canada in the home, is associated with a large amount of inter- 
marriage and vice versa. The four cases where the relationship does not hold are the 
Bulgarians, Greeks, Italians and Icelanders. In each of the first three origins there are very 
large surpluses of males in the population, and for each of "these origins the men have inter- 
married with the British and French several times as freely as the women. By using the 
data for the males only, the amount of intermarriage for the group as a whole is thus 
grossly overestimated, and were a table computed to measure the total amount of inter- 
marriage for both sexes, the correlation would be quite as marked in the case of those stocks 
as for any of the others. The Icelanders are harder to account for, and indeed the only 
suggestion that one can put forward without further investigation, is that there is a marked 
tendency to preserve the Icelandic language in the home when either their men or women 
contract exogamous marriages. 

The Learning of English. — Passing to Column 3, which shows the number in each origin 
who had acquired English as a percentage of those who did not speak it as the mother 



168 THE LANGUAGE OF IMMIGRANT PEOPLES 

tongue, we have an index of the keenness of the respective foreign stocks in learning the 
' English language. As an index it is crude, and the question arises as to what other factors 
besides pure differences of " origin " are involved and how far they interfere with its use as 
a measure of speed in acquiring the language. If we compare the percentages in Column 
3 with the proportions of the respective stocks living in cities 25,000 and over by the 
method of rank correlation, a coefficient of + '04 is found 1 , which indicates that whether a 
people is predominantly rural or urban has little or no effect on the readiness with which 
they learn English. 

Some relationship appears, however, between the percentage of a stock North American 
born (a crude index of length of residence among English speaking people) and the pro- 
, portions of those speaking foreign languages who had learned English. The rank coeffi- 
cient was found to be + -29. 

More significant correlation would be expected were comparison made with the length 
of time the foreign born sections of the different " origin " groups had been in Canada. 
Unfortunately data as to length of residence of immigrants are not available by origins, but 
in Chapter II a table was shown, giving the average number of years the immigrants who had 
arrived from foreign countries since January 1, 1901, had been resident in Canada at the 
date of the last census. Such a table, however, has its limitations. In the first place, it 
could be prepared only for those nationalities whose geographical boundaries had not been 
radically changed during the last two decades, and in the second place, as has already been 
pointed out, origin and birthplace are in many cases by no means identical. However, keep- 
ing in mind the necessity of caution in comparing such data, if the origins be ranked accord- 
ing to the percentage of those of foreign mother tongue who had learned English outside 
the home and the average for the upper and lower half of the table be compared with the 
corresponding figures for length of residence of immigrants by country of birth, there appears 
to be a year's difference between the upper and lower group. Further, the coefficient of 
correlation by the method of rank differences was found to be + -37 and would probably be 
somewhat higher were the data on immigration available by origins. The implication, is 
that the length of time the new arrivals have been in Canada is a significant factor in deter- 
mining the proportions who have learned to speak English. 

The correlation, however, is only moderate, which implies that date of arrival, though 
exerting an appreciable influence on the data in Column 3, is far from adequate to account 
for the differences between the figures for the various origins. One is driven, therefore, to 
the conclusion .that differences in origins are of major importance in the acquiring of English. 
The several stocks show by no means the same keenness nor aptitude. Many examples of 
such differences are revealed by a detailed comparison of Column 3 and Column 8. For 
instance, it is obvious from the dati. that the Danes, Swiss and Greeks learn English com- 
paratively rapidly, While the Austrians, Roumanians, Hungarians and Icelanders are .slow in 
acquiring it.. 

The above conclusion, namely, that speed in acquiring English is largely a matter of 
origin, is confirmed by the appearance of a marked relationship between the tendency to 
intermarriage with the British stocks and the percentage learning English. Omitting the 
figure for the Dutch, where the percentage learning to speak English is unduly reduced by 
the Mennonites in the Prairie Provinces, and that for the Hebrews, where a very small 
proportion intermarrying is coupled with a very large percentage learning English for 
occupational reasons, — omitting these two exceptional cases — a coefficient of correlation by 
the method of rank differences of + -77 is found to exist between the two series. Were the 
figures on intermarriage in Column 6 representative of both sexes, the correlation would 
probably be higher. It is evident, therefore, that those stocks which tend to intermarriage 
with the British learn English most rapidly. 

Turning now from the question of speed in acquiring English to the proportions of the 
various peoples unable to speak either English or French at the date of the last census, 
one finds, as in the former case, no correlation with the proportions in cities 25,000 and 
over. That length of residence among English and French speaking people has a bearing 
on the percentages of foreign stocks unable to speak either of these languages is shown by 



RELATION OF LEARNING ENGLISH AND FRENCH TO INTERMARRIAGE 169 

a co-efficient of correlation by rank differences of — -44 between the proportions unable to 
speak either language and the percentages North American born, and one of — 58 with the 
length of residence in Canada of the various groups of immigrants arriving from correspond- 
ing countries of birth since the beginning of the century (Column 8). 

Undoubtedly there are a number of forces exerting their influence on the .proportions 
who have learned and are learning the French language. A minimum time requirement is 
certainly necessary, and the proportions speaking our languages normally increase with the 
years, but the time element is by no means adequate to account for the differences either 
in the extent or speed of linguistic assimilation. The alternative seems to be that both the 
extent to which the languages of Canada have been acquired and the speed in learning them 
are largely matters of origin and possibly in some cases of cognate languages. What holds 
true for intermarriage holds true for language and, as we shall see in the next chapter, obtains 
for illiteracy and school attendance. In their reaction to assimilative forces, the various 
stocks differ greatly. 

TABLE 104— SUMMARY SHOWING THE RELATION BETWEEN THE LEARNING OF THE LANGUAGES 
OF CANADA AND (1) INTERMARRIAGE WITH THE BASIC STOCKS OF CANADA, (2) URBAN 
DOMICILE AND (3) LENGTH OF CANADIAN RESIDENCE, BY ORIGINS, 1921. 



Origin 


Per- 
centage 
10 years 
of age 
and over 
unable to 
speak 
English 
or French 


Per- 
centage 
speaking 
English 
or French 
as their 
mother 
tongue 


Per- 
centage of 
those not 
knowing 
English as 
mother 
tongue 
who nad 
acquired „ it 


Per- 
centage 
North 
American 
born 


Per- 
centage 
of males 
married 

into 

British 

and French 

stocks 


Per- 
centage 
of males 
married 

into 

English 

stock 


Percentage 

of 

population 

in cities 

25,000 

and over 


Average 
number of 
years 
immi- 
grants 
arriving 
since ISO 1 
' from cor- 
responding 
countries 
of birth 
had been 
in Canada 
in 1921 




18-2 

4-1 

18-0 

321 

6-2 

1-4 

7-7 

141 

1-7 

6-5 

5-4 

10-4 

5-9 

43-9 

12-3 

41-2 

1-3 

13-6 

13-4 

169 

8-9 

2-2 

0-6 

26-2 


3-5 

37-8 

3-4 

10-5 
31-2 

72-3 
30 

46-0 
8-8 
3-5 
3-2 
61 

7-5 

17-1 
5-5 
2-9 
4-2 
5-1 
17-4 
61-8 
0-6 


81-1 
77-2 

92.8 
98-0 
72-3 
84-7 
96-5 
91-8 
94-6 
89-2 
93-7 

80-0 

98-4 
85-4 
86-0 
82-3 

. 97-3 
93-8 
73-6 


53-42 
3704 
15-68 
7-58 
55-81 
61-69 
91-43 
43-60 
85-32 
32-77 
44-17 
54-37 
61-41 
99-76 
45-89 
27-41 
91-76 
66-45 
' .54-60 
45-82 
55-80 
42-32 
54-23 
75-03 
54-43 


1-55 

27-90 

27-94 

4-08 

11-66 

38-05 

46-23 

4-89 

18-92 

31-22 

1-67 

2-21 

14-29 

8-03 

14-43 

113 

4-73 

24-14 

4-50 

4-47 

5-36 

8-93 

23-69 

44-74 

0-78 


1-34 
9-48 

23-52 
3-38 
9-62 

34-38 

43-46 
4-06 

16-83 

27-50 
1-46 
1-94 

13-17 
4-42 

11-10 
0-96 
3-85 

22-63 
3-60 
3-40 
4-40 
8-93 

23-43 

36-85 
0-67 


13-24 
17-29 

44-87 
10-80 
17-82 
11-84 

5-96 

9-39 
64-20 
84-08 
10-93 
16-06 

9-53 
47-92 
29-52 
35-97 

6-55 
28-10 
26-15 
13-14 
23-63 
10-11 
17-69 

8-38 


11-9 

8-5 
9-6 
8-9 












9-7 
9-5 
10-9 
12-3 
9-5 


Dutch 
















14-8 






9-5 
9-3 






Polish 


11-6 




120 


Serbo-Croatian 






9-3 









CHAPTER IX 

ILLITERACY AND SCHOOL ATTENDANCE AS AFFECTED BY 
THE ORIGINS OF THE POPULATION 

A comprehensive monograph by Mr. M. C. MacLean,. M.A., Chief of the Education 
Statistics Branch of the Dominion Bureau of Statistics, has been issued by the Bureau, 
dealing with the many-sided problem of illiteracy and school attendance in Canada. 
Certain conclusions reached are vitally related to a general survey of the Canadian popula- 
tion from the point of view of birthplace and origin, and this ehaipter does little more than 
recapitulate such parts of that report as are considered pertinent to the main thesis of the 
present monograph. Certain rearrangements of tables have been made, also minor changes 
in the -method of analysis and .presentation, for the purpose of preserving unity t in the 
present report. Virtually all the material incorporated in this chapter, however, may be 
obtained in greater detail in the report on illiteracy. 

ILLITERACY AMONG THE FOREIGN BORN OF NON-BRITISH AND 

NON-FRENCH ORIGINS ' r; 

Table 105 shows the percentage illiterate of the immigrants of non-British and non- 
French stock in Canada as at the date of the census, 1921. The percentages are arranged 
in order of magnitude and the rank of each origin is indicated. That there is considerable 
variation between the immigrants of different origins in respect of illiteracy, is obvious at 
a glance. The foreign born Ukrainians, showing nearly 40 p.c. (10 years of age and over) 
illiterate, stand at the top of 'the table, while the Norwegians, with only 1-40 p.c. illiterate, 
are at the bottom. That such great variation as is indicated by the spread of approxi- 
mately 38 p.c. should exist in the proportions unable to read or write in any language cannot 
but be a matter of grave concern for those who are interested in the development of an 
enlightened Canadian people. 

The bearing of these figures on immigration is obvious. Of the ten most illiterate 
peoples coming to Canada, nine are from South, Eastern and Central Europe, and the tenth, 
namely, the Chinese, from the Orient. On the other hand, among the ten least illiterate 
of the foreign stocks coming to Canada are included all the Scandinavian and Germanic 
peoples. 



TABLE 105. 


-PERCENTAGES ILLITERATE AMONG THE FOREIGN-BORN OF THE PRINCIPAL NON- 
BRITISH AND NON-FRENCH ORIGINS IN CANADA, 1921. 


Rank 


Origin 


Percentage 

illiterate of 

10 years of 

age and over 






39-46 






35-08 






31-15 






27-03 




Polish 


24-46 






23-92 






23-74 






23-68 






23-56 


10 




22-72 






22-22 


12 . 




20-40 






15-73 


14 




13-95 






12-59 






11-94 


17 




11-59 


18 




9-83 


19 




6-59 


20 




4-90 


21 




3-16 


22 




2-67 


23 




1-74 






1-68 


25 




1-52 


26 




1-40 









170 



ILLITERATE IMMIGRANTS OTHER THAN BRITISH AND FRENCH 171 

Table 106 distributes the Europeans according to geographical and linguistic groups and 
presents these differences even more clearly. The percentage illiterate for the most illiterate 
stock from North Western Europe is approximately half the size of the percentage for the 
least illiterate from South, Eastern and Central Europe. The percentage for the North 
Western European group is 2-66 p.c, while that for the South, Eastern and Central group 
is 22-31 p.c. Such a marked difference is obviously not a matter of chance. 

That illiteracy ;s to a considerable extent a matter of stocks or origins, is further 
established when an examination is made of the percentages for the linguistic groups. The 
percentage illiterate for the Scandinavian group is the lowest and, with the exception of the 
Swiss and the Dutch, the proportion unable to read and write for each of the Scandinavian 
peoples is lower than that for any other European stock. As a group the Latins and Greeks 
are much more illiterate than either the Scandinavian or Germanic peoples. The percentage 
for 'the Greeks, the lowest in that group, is approximately twice, and the percentages for 
the Italians and 'Roumanians about four times greater than that for the Belgians, the 
highest among the Northern Europeans. While there is considerable overlapping of 
percentages between those of Latin and Greek and Slavic origin, the percentage illiterate 
for the Slavs as a group is even higher than that for the Latin and Greek group. The 
figure for the Slavs is increased by the extremely large percentage illiterate among the 
Austrians and Ukrainians, who form a very large proportion of the Slavic immigrants to 
Canada. The percentage for the Czechs is about as low as that for. the Greeks, While the 
proportions illiterate among the other Slavic peoples approximate the percentages illiterate 
for the other two Latin and Greek peoples, namely, the Italians and Roumanians. The 
data in Table 105 are presented graphically in Chart 31. 



TABLE 106 —PERCENTAGES ILLITERATE AMONG THE FOREIGN BORN OF THE PRINCIPAL 
NON-BRITISH AND NON-FRENCH ORIGINS IN CANADA, BY GEOGRAPHICAL AND LINGUISTIC 
GROUPS, 1931. 



Origin 


Percentage 

illiterate 

10 years 

of age 

and over 


Origin 


Percentage 

illiterate 

10 years 

of ago 

and over 


North Western Europe— 


6-59 
1-74 
4-90 
1-68 
316 
1-40 
1-52 
2-67 


Scandinavian — 


1-74 






3-16 






1-40 






2-67 




Total 






1-81 




Germanic — 










659 




2-66 




4-90 






1-68 




35-08 
23-56 
11-94 
12-59 
11-59 
15-73 
23-68 
22-72 
24-46 
27-03 
23-92 
39-46 








3 03 




Latin and Greek — 






11-59 


South, Eastern and Central Europe— 




23-68 




27-03 










19-45 




Slavic — 








w ■ 


35 08 






23-56 






11-94 






22-72 






24-46 






23-92 






39-46 




22-31 




24-45 









172 RELATION OF ILLITERACY AND SCHOOL ATTENDANCE TO ORIGIN 



Chart XXXI 



PERCENTAGES ILLITERATE amono the FOREIGN -BORN, 10 YRS. 
andOVER,of the PRINCIPAL NON- BRITISH and NON- FRENCH 
ORIGINS in CANADA, 1921. 

%0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50% 

I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 

Ukrainian 

Austrian 

Chinese 

Roumania 

Polish 

Russian 

Lithuanian 

Italian 

Bulgarian 

Serbo-Croatian 

Syrian 

Japanese 

Hungarian 

Finnish 

Czecho- Slovak 

Greek 

Hebrew 

Belgian . 

German 

Icelandic 

Sweoish 

Danish 

Dutch 




RELATION OF ILLITERACY 'TO ORIGIN 



173 



RELATION OF ILLITERACY TO ORIGIN AND OTHER FACTORS 

That illiteracy is largely a matter of origin has been established in a second way in 
the report referred to above. It was found that immigrants of different origins tended to 
■ show relatively the same proportions illiterate whether they were of foreign or British birth. 
Further, it was found that similar differences persist as between the various age groups of 
the respective foreign 'stocks. The reader is referred to page 67 of " Illiteracy and School 
Attendance in Canada" for a detailed discussion of these correlations. 

A third method of showing that illiteracy is largely a matter of origin is discussed on 
page 114 of the same report. A study was made of 49 selected census districts in the 
Prairie Provinces, and a very marked' relationship was found between the percentage of the 
8 most illiterate peoples and the total illiteracy in the population of the various districts. 
The correlation between the percentage of those stocks and the amount of illiteracy in the. 49 
districts was found to be + -98. "It might be. said that illiteracy and the presence of those, 
stocks was practically an identity. It is not necessary to resort to elaborate statistical' 
analysis to show that this is true. Definite statistics for those stocks have been given in the 
census of 1921, the relevant portion of which may be summarized for the 49 divisions in 
question as follows " : — 

TABLE 107A.-NON-LITERATE STOCKS IN 49 CENSUS DIVISIONS OF THE PRAIRIE 

PROVINCES. 



Items 


Non-literate 
stocks 


All 
classes 


All classes 
except non- 
literate 
stocks 


Population 10 years and over 


253,386 

67.127 

26-5 


1,431,974 

76,359 

5-3 


1,178,588 
9,232 


Number illiterate 









" The non4iterate stocks enumerated above represented only 8 different origins. If several 
( other origins designated ' various ' and including certain Asiatics,' etc., had been included 
among the non-literate group it would seem .that the illiteracy of the rest of the population 
was- negligible.'' 

As a result of the above analysis the following conclusions were reached in connection 
with the relationship of origin and illiteracy. "The element of origin wpuld seem to be 
the largest factor in illiteracy in Canada. The percentage of illiterates among the people 
of Canada 'is raised from one per cent to five per cent by stocks other than British. Some 
deductions have to be made on the score of favourable distribution (urban, etc.) but the 
'origin' element in illiteracy remains paramount." 

Illiteracy as affected by Birthplace.— -The following summary statement is presented as 
representing the findings of the same report on the relationship of birthplace and illiteracy: 
"The element of nativity, although somewhat involved with that of origin, has an 
independent bearing upon illiteracy. The foreign born of the same origin at the 'same age 
and in the same locality are considerably more illiterate (with certain exceptions) than the 
native born, while persons 'born in other parts of the Empire are less illiterate than the 
native born. Further, the nativity of the parents has an independent bearing upon illiteracy, 
the least illiterate being persons with one parent Canadian, the other British. The effects 
of nativity are particularly noticeable in the case of females." 

Illiteracy and Rural and Urban Distribution.— -In this connection the following quotation 
is taken from the report: "The element of rural and urban residence is found on close 
analysis to be much less important than appears from the crude figures. The differentiation 
between the percentage of illiterates among the rural and urban populations is partly due 
to favourable nativity distribution in urban centres, especially of foreign born females; 
partly to favourable 'origin' distribution, and somewhat, but very little, to sex distribution'. 
Age distribution is slightly in favour of rural centres, but this is perhaps more than counter- 
balanced by the fact that increase in the proportion of children of school age to the rest of 



174 RELATION OF ILLITERACY AND SCHOOL ATTENDANCE TO ORIGIN 



the population operates against completeness of school attendance. The balance of the 
difference is genuinely caused by the superior educational advantages of urban residence. 
Rural conditions generally applied would raise the illiteracy of Canada no more than 1 per 
cent," 

Sex and Illiteracy.— It was found that females were less illiterate than males,_ because 
(1) they were younger; (2) they tended to live in urban communities rather than in rural; 
and (3) because they tended to come from literate rather than illiterate countries. The 
difference between the sexes in respect to illiteracy is thus not a sex differentiation, but is 
due to " the nature of the distribution of the sexes in respect to age, nativity, origin and 
rural and urban residence." 

Illiteracy and Inability to Speak English and French.-TMe 107B shows the percentage 
10 years of age and over illiterate for immigrants of specified foreign origins m Canada, and 
the corresponding percentages unable to speak English or French. The correlation between 
two series may be measured mathematically by the use of the Pearsonian coefficient of 
correlation, which in the above case was found to be + -65; ± -116. That so large a positive 
coefficient was obtained ds more or less conclusive evidence that there is a very definite 
relationship between illiteracy and inability to speak either of the native tongues of Canada. 
The following further conclusion in respect to the relationship between illiteracy and the 
learning of English or French ds arrived at: "It would also seem that the persistence of 
'origin' characteristics of illiteracy is greater than that of inability to team English or French." 
For the grounds on which this assertion is based, the reader is. referred to Chapter 8 in the 
original report. 

^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ 

ORIGINS IN CANADA IN 1921. 







Percentage 






unable to 




Percentage 


speak French 


Origin 


illiterate, 


or English 


10 years of 


10 years 




age and over 


of age 
and over 


, 


1-40 


1-41 
115 
8-70 




1-52 
1-68 


Dutch 


1-74 


1-84 


Danish • 


2-67 


2-68 


Swedish 


316 


10-09 


Icelandic 


4-90 


402 


German 


6-59 


4-94 


Belgian ' 


9-83 


7-24 


Hebrew 


11-59 


7-05 


Greek • 


11-94 


800 


Czech 


12-59 


17-31 


Finnish 


13-95 


- 


Various 


15-73 


13-76 




20-40 


42-50 




22-22 


5-32 


Syrian • ' ' " ' 


22-72 


10-27 


Serbo-Croatian 


23-56 


18 08 


Bulgarian 


23-68 


17-19 


Italian 


23-74 


9-61 


Lithuanian 


23-92 


18-47 


Russian 


24-46 


17-26 


Polish 


27-03 


14-55 


Roumanian 


3115 


32-60 


Chinese ' 


35-08 


22-68 


Austrian 


39-46 


32-98 


Ukrainian 







School Attendance and Illiteracy. -It was found that "under present conditions in 
Canada there is a decided connection between the illiteracy of a community and the 
school attendance of children, 7 to 14 years of age." It was also established that there 
was a "less and somewhat uncertain relationship between school attendance and physical 
environment which caused school attendance to be necessarily poorer in rural than in 



RELATION OF SCHOOL ATTENDANCE TO ILLITERACY 175 

adjoining urban areas." It was made very clear, however, that the determining factor in respect 
to school attendance was illiteracy, and in communities where the amount oj illiteracy was 
marked, there was also a tendency either " to jail to provide school accommodation for 
the children or to / jail to send them to schools where accommodation had been provided." 
The Pearsonian coefficient of correlation between percentages illiterate and percentages not 
at school by census divisions was found to be + -92 in essentially rural districts and + -75 in 
urban areas. That such large coefficients are rather unusual in measuring correlation, 
between social phenomena gives added significance to the relationships which they measure. 
" Illiteracy and other mental, social or ' origin ' factors, kept more children out of school 
in 1921 than climate, thin and new settlements, etc., combined." 

An illiterate community thus shotvs a marked tendency to remain illiterate, and that fact 
is exceedingly important in. the light of the previous conclusions of the study which identified 
illiteracy with the presence of certain non-Canadian elements among the population in the 
various parts of Canada. 



. CHAPTER X 
THE RELATION OF ORIGINS AND NATIVITY TO CRIME 

NATIVITY AND CONVICTIONS FOR INDICTABLE OFFENCES 

Indictable offences include serious breaches of the law. During the past few years 
convictions in Canada for such offences have fluctuated between 15,000 and 19,000 per 
annum. Of those, not more than 1,000 each year have resulted in penitentiary sentences, 
the number in Canadian penitentiaries at any given time being between 2J200 and 2,700. In 
addition to indictable offences there are misdemeanours of juveniles with which the juvenile 
courts deal and for which reformatory sentences are frequently given. The total convic- 
tions of juveniles off both major and minor charges number between 8,000 and 9,000 yearly 
and the population of reformatories is usually about 2,500. The great majority of illegal 
acts, however, are committed by adults and are of a minor nature, coming in the "non- 
indictable " class. They are dealt with by police magistrates and justices of the peace, 
and the number of summary convictions handed down each year ranges between 130,000 
and 150,000, which is many times in excess of the number of other classes of convictions. 

A study of the different nativity and ' origin ' groups from the point of view of respect 
for law is, of necessity, confined to the section of the papulation convicted of indictable 
offences, and to the inmates of reformatories and penitentiaries. Data as to birthplace 
and origin are not available for the large group of adults summarily convicted in police 
courts nor for juvenile delinquents who escape a reformatory sentence. The birthplace of 
those convicted of indictable offences, however, is recorded, and a complete analysis of 
census data dealing with the reformatory and penitentiary population has been made. Such 
data include only the more serious offenders both among juveniles and adults, but though 
such offenders are much fewer than adults convicted of minor infringements of the law, 
they constitute a much more satisfactory basis for the study of criminal tendencies as 
exhibited by the various sections of a population. 

Reference has' already been made to the importance of age and sex distribution as 
factors in explaining differences in social behaviour. Such factors are especially important 
in comparisons between groups of a population in respect of criminality. As will be shown 
in the analysis of penitentiary population, crime is much more frequent among males than 
females, and occurs most frequently among young men. Consequently, when a section of 
the population is characterized by an abnormally large proportion of males below the age 
of thirty, a higher crime rate is to be expected. The significance of this fact in connection 
with immigration has been suggested in a previous chapter. Other things being equal, the 
normal expectation is for a larger proportion of criminals among immigrants, and especially 
among recent immigrants, because a migrating population ordinarily includes a dispropor- 
tionately large number oj males in the prime oj life. Immigration, thus, may tend to 
raise the crime rate in a country, merely because of age and sex distribution favourable 
to crime. 

In this connection, attention is again called to the fact that, other things being equal, 
the most desirable immigration is that in which the sexes are most nearly equal and among 
which the largest proportion takes up permanent residence in this country; the least desirable 
being that which is characterized by a large floating surplus of young unattached men 
who spend a few years here and then return to their native' land or go to some other par; 
of the world. Table 35, Chapter III, shows the countries which have sent to Canada the 
largest proportions of males, and in the discussion on the extent and speed of naturalization 
certain inferences were made as to the differing proportions of immigrants from specified 
countries who contemplate permanent residence in Canada. Attention is again directed 

176 



NATIVITY AND CONVICTIONS FOB INDICTABLE OFFENCES 



177 



to those chapters, for they are intimately related to the analysis which is to follow. For 
example, if it is shown that apart from peculiarities of sex and age distribution, imlmigrants 
of some nationalities have excessively high crime rates, the importance of such a finding 
is greatly increased if at the same time such immigrants are predominantly males, with an 
age distribution kept unduly favourable to crime by the constant withdrawal of the older 
men from the country and the continuous influx of younger men from the homeland. 

While it is important to know in which sections of the population crime is most common, 
the crude crime rates have been frequently taken as an index of differences in criminality 
due to original nature and early environment, and have been used to support the thesis 
that certain nationalities and stocks are more predisposed to disobey the law than are 
others. If no account is taken of age and sex differences, such comparisons may be extremely 
unfair and misleading. It is our immediate intention to examine the data on indictable 
offences and determine how far considerations of age and sex account for the higher rate 
obtaining among the foreign-born, and how far it may fairly be attributed to birthplace, 
origin and other factors. 

Table 108 shows the numbers, 16 years of age and over, convicted of indictable offences 
in Canada by sex and specified age groups. The figures are for the year 1924, being a 
sufficient length of time after the war to reflect normal conditions. The numbers are 
expressed as rates per 100,000 of the population of Canada in the corresponding age and 
sex groups in the year, of the Census, 1921. The rates are thus in all cases a little larger 
than they should be, for between 1921 and 1924 the number in each of the age groups 
had slightly increased through immigration and natural growth. However, the error is very 
slight, and as the purpose of the table is to call attention to the influence of age and sex 
on crime, it is the relative rather than the absolute magnitude of the • rates which is of 
importance, and the error involved in assuming that the age and sex distribution was the 
same in 1924 as in 1921 is negligible. 

The table emphasizes two facts; first, that convictions for indictable offences among 
men are many times more frequent than among women; and second, that in both sexes they 
are most common under 40 years of age. These facts are of common knowledge, but the 
magnitude of the differences is sometimes not appreciated. 



TABLE 108.- 



-AGE AND SEX AS FACTORS IN CONVICTIONS FOR INDICTABLE OFFENCES 
IN CANADA. 



Age 


Sex 


Number of 

convictions 

in 1024 


Population 

of Canada 

1021 


Convictions 
per 100,000 
population 


16-20 


/ M 

If 

/ M 

l F „ 

f M 
\F 

/ M 
\F 


2,831 
272 

6,557 
1,054 

2,167 
368 

2,857 
132 


393,406 
390,945 

1,311,783 
1,224,667 

1,207,411 
1,055,408 




21-39 


70 

501 
86 

180 






35 







Total convictions: Male 14,'432 

Female 1,826 



The number of convictions in 1921, classified by broad nativity groups, are given in 
Table 109, together with the rates per 100,000 population of each group. If the rate for the 
Canadian born be taken as 100 and those for the " Other British " and Foreign born be 
expressed as percentages of the Canadian rate, the proportions are as follows: — 

Canadian born.. .. • 100 

Other British 151 

Foreign 262 

74422—12 



178 



RELATION OF ORIGINS AND NATIVITY TO CRIME 



It is seen that the rate for the British immigrants is larger by half than that for the 
Canadian born, and the proportion convicted among those of foreign birth is two and a half 
times greater. The problem is to determine how much of these differences is due to sex 
and age distribution especially favourable to crime. 

In an appendix to this Chapter, the method of making corrections for age and sex 
distribution in the different nativity groups and the actual calculations are given in detail, 
and those who may be interested in the mathematics of the problem are referred thereto. 
The rate was computed for each nativity group on the basis of the rates for Canada, as a 
whole as given in Table 108; allowances were made for the extent to which the age and sex 
distribution of the three nativity groups differed from that of the total population of the 
Dominion in 1921. In other words, a uniform crime rate was assumed in all classes of the 
population, and rates were computed for the Canadian, ' Other British ' and Foreign born, 
which take into account merely differences in age and sex distribution. The rates so 
computed were expressed as percentages of the rate for those of Canadian birth, and the 
differences appearing are due entirely to age and sex. The results appear below, together 
tvith the crude rates quoted below: — 

TABLE 109— ACTUAL NUMBER OF CONVICTIONS FOR INDICTABLE OFFENCES IN CANADA IN 1921 
BY BROAD NATIVITY GROUPS AND THE RATES PER 100,000 POPULATION OF EACH GROUP. 



Birthplace 


Number of 
convictions 


Rate per 
100,000 of 
each group 


Rate with 

Canadian-born 

taken as 100 




10,638 
2,509 
3,624 
2,625 


156 

236 
408 


100 




151 . 




262 











TABLE 110— COMPARATIVE RATES OF CRIMINALITY AMONG THE CANADIAN-BORN, BRITISH- 
BORN AND FOREIGN-BORN POPULATIONS OF CANADA. WITH THE BIAS DUE TO DIF- 
FERING AGE AND SEX DISTRIBUTIONS OF THESE POPULATIONS REMOVED. 

Note. — Rates among the Canadian-born population = 100 in each case. 





(1) 


U) 


(3) 




Expected rates of 




Ratio of actual con- 




convictions on the 




victions to expected 




basis of uniform 


Actual rates 


convictions, indi- 




criminality in each 


convictions 


cating real di ff er- 


Birthplace 


group, and of the 


in 1921 


ence in criminality 




existing age and sex 




apart from age and 




distribution of each 




sex distribution of 




group. 




population. 

(Col. 2 + Col. 1). 




100 
155 


100 
151 


100 




98 




172 


262 


152 







On the basis of the number of indictable convictions per 100,000 of each age and 
sex group as shown in Table 108 above, the ' Other British ' born would have shown a rate 
55 p.c. greater than the Canadian born and the Foreign born a rate 72 p.c. greater, merely 
because of larger proportions of young men in the prime of life and smaller percentages of 
women and children. The proportion by which the actual rate for the ' Other British ' 
exceeded that for the Canadian born was 51 p.c, which indicates that the whole difference 
between the crude rates for the Canadian and ' Other British ' born may be accounted for 
on the basis of age and sex distribution. The same does not hold for the foreign born. 
The actual rate exceeded that for the Canadian born by 162 p.c, and only 72 p.c. of that 
excess is attributable to an age and sex distribution more favourable to crime. The conclusion 
obviously is that, in so far as convictions for indictable offences are an index of criminality, 
disregard for the law among the foreign born is some 152 p.c. (i.e |~|-§- ) of what it is among 
the Canadian bom, and that after due allowances are made for differences of age and sex 
distribution. It is shown in the appendix that the difference is probably greater than the 



ORIGIN AND NATIVITY OF REFORMATORY POPULATION 179 

The assumption is not warranted, however, that the corrected crime rate for immigrants 
from every foreign country is approximately half as large again as that for the Canadian 
born. In fact, the subsequent analysis of reformatory and penitentiary population suggest 
that such is not the case. Some nationalities probably show as small, if not smaller pro- _ 
portions convicted of indictable offences than do the Canadian born of all origins, while 
others show much larger proportions.. Unfortunately, available data are not adequate to 
push the analysis further in connection with indictable offences, but the more exhaustive 
examination of reformatory and penitentiary population below throws much light on the 
question. 

ORIGIN AND NATIVITY OF THE REFORMATORY POPULATION 

The census data covering the population in reformatories for Canada, as on June 1, 
1921, have been analysed and throw considerable direct light on the criminal tendencies of 
the youth of Canada. Information as to origin, birthplace and sex has been tabulated, and 
the most important facts are presented in Tables 111 and 112. 

Sex and Birthplace. — Table 111 shows the total reformatory population classified as 
Canadian born, other British born and Foreign born and by sex. It is seen in the first place 
that less than a fifth as many girls a.s boys between the ages of 10 and 20 are in reformatories, 
and the proportions are remarkably uniform irrespective of birthplace. Thus whether the 
young people are born in Canada, in other parts of the British Empire or in foreign 
countries, only a comparatively small proportion of girls commit offences which result in their 
detention in reformatories, while much larger numbers of boys get into such trouble that 
they are taken from their homes and committed to the discipline of a state institution. 
This differential character of the criminal propensity is a matter of common knowledge, and 
persists in adult life. However, the number in reformatories is not by any means an 
accurate index as to difference in behaviour between the sexes, for it is probable that a' 
youth would be comimitted to a reform institution miuch more readily than a young woman 
for an equally serious offence. There is no doubt, however, that a great difference does 
exist, and the point is merely that the percentages in reformatories slightly overemphasize it. 

A second inference follows directly upon the uniformity of the proportions irrespective 
of place of birth; when large numbers of boys commit offences large numbers of girls in the 
same broad nativity group also commit them and vice versa. This point is made clearer 
on referring to the lower part of the table. It is seen that 113 out of every 100,000 Canadian 
born between the ages of 10 and 20 are in reformatories, that the rate is 215 per 100,000 for 
the British born and 213 per 100,000 for the foreign born. A marked difference thus appears 
between the proportions of Canadian born on the one hand and British born and foreign 
born on the other. Now an analysis of Table 67, Vol. II of the Census, shows that the 
differences in the proportion of the sexes as between the Canadian, British and Foreign born 
population 10-20 years of age are negligible, so that direct comparison of the above rates is 
not invalidated by considerations of sex distribution. It is thus safe to conclude that the 
high figures for the British and foreign 1 born are not due to especially bad behaviour on the 
part of the boys any more than on the part of the girls. They are equally culpable. ■ On the 
other hand, the low rate for the Canadian born is due to the good behaviour of both the 
young men and the young women born in this country. It is interesting that our analysis 
gives definite evidence of the fact that in so far as such broad nativity classes have any 
reality as population groups, where the boys are well-behaved so are the girls, and where 
the boys are badly behaved the girls are also unruly. 

A further word should be said about the rates for the British and foreign born. They 
are nearly double that for the Canadian born. Yet, just as the proportion in the reforma- 
tories is not an- accurate index of the behaviour as between the two sexes, so it is not a 
fair criterion of conduct as between the British and foreign born and the Canadian born. 
The reason is somewhat similar. It is probable in. many cases that a foreign born youth 
would be comimitted to a reformatory more readily than a Canadian born or a 
British born child, because the court is less certain that the necessary correction will be 
administered in a home where the parents have come from a foreign land and presumably 
are not as conversant with Canadian ideals or standards as parents of Canadian' and British 
birth. 

74422—12} 



180 



RELATION OF ORIGINS AND NATIVITY TO CRIME 



The high rate for the British born may be partially explained by the urban character 
of British immigration. It was shown in Table 54, Chapter V, that of the total foreign 
born in Canada 45.68 p.c. were domiciled in urban areas, while some 64.88 p.c. of those bom 
in the British Isles were urban residents. The differences are somewhat greater for the age 
group 10-20 years. While 45.4 p.c. of the Canadian born children 10-20 years of age were 
in urban districts, 66.6 p.c. of those born in other parts of the British Empire are classed 
as of urban residence. The foreign born of the same age group show only 43.5 p.c. in 
incorporated cities, towns and villages. (Ref. Table 97, Vol. II, Census 1921.) Thus the 
proportion of British born children in urban districts is approximately half again as large 
as that of the Canadian or foreign born. The extent to which urban residence is more 
favourable to apprehension for misconduct is unfortunately indeterminate, but the difference 
is probably very considerable. However that may be, the conclusion is warranted that, in 
so far as urban environment is more conducive to crime, the large proportion in reforma- 
tories among those of British birth from other parts of the Empire may be partially 
explained on the basis of urban concentration. The high rate for the foreign born, on the 
other hand, is not mitigated by considerations of rural and urban distribution, but is 
rather slightly accentuated when compared with that for the Canadian born. 

TABLE 111— REFORMATORY POPULATION, BY SEX AND BIRTHPLACE, 1921. . 



Items 


Total 

Reformatory 

population 


Canadian- 

.born 

Reformatory 

population 


Other 

British-born 

Reformatory 

population 


Foreign-bom 

Reformatory 

population 


Total 


2,413 

2,036 

377 

84-4 

15-6 


1,767 

1,490 

277 

84-3 

" 15-7 


321 
273 
48 
85-1 
150 


325 




273 




52 




84-0 




160 








1,861,526 
130 


1,559,839 
113 


149,072 
215 


152,615 




213 







Passing now to the relation between birthplace of parents and the number of children 
in reformatories, attention is directed to Table 112, which shows the parentage of the 
Canadian born reformatory population. It is most surprising to find that the Canadian 
born children of British born parents show by far the highest proportion in institutions of 
correction, and the .Canadian born children of foreign born parents show the lowest. This 
is all the more striking in the light of the previous table 1 , which showed such high rates 
for both the foreign born and British born children. It thus appears that while the foreign 
born children as a group are rather badly behaved, the Canadian born children of foreign 
born parents conduct themselves unusually well. This fact is quite contrary . to current 
o'pinion. 

Reference will be made later to the difference in the rates for the foreign born 
children and the Canadian born children of foreign born parents in Canada, but a few 
words might appropriately be inserted here in connection with the amazing difference between 
the British born child and the Canadian born child of British born parents. It must be 
remembered that the war period occurred during the decade previous to 1921, and the 
percentage of British born men who left their homes and went overseas was much larger 
than that of any other nativity group in the population. No great numbers of the foreign 
born fathers, on the other hand, were in the army during the war, and further, the necessity 
of good behaviour, especially among foreigners of enemy origin, undoubtedly had a very 
salutary effect on the discipline administered in the home. With the absence of such a 
large proportion of British born fathers from the outbreak of the war, it is hardly to be 
wondered at that the proportion of Canadian born children of British born parentage found 
in reformatories in 1921 reflects the absence of parental discipline which inevitably must 
have occurred. Contrary to the normal expectation, the Canadian-born children of British 
born parents showed practically no improvement in respect to reformatory commitments 
over *he children of similar parentage born outside Canada. 



PARENTAGE OF CANADIAN BORN IN REFORMATORIES 



181 



No great importance can be attached to any generalizations based on the section of 
the -table under the heading "mixed parentage". The number of cases is so small that 
one is not justified in assuming them to be representative. 

Taking the figures as they stand, however, they suggest that the most desirable parentage 
from the standpoint of the proportion of children in the reformatories in 1921 was where 
the fathers were Canadian and the mothers foreign born. Where the mothers were Canadian 
born and the fathers foreign born, it was only slightly less desirable. For both of the above 
types of mixed parentage, the proportions in reformatories are much lower than when both 
parents are Canadian born. The influence of British parentage on the high proportion 
of Canadian born children in reformatories is reflected in the percentages where one parent 
is British born and the other is foreign. The rate per 100,000 in reformatories is higher 
than where both parents are foreign born, and the explanation is doubtless at least in part 
related to the consideration mentioned above in respect to the differential effect of the 
war on the various classes of the population in Canada. The tentative nature of the 
conclusions in this paragraph should be borne in mind. 

TABLE 112— PARENTAGE OF THE CANADIAN-BORN REFORMATORY POPULATION, 1921. 





Both Parents 


Mixed Parentage 


— 


Total 
Canadian 


Canadian 
born 


British- 
born 


Foreign- 
born 


Father 

Canadian, 

mother 

Foreign 


Father 
Foreign, 

mother 
Canadian 


Oneparent 

British, 

other 

Foreign 


Oneparent 

Canadian, 

other 

British 




1,767 

1,559,839 

113 


1,289 

1,184,279 

109 


187 

91,473 

204 


96 

129,865 

74 


15 

27,009 

56 


16 

25,325 

63 


17 

9,569 

178 


99 


Number in reformatories per 
100,000 population 10-20 years... 


90,089 
110 



1 Includes 48, parentage not specified. 

Origin and Birthplace. — Table 113 (p. 183) gives the reformatory population of Canada in 
1921 by ' origin ' and broad nativity groups, and Table 114 assembles 'the data for European 
stocks in geographical and linguistic classes. In certain minor cases figures are not available 
to complete the tables, but for all the important stocks the tables are complete. A careful 
study will reveal many interesting facts, but only a few of the most important will be 
mentioned. . 

■ First, as to the relation between birthplace and proportion in reformatories. An idea 
has been prevalent that the foreign born adults are on the whole . quite law-abiding, but 
the children of foreign born parents break away from parental authority and become a very 
grave social problem. The reasoning is somewhat as follows: the child, through his school 
and associations with children outside the home, readily acquires a knowledge of the 
English or French language, learns Canadian customs and manners and soon is more 
familiar with the new country than his parents, who are less ready to give up their native 
habits and learn Canadian ways. The result is that the child tends to feel that he knows 
a great deal more than his parents about other things as well; the parental authority is 
weakened and the discipline of the home suffers. The statistics for Canadian reformatories 
are not inconsistent with that thesis, though they cannot be used to prove it. They rather 
localize the problem as far as the birthplace of the child is concerned. 

The number per 100,000 in reformatories of the children born outside of Canada in 
1921 was 214, while the proportion among the Canadian born was only 113. This fact means 
that the chance of an immigrant born child being in a reformatory was, on the average, 
90 p.c. greater than that for a Canadian born child. But it may be thought that the figure 
for the Canadian born is unduly influenced by the low rates among the Canadian born 
proportions of a few of the stocks whose residence in Canada has been of several generations 
and whose children are comparatively law abiding. If that be the case, such a comparison 
would be invalidated by differences of origin and would prove nothing as to the influence of 
birthplace. An examination of Table 113, however, shows that for almost every stock, 



182 RELATION OF ORIGINS AND NATIVITY TO CRIME 

where the number in reformatories is greater than six, the rate for those born outside Canada 
is higher than for the Canadian born of the same origin. Among the Indians there was only 
one foreign born child in a reformatory and the higher rate for the foreign born in that 
case was purely accidental. There are only three other exceptions, namely, the Danes and 
Syrians, with a total in reformatories of three each, and the Swedes with a total of six. On 
the other hand, where the numbers are sufficiently large to be representative, the difference 
is well defined. Indeed for many stocks, the proportions for the foreign born children in 
reformatories are several times as great as for the Canadian born' of the same stock, and 
in all cases except the four mentioned above, there are very significant differences. 

Two conclusions follow directly from the above. First, other things being equal, our 
greatest problem is with the delinquent child born outside Canada; and secondly, that the 
schools and other Canadianizing agencies are exerting a great influence in reducing child 
delinquency. 

Further light is also thrown by these tables on the rates for Anglo-Saxon children of 
Canadian and immigrant birth. The figures for the English, Scotch and Irish in Table 113 
indicate that the children of the English speaking stocks born outside Canada have much 
higher percentages in reformatories than those of the English speaking stocks borlni in this 
country. The immigrant children of British stock show larger proportions in reformatories 
than the Canadian born children of British stock. From the discussion of parentage above, 
it appears that in recent years the improvement in the rate for the British stock has 
occurred in the third and subsequent generations of residence in Canada. That was prob- 
ably the result of the abnormal situation in the years immediately preceding 1921. 

But the analysis may be pushed still further. We saw that among the Canadian born 
children of foreign born parents only 74 per 100,000 were in reformatories. The question 
arises as to the rate for the foreign stocks in the third and subsequent generations. The 
number of Canadian born children in reformatories of specified non-British and non-French 
origin, as shown in the central section of Table 113, totalled 125. The total Canadian born 
population of these origins between ten and twenty years of age was 204,459, and the rate 
per 100,000 works out to 62. 

Since the rate for the Canadian born children of foreign born parents was 7.4 and that 
for all Canadian born children of the same origins was only 62, it is obvious that the pro- 
portion in reformatories among the Canadian born children of Canadian born parents of 
foreign stock was even lower than the rate of the total Canadian born of foreign stocks, 
viz., lower than 62 per 100,000. Thus, while the rate for *he foreign bom children of 
foreign stocks was over 200 and that for the Canadian born children of foreign born parents 
was 74, we now find that the proportion for the Canadian born children of Canadian born 
parents of foreign origin must have been the lowest of all. It would appear, then, that the 
number of juvenile offenders in the third and subsequent generations of non-British and 
non-French stocks in Canada was very small' indeed'. 

However, there is danger in too hasty generalization. In the first place, there are con- 
siderably larger numbers among the Canadian born reformatory population, whose origin 
is unspecified, than the total number in reformatories of Canadian born children of foreign 
stocks whose origin is recorded. How many of the unspecified are of the British and French 
stocks and how many are of foreign stocks cannot be determined. If half of them were 
of foreign stocks, the rate of 62 per 100,000 would be increased to 100 per 100,000. Even 
that, however, is not high. Indeed it is only two-thirds the number per 100,000 for the 
Canadian born and for the English stock. 

But another question arises, is the low rate" for the Canadian born of foreign stocks 
due mainly to Canadianizing influences or is it primarily a matter of origin? How far, in 
other words, is the rate reduced by the figures for the older residents like the Dutch, Germans 
and Indians, whose numbers are very large in Canada and whose children show abnormally 
small proportions in the reformatories irrespective of birthplace? The influence must be 
considerable, because these three stocks comprised' nearly half the total children of 
non-British and non-French stocks between the ages of 10 and 20 years in Canada in 1921. 
High' Tates among the Canadian born of certain other origins, who are as yet relatively 



ORIGINS OF REFORMATORY POPULATION 



183 



small in numbers in Canada, would have an insignificant influence on the rate for the 
total. So before arriving at any definite conclusion, an examination must be made of the 
relation between origins and reformatory population. 

TABLE 113.-REFORMATORY POPULATION IN CANADA, BY ORIGIN AND BIRTHPLACE, 1921. 



Origin 



Total 



Total 
reform- 
atory 
population 



Total. 



English 

Irish 

Scotch 

Welsh 

French 

Austrian 

Belgium 

Bulgarian 

Chinese 

Czech 

Danish 

Dutch 

Finnish 

German 

Greek 

Hebrew 

Hungarian 

Icelandic 

Indian 

Italian 

Japanese 

Lithuanian 

Negro 

Norwegian 

Polish 

Roumanian 

Russian 

Swedish 

Serbo-Croatian.. 

Swiss 

Syrian 

Ukrainian 

Unspecified 

Various 



Total 
population 
10-20 yrs. 



2,413 

834 

210 

224 

13 

596 

37 

1 

1 



27 



Number 
in reform- 
atories 
per 100,000 
population 

10-20 yrs 



1,861,526 

497,577 

218,379 

223,587 

7,753 

602,223 

23,230 

4,367 

146 

3,353 

2,120 

4,201 

25,206 

4,410 

65,913 

540 

32,708 

3,146 

3,551 

29,372 

11,883 

1,291 

390 

3,655 

13,783 

11,373 

2,266 

23,165 

12,354 

683 

2,414 

1,784 

24,467 

1,483 

814 



Total 
reform- 
atory 
population 



130 

168 
96 

100 

167 
99 

159 
23 

685 

268 

71 
28 

113 
42 

370 
46 
32 

54 

370 


602 
15 
317 
177 
285 
49 
292 


168 


134 
332 



Canadian-born 



Total 
population 
10-20 yrs. 



1,767 

592 

150 

154 

5 

576 

9 





1 



2 

5 



14 




15 
16 




17 


20 


19 

4 



2 



158 



Number 
in reform- 
atories 
per 100,000 
population 

10-20 yrs. 



1,559,839 

375,366 
197,745 
181,769 

585,817 

16,719 

1,801 

732 
1,230 
2,382 

21,756 
2,310 

51,048 

15,971 

2,026 

- 2,981 

26,741 

6,595 

553 

3,076 
5,551 
7,629 
1,257 
13,906 
6,155 

1,773 

1,343 

10,924 



Total 
reform- 
atory 
population 



113 

158 
76 
85 



54 





137 



84 

23 


27 

6 


56 
243 


553 


262 


137 
65 



149 





Immigrant-born 



Total 
population 
10-20 yrs. 






646 

242 

60 

70 

8 

20 

28 

1 

1 

8 



1 

2 

5 

14 

2 

14 

1 



1 

28 



5 
2 

16 
4 

47 
2 
2 

1 


41 



Number 
in reform- 
atories 
per 100,000 
population 

10-20 yrs. 



301,687 

122,211 
20,634 
41,818 

16,406 
6,511 
2,566 

2,621 
890 

1,369 
345 

2,100 
14,865 

16,737 
1,120 

570 
2,831 
5,288 

738 

579 
8,232 
3,744 
1,009 
9,259 
6,199 

641 

441 

13,543 



214 

198 
291 
167 

122 
430 



305 

73 
58 

238 
94 





35 

530 



864 
24 
427 
396 
508 
32 



227 




The reader is referred to Table 114 (p. 186). which groups the reformatory popu- 
lation of European origin by geographical and linguistic classes. This table presents the 
distribution of reformatory population in respect of origin only and neglects birthplace 
entirely. The data so classified are of interest because they show the proportions of the 
different stocks which, under conditions existing in 1921, were confined in Canadian reforma- 
tories. It should be kept in mind, however, that the differences are by no means entirely 
due to origin; nativity and probably other factors enter in. 

The situation in 1921 was briefly as follows. The proportion of children of North 
Western European stocks in reformatories in Canada was 36 per 100,000, that of the South, 
Eastern and Central European 184, or a rate five times greater. Passing to the linguistic 
classifications, the rates for the Scandinavian and Germanic peoples were by far the lowest. 
They were about one-fifth that for the Slavic group and one-tenth that for the Latins and 
Greeks. Or put conversely, the number per 100,000 Latin and Greek children in reforma- 
tories in Canada, was over ten times as great as the number per 100,000 Scandinavians, 
and almost ten times as great as the rate for the Germanic children. Taking birthplace as 
in 1921, the problem of the Latin and Greek children, in proportion to their numbers, was 
therefore approximately ten times greater than that of the children of Germanic and Scan- 
dinavian origin. 

The rate for the Slavic group was 166 or 22 p.c. higher than that for the English 
speaking peoples and some 70 p.c. higher than that for the French people. Even at that, 
however, it is not as high as it should be, because no returns are shown for the Ukrainians. 
A little less than a third of the children in the Slavic group in Canada are of Ukrainian 
origin, yet not one appears in the origin records for the reformatories. The Ukrainian 



184 



RELATION OF ORIGINS AND NATIVITY TO CRIME 



children must have been exceedingly well behaved, have been disciplined within their own 
community, or have given some other origin — or none at all — to the reformatory officials. 
Taking the three other Slavic groups, the rate for the Poles is almost as great as that for 
the Italians and Greeks. The Russians also show an abnormally high proportion, but the 
figure for the Austrians is lower than that for the English or Welsh. For some reason 
or other an unusually low proportion of Austrian children of Canadian birth appears in 
the reformatory records, and it is this low figure for the Canadian born Austrian which 
explains the low ; rate for the Austrians as a whole. The rate for the foreign-born of Austrian 
origin is 430 — one of the highest. 

The rate for the French in Canada is much lower than that for the English or Welsh 
people, and about as large as that for the Irish and the Scotch. It is interesting to note 
in passing that, among the Scandinavians, the Icelanders and Norwegians show the smallest 
proportion and the Danes and the Swedes the largest. 

The principal problem, however, is to determine how far such differences are due to 
origin and how far to birthplace. The term " origin " so used is not restricted to its 
biological connotation, but, as explained earlier in this report, is intended to embrace those 
cultural, and other differences which combine with the biological to determine the common 
characteristics of a group. 

Referring again to Table 113, an examination of the origins for the different nativity 
groups will show that in most stocks where high rates obtain for the foreign born children, 
large proportions are found in reformatories among the Canadian born as well. For purpose' 
of illustration, one may select a few foreign stocks where the numbers in reformatories 
are so large as to be fairly representative. 



• Stocks 

I 
. . I . ,■ 


Canadian-born 

children in 
reformatories 


Foreign-born 
children in 
reformatories 


$ \ ■ 


Kate per 
100,000 

553 
262 
243 
137 
27 
113 


Rate per 
100,000 

864 
427 
530 
508 
94 
214 















Very marked differences are seen to exist between individual stocks quite independent 
of nativity, but before venturing any generalization, the following data for groups of stocks 
should be inserted. 



Stocks 


Canadian-born 

children in 
reformatories 


Foreign-born 
children in 
reformatories 




Rate per 
100,000 

27 
102 

35 

25 
204 

95 


Rate per 
100,000 

63 

297 

31 

97 

508 

268 















For all groups except the Scandinavians, the numbers on which the above rates are 
based were reasonably adequate to ensure their reliability. It is pointed out, in the first 
place, that the rate for the foreign born children in the South, Eastern and Central 
European stocks was 4£ times greater than that for the foreign born children of the North 
Western European stocks, and the rate for the Canadian born children of South, Eastern 
and Central European origin was nearly 4 times greater than that for the Canadian born 
of the North Western European origin. These compaiisons are not vitiated by nativity. 
Such differences are primarily due to origins and are further illustrated by the data for 
the linguistic groups. The rates for the Latin and Greek group are in a class by them- 
selves. They are several times greater than the corresponding rates for either the Scandi- 
navian or Germanic groups and about twice as great as those for the Slavs. While the 



FOREIGN BORN AND CANADIAN BORN IN REFORMATORIES 



185 



figures for the Slavs are considerably below those for the Latin and Greek group, the 
foreign born children of the Slavic group show in turn nearly twice as large a proportion 
in reformatories as is found among the Germanic children, and the Canadian born children 
of Slavic origin nearly four times as large a proportion. (See Chart 32). 

Such evidence is more or less conclusive, as to the existence of differences among 
children of different origins as to crime. It will be shown in the section on penitentiary 
population that such differences are paralleled among adults, but before leaving the 
reformatory data it is proposed to analyze briefly the effect on juvenile delinquency of a 
factor already referred to as being primarily due to differences in origin, namely, rural 
and urban distribution. 

Chart XXXII 



RATE per 100.000 in REFORMATORIES™ FOREIGN BORN ano 
CANADIAN BORN CHILDREN of SPECIFIED ORIGINS. 



RATt PER 100,000 
100 200 300 



400 



500 



600 



N. Western Europe 
(continental) 



S.,Eastern and Cent. EimJ 



Scan oi 



NAVIAN 



1ERMANIC 



Latin ano Greeiv 



Slavic 



■Ml 

m 






FOREIGN 
CANADIAN 


JORN|B 

* W/////M 




,-■' ''.:.. :. . ~- -•''■ •- ' • L | 


'///////////////// ^^BM 




Hi 














/////////////////////////////// 
























W//////////////A 


^^^^^ 1 




1 



Rural and Urban Distribution. — The figures seem to suggest that urban* residence is 
usually associated with a larger proportion in reformatories. The Poles are the most urban 
of the Slavs. They show the highest proportion in reformatories. The Italians and Greeks 
are more urban than the Roumanians and show much higher Tates. Indeed they are the 
most urban of all South, Eastern and Central Europeans and with the exception of the 
unreliable rate for the Bulgarians, theirs is the highest of any people coming from that 
section of Europe. The Scandinavian and Germanic peoples, in addition to being the 
oldest settlers in Canada outside of the French and the British, are also essentially rural 
peoples. Their rates, as we have seen, are exceedingly low. The British stocks, on the 
other hand, are among our most urban, especially the British immigrants, and that fact 
probably helps to account for the comparatively high rate shown for the British stock. 
There seems to be little doubt that the stocks who show the greatest tendency to concen- 
trate in cities usually have larger proportions of their children in reformatories and vise versa. 

And now reverting to the unanswered question at the close of the last sub-section, it 
can be stated with some assurance that the figure for the third and subsequent generations 
of non-British stocks in Canada is unduly low, primarily because of the veryi low rates 
which characterize the older of the immigrant stocks of Canada, especially the Germanic 
and the Scandinavian. Greater length of residence has an important influence on child 



18P 



RELATION OF ORIGINS AND NATIVITY TO CRIME 



delinquency, but with both the Scandinavian and Germanic stocks showing lower rates 
than the British and French stocks in Canada, the conclusion is forced upon one that child 
delinquency is also very largely a matter of origin. The probability is that when a stock 
shows high proportions of reformatory population among its foreign born children and 
among its first generation of Canadian born, relatively large percentages will exist in subse- 
quent generations. Thus the new arrivals show high rates not merely because of their 
length of residence. The proportion of a population in reformatories is also and perhaps 
primarily a matter of origin and heredity. 

TABLE 114.-REFORMATORY POPULATION IN CANADA, BY GROUPS OP ORIGINS, 1921. 



Origin 


Number 

in 
reforma- 
tories 


Total 

population 

(10-20 

years) 


No. in 
reforma- 
tories 
per 100,000 
population 


North West European — 


1 
3 

7 
28 

2 
6 



4,367 

4,201 
25,206 
65,913 

3,551 
13,783 
12,354 

2,414 


23 




71 


Dutch 


28 




42 









15 




49 











Total 


47 


131,789 


36 






South, Eastern and Central European — 


37 
1 

5 
2 
1 

44 


36 
4 

66 
2 



23,230 

146 

2,120 

4,410 

540 

3,146 

11,883 

390 

11,373 

2,266 

23,165 

683 

24,467 


159 




685 









113 




370 




32 




370 







Polish 


317 




177 




285 




292 











Total 


108 


107,819 


184 






Scandinavian — 


3 

2 
6 


4,201 
3,551 
13,783 
12,354 


71 









15 




49 






Total 


11 


33,889 


32 






Germanic — 


1 

7 

28 


4,367 
25,206 
65,913 


23 




28 




42 






Total ; 


36 


95,486 


38 






Latin and Greeks- 


2 

44 

4 


540 
11,883 
2,266 


370 




370 




177 






Total....: 


SO 


14,689 


340 






British— 


834 

210 

224 

13 


497,577 

218,379 

223.587 

7,763 


168 




96 




100 


Welsh 


167 






Total : 


1,281 


947,306 


135 






Slavic — 


37 
1 


36 
66 
2 



23,230 

146 

2,120 

390 

11,373 

23,165 
683 

24,467 


159 




685 












Polish 


317 




285 




292 











Total. 


142 


85,574 


166 







ORIGINS AND BIRTHPLACES OF PENITENTIARY POPULATION 187 

ORIGINS AND BIRTHPLACES OF PENITENTIARY POPULATION 

Introduction.. — Those committed to penitentiaries include only such as have been con- 
victed of serious offences against the criminal code. Consequently, penitentiary statistics 
do not entirely reflect criminality as between different groups in a population. Breaches of 
the law might be of considerable frequency in a community and the proportions in peni- 
tentiaries be small, because members of that community very rarely committed crimes of 
a serious nature. Further, certain people may be clever enough to work within the letter 
of the law, yet pursue predatory occupations which are as criminal in intent and as serious 
in their effects on society as those so-called major offences which result in the commit- 
ment of others to penitentiaries. Besides, those in penitentiaries at a given time include 
many who have been there for ten,, fifteen, twenty or more years, so that changes in the 
composition of that group do not reflect changing tendencies in crime as quickly as data 
covering the actual admissions in various periods. Yet, while the composition of the peni- 
tentiary population at any given date is not an entirely satisfactory index of criminal 
propensity among the various sections of our population, the census of penitentiary popula- 
tion nevertheless throws much light on the tendency to crime. 

It is possible, as has been pointed out, that in certain nativity and ' origin ' groups, 
major offences are rare while minor offences are unusually common, so that the number in 
penitentiaries is comparatively small in spite of a very general disregard for the law. On 
the other hand, it is very improbable that in a group where major offences are frequent, 
one would find respect for the law in less important matters. The conclusion seems 
warranted, then, that where large numbers of a given group are found in our penitentiaries 
there is probably a very general disregard for law, and many minor offences are committed. 
While normally the converse would seem to apply, namely, that where there are few 
convictions for major offences the group is generally quite law abiding, there are never- 
theless sections of the community in which minor offences are very frequent and major 
offences rare. The conditions in such sections of the population are not reflected in peni- 
tentiary data. However, it may be assumed in most cases where the penitentiary rate is 
high that minor crimes are also comparatively frequent, and if the converse assumption 
cannot be made in all cases, the penitentiary data, by furnishing a more or less accurate 
index of the frequency of major offences, draw attention to those groups whose general 
behaviour is bad. Thus the data presented in this section may properly be regarded as 
giving proof of certain important differences between various nativity and ' origin ' groups 
in our population, in respect not only of major offences against society but also of conduct 
in general. 

On June 1, 1921, there were 2,282 prisoners distributed as follows in the six peniten- 
tiaries of Canada: — 

Male Female 

Dorchester, N.B 340 13 

St. Vincent de Paul, Que 573 

Kingston, Ont 767 25 

Stony Mountain, Man 206 

Prince Albert, Sask 193 

New Westminster, B.C 165 

It is with the population as listed above at the date of the last census that this study deals. 
While the number is not great, at least it is sufficiently large to warrant such broad 
generalizations as are made below, and where very small numbers occur in the analysis, 
the actual figures are inserted as well as the rates per 100,000, so that the size of the 
sample on which the conclusions are based may be known to the reader, and due allowances 
made. The rates shown in the following tables are correct to the first whole number 
throughout. While they have been computed to the second decimal place in the work 
tables, such detail is not warranted by the size of the population under review, and its 
inclusion would merely make the tables more difficult to read. 



188 



RELATION OF ORIGINS AND NATIVITY TO CRIME 



Age and Sex Distribution oj the Penitentiary Population. — Table 115 shows the numbers 
in penitentiaries in Canada per 100,000 for each sex and quinquennial age group. Two facts 
are clearly established by that table. First, crime is many times more prevalent among men 
than women. Consequently, other things being equal, where there is a large surplus of males, 
there' will' tend to be very much more crime. If one applies that test to immigration, 
it is apparent that a country which sends a great surplus of males to Canada would be 
sending proportionately more criminals than were it to send men and women in more equal 
numbers. It follows, then, that from the standpoint of crime, the most desirable immigra- 
tion is that in which the numbers of the sexes are most nearly equal, and the least desirable 
is that in which the excess of males is greatest. Of course other factors besides sex distribu- 
tion are involved, such as origin, birthplace, rural and urban distribution, etc. Neglecting 
such other factors, however, the above generalization is warranted by the figures under review. 

The second point to note is that the most criminal age group, as indicated by the 
penitentiary population, is between 20 and 24 years inclusive. The five year group, 25 to 
29 years, comes a close second. It must be recalled, however, that the age distribution 
of penitentiary population does not refer to the age of admission, and consequently does 
not accurately reflect the age at which the crimes were committed. On the average the 
date of committing the various crimes for which the prisoners under review were committed 
was somewhat prior to the date of the census, and in so far as the rates are used as an 
index of criminality at the different ages, allowances must be made for a 'lag 'in the age 
groups of perhaps a year and a half to two years. 

However, the data are sufficiently accurate to warrant the statement that the ages for 
which the crime rate is highest are in the twenties, — especially the early twenties, — and 
the corollary follows that in those sections of the population where large numbers are 
concentrated at those ages, proportionately more crime of a serious nature is to be 
expected. 

In Chapter III reference was made to the unusual age distribution of the foreign born 
in Canada and particularly to the marked concentration in the early years of adult man- 
hood. Thus, one of the normal penalties of a large inflow of immigrants is a high crime 
rate in so far as that is dependent on the presence of large proportions of the ages at 
which criminality is most marked. 

Summarising, then, the examination of penitentiary population shows clearly that a 
large surplus of males and a marked concentration of ages in the twenties and early 
thirties makes for greater criminality in a population, and from the point of view of. 
immigration, where the inflow consists largely of males in the prime of life, the crime 
rate will normally be exceptionally high. 

TABLE 115— NUMBER IN PENITENTIARIES IN CANADA PER 100,000 POPULATION OF EACH SEX, BY 

QUINQUENNIAL AGE GROUPS, 1921. 



— 


Total 


15-19 


20-24 


25-29 


30-34 


35-39 


40-44 


45-49 


50-54 


55-59 


60 and 
over 


Total 


26 

60 

1 


33 
65 


83 

166 

2 


64 

124 

3 


46 
85 
3 


37 
65 
3 


36 
66 


22 

40 

1 


20 

36 

1 


19 
36 


8 




15 











Note. — Where (— ) is inserted the rate is less than 0-5 per 100,000. 

Conjugal Condition oj the Penitentiary Population. — Only a few remarks are necessary 
regarding Table 116. The rates shown indicate that higher proportions of widowed and 
single males were in the penitentiaries in 1921 than of married men. Not only is that 
true for the total male population of penitentiaries at all ages, but it is true also for 
each age group. Where a population shows an unusually large proportion of young 
unmarried men or of widowers, the crime rate tends to be high. The actual numbers in 
the case of women are hardly large enough to warrant any definite generalization, although 
it is interesting that in the data for 1921 the widows showed the highest proportions in 
penitentiaries, and the single women the lowest. 



BIRTHPLACE OF PENITENTIARY POPULATION 



189 



TABLE 116— NUMBER IN PENITENTIARIES, MALE AND FEMALE, CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO CON- 
JUGAL CONDITION; AND NUMBER PER 100,000 POPULATION OF EACH GROUP, 1921. 





Conjugal condition 


Number 


Rate per 100,000 




Both 
sexes 


Male 


Female 


Both 
sexes 


Male 


Female 


Total 


2,282 

1,507 

688 

85 

2 


2,244 

1,495 

668 

79 

2 


38 

12 

20 

6 




26 
30 
21 
24 
27 


50 
55 
39 
66 
55 


1 




-CD 




1 




3 












(1) Less than 0-5 per 100,000. 

Birthplace oj the Penitentiary Population. — Table 117 classifies the penitentiary popula- 
tion by quinquennial age and broad nativity groups. The rates for the females by birthplace 
are unreliable because the actual numbers are comparatively small, but the figures for 
both sexes and more particularly for the male portion of the penitentiary population are 
significant. 

In the first-place, it is pointed out that of the total population 15 years of age and 
over, 26 per 100,000 were in penitentiaries in Canada in 1921. For the Canadian born the 
rate was as low as 19 per 100,000; for the British born it was 27; but for the foreign born 
it was 75. This means that with the age and sex distribution obtaining at the date of the 
census, the foreign born showed a proportion in penitentiaries nearly three' times that of the 
British born and four times that of the Canadian born. Of course the sex and age distribu- 
tion of the foreign born is especially favourable to crime, and the rates quoted must not be 
taken to mean that foreign immigrants are inherently more criminal in their behaviour than 
the Canadian and British born by the proportions indicated. The data do mean, however, 
that so long as the age and sex distribution remains abnormal and the same types of immi- 
grants come to this country as have been coming in recent years, the situation in the foreign 
born section of our population will continue substantially as depicted. Immigration has 
been bringing into this country groups of people among whom the crime rate, with respect 
to major offences, has been four times greater than that among those of native birth. 

But it is important to know whether, independent of sex and age distribution, the 
foreign and British born show higher or lower rates than the Canadian born. , In other words, 
is there a . basic difference associated with birthplace which persists when adjustment is 
made for differences in age and sex composition of the population? If so, how important 
is it? • 

Turning our attention to the centre section of Table 117, which gives the proportion for 
males alone, it is seen that for all Canada, 50 out of each 100,000 males 15 years and over 
were in penitentiaries. The rate for Canadian born males was 38, for the British born 49, 
but for the foreign born 127. Thus, when the male penitentiary population is related to 
the total male population 15 years of age and over for each nativity group, it is found that 
the foreign born males show over three times the proportion in penitentiaries shown by the 
Canadian born and over two and a half times that for the British born. 

But the age distribution of the immigrants is abnormal, and it may be thought that the 
concentration in the early adult ages is adequate to account for the differences in the rates 
between the different nativity groups. That such is not the case is evident on comparing 
the rates for the corresponding quinquennial age groups. At every age the proportion of 
the foreign born in penitentiaries was very much greater than that of the Canadian born. 
Indeed, between 15 and 60 years of age there are only four quinquennial age groups where 
the rate for the foreign born males was not 'more than twice that for the Canadian born, 
and in two of those four cases, the rate for the foreign born was only slightly less than 
double that for the Canadian born. Thus, when the sex factor is eliminated and the rates for 
similar age groups compared, it is evident that the foreign born show about twice the pro- 
portion in penitentiaries shown by the Canadian born and that such differences are associ- 
ated with nativity. Age and sex corrections are not adequate to account for the differences 
which appear in the crude totals. With considerations of age and sex eliminated, the foreigD 



190 



RELATION OF ORIGINS AND NATIVITY TO CRIME 



born as a group are less law-abiding than the Canadian born by 'half, in respect to major 
offences at least, and when we take them as they are, with large surpluses of males and 
abnormal age distribution, their crime rate is four times greater. 

The fact, moreover, should not be overlooked, that the age and sex distribution of immi- 
grants will continue to be unusually favourable to crime. When one thinks of the actual 
problem of law enforcement as it exists in Canada to-day and will exist in the immediate 
future, it is by the proportion four to one rather than two to one that the authorities must 
measure the criminal tendency of the foreign as compared with the Canadian born. Or, to 
state the problem in another way, the difficulty of law enforcement among the foreign born 
is four times as great in proportion to their numbers as among the Canadian born and this 
situation in respect to serious criminal offences will tend to persist with immigration on the 
present basis. 

The rate for the British born is somewhat higher than that for the Canadian born for 
the early ages, that is, up to 25. This confirms the previous suggestion that the absence of 
the British born fathers during the war had a serious effect on the discipline of the children. 
Between 25 and 40 years the rates for the British born are lower than for the Canadian 
born, and above 40 years they are somewhat higher, though the actual numbers are so small 
that no great weight should be laid on the individual figures. On the whole it seems safe to 
say that the British born showed somewhat larger percentages in penitentiaries than the 
Canadian born in 1921. 



TABLE 117— NUMBER IN PENITENTIARIES PER 100,000 POPULATION BY NATIVITY, 

QUINQUENNIAL AGE GROUPS, 1921. 



SEX AND 






All 
ages 


15-19 


20-24 


25-29 


30-34 


35-39 


40-44 


45-49 


50-54 


55-59 


60 and 
over 


Both Sexes — 

Total 


26 
19 
27 
75 

50 

38 

49 

-127 

1 
1 
1 
3 


33 
30 
43 
51 

65 
59 
84 
98 





83 

71 

70 

163 

166 
143 
146 
306 

2 
2 




64 
52 
37 
135 

124 

104 

75 

231 

3 
3 

6 


46 
39 
25 
93 

85 
76 
44 
151 

3 
2 
3 
4 


37 

32 

' 18 

76 

65 
61 
32 
115 

3 
3 

10 


36 
27 
32 
78 

66 
52 
57 
123 

1 




22 
17 
22 
44 

40 
32 
40 
70 

1 

1 




20 
14 
21 
51 

36 
26 
34 
82 

1 
1 
3 



19 
16 
20 
35 

36 
32- 
35 
57 







8 




7 




7 




15 


Males — 

Total 


15 




13 




14 




2S 


Females- 
Total 

























Note. — Where (— ) is inserted rate is less than 0-5 per 100,000. 



Table 118 shows the number and rate per 100,000 in penitentiaries of the foreign born 
male population aged 21 years and over in Canada, by specified countries' of birth. The 
table deals only with the immigrants and with the male portion of them. Direct comparison 
between the rates is consequently not vitiated by differences in sex distribution, though 
some unfairness is involved to those countries from which immigration has been more 
recent, since age distribution among such immigrants would be somewhat more favourable 
to crime than that for the groups which had come in large numbers earlier in the century. 
Reference therefore should be made to Table 28 in Chapter II for the purpose of making 
allowance for differences as to length of residence and consequent variation in age distribu- 
tion of the male population from the various foreign countries. 

Further, the numbers of males for many countries of birth are so small that the rates 
are not reliable. However, when one selects the five European countries from which the 



BIRTHPLACE OF PENITENTIARY POPULATION 



191 



TABLE 118.— NUMBER AND RATE PER 100,000 OF FOREIGN BORN MALE PENITENTIARY POPULATION 
AGED 21 YEARS AND OVER IN CANADA, BY COUNTRY OF BIRTH, 1921. 



Birthplace 


Number 
of males 
in peni- 
tentiaries 
21 years 
t and over 


Rate per 
100,000 
males 

21 years 

and over 
in each 

nativity 
group 




598 

352 

83 

6 

9 

1 

6 

7 

7 

5 

6 

8 

3 

4 



72 



4 

26 

24 

69 

6 

4 

2 

23 

19 

3 



1 

213 
10 


142 
































77 




27 




46 




273 




107 




111 







Italy 


337 









29 


Poland 


182 




209 








36 




199 




32 




53 




57 




39 







Turkey 


377 


United States 


159 




703 







largest numbers of male immigrants have come in recent years, the adult male population 
in Canada born in each of those countries was over 24,000 — a number sufficiently large for 
the purpose of the present analysis. When arranged according to the rate per 100,000 of 
such adult males in penitentiaries the countries appear in the following order: — 









Length of 








residence 




Rate in 


Per cnet 


of those 


Country of Birth 


penitentiaries 


arrived 


arrived 




per 100,000 


before 


since Jan. 1, 




(adult males) 


1901 


. 1901 
(in years) 


Italy 


337 
273 
, 209 
182 
144 


8-63 
1711 
1316 
10-48 
17-50 


9-5 




11-9 




12-0 


Poland 


10-3 




10-9 







The rate for all foreign countries was 142. Italy shows a rate between two and three 
times greater. That is offset to some extent by the recent date of arrival in Canada, which 
causes the age distribution of the foreign born males from that country to be somewhat 
more favourable to crime than that for males from certain other countries. It is inconceiv- 
able, however, that such an excessively high rate can be more than partially explained on 
that score. One is forced to assume the existence of an original tendency toward crime 
which is associated in part with the correlative tendency to concentrate in cities, especially 
in large ones. The Austrian rate of 273 per 100,000 is also exceedingly high, and it is not 



192 RELATION OF ORIGINS AND NATIVITY TO CRIME 



due to an age distribution especially favourable to crime, for immigration from Austria had 
assumed comparatively large dimensions quite early in the century. The same remark 
applies to the Roumanians and to a lesser degree to the Poles and Russians. 

It 'is exceedingly significant that these five countries which send such large numbers of 
criminals to' Canada, are all situated in the central, east and southern parts of Europe and 
that, with the exception of the Ukraine, they constitute the main sources of our immigrant 
population from that geographical division. In fact in 1921 the five countries mentioned 
were among the first seven foreign countries in respect of the number of emigrants sent to 
Canada. Further, that situation has not obtained merely during the latter years of the last 
decade. It has been typical of immigration during the whole of this century. Between 1900 
and 1914 Russia and Austria each sent to Canada more emigrants than any other contin- 
ental European country. At no time since 1900 has Italy stood lower than fifth place, and 
in the past ten years she has ranked either first, second or third among continental Euro- 
pean countries in the number of emigrants sent to Canada. The simple fact of the matter 
appears to be that immigration since the beginning of the century has brought to Canada 
the least desirable of foreign peoples in the largest numbers, i.e., the least desirable in 
respect of their crime records. Their records in learning the official languages of Canada, 
illiteracy, intermarriage and infant mortality are dealt with in other chapters. 

The countries of birth have been grouped in a summary table (Table 119), where the 
number in penitentiaries and rates per 100,000 are presented in parallel columns. A few of 
the significant fact's are brought out by comparing Tables 118 and 119. First, there were 
twice as many male immigrants from Austria in our penitentiaries in 1921 as from the whole 
of North Western Europe. Secondly, the number of males from Italy in Canadian peni- 
tentiaries was 70 p.c. greater than the number born in all countries in North Western 
Europe combined; and thirdly, more Russians by two-thirds were serving heavy sentences 
in Canadian penal institutions at the date of the census than immigrants from all Germanic 
and Scandinavian countries together. These facts challenge most emphatic comment. 

Further, Table 119 shows that over seven times as many immigrants from South, Eastern 
and Central Europe were serving sentences for major offences in Canada as from North 
Western Europe. In fact 88 p.c. of the European born males in our penitentiaries came 
from the South, Eastern and Central parts of the continent. The rate per 100,000 males 
from South, Eastern and Central Europe was over three times greater than that for those 
from the northwestern section. 

Passing to the immigrants from the United States, it is surprising to find that the 
proportion of males born in that country in Canadian penitentiaries was almost as large 
as the rate for the South, Eastern and Central European groups. The actual number 
of United iStates born male convicts per 100,000 male immigrants over 21 years of age 
was 159, as against 185 for 'South, Eastern and Central Europe and 53 for Asiatic immi- 
grants. It will be shown below that the high rate for the United States born is not 
attributed to the bona fide settler. The close proximity of the United States and the 
ease of crossing the international boundary makes Canada peculiarly subject to visits of 
the professional criminals from that country. 

Turning to the linguistic groups, the Latin and Greek countries take the lead with 
nearly 300 per 100,000 males in penitentiaries, a proportion seven times greater than that 
for the Scandinavian immigrants and well over four times that for those from Germanic 
countries. The penitentiary population of males born in Slavic countries is 161 out of 
every 100,000 male immigrants, which is four times as Large a proportion as among those 
coming from Scandinavian countries. 

Such facts cannot but claim the attention of those interested in the observance of law 
and order, and in the building of a Canadian nation imbued with ideals of right conduct. 
As was intimated above, their importance is further emphasized by the discussion in a 
previous section showing that those countries which send the largest proportion of 
criminals to Canada have dominated foreign immigration since the beginning of the century. 



CITIZENSHIP OF PENITENTIARY POPULATION 



193- 



TABLE 119— NUMBER OF FOREIGN BORN MALES IN PENITENTIARIES PER 100,000 MALE POPULATION 
AGED 21 YEARS AND OVER, OF SPECIFIED GROUPS OF COUNTRIES OF BIRTH, 1921. 



Birthplace 


Number 

of males in 

penitentiaries 

(21 years and 

over) 


Rate per 

100,000 

males 

(21 years 

and over) 




598 
352 

42 
310 

23 
213 

16 

15 
104 
195 


142 




146 




59 




185 








159 




42 




68 




290 




161 







t 1 ) France not included. 



TABLE 120— CITIZENSHIP OF FOREIGN-BORN PENITENTIARY POPULATION (BOTH SEXES) 

AGED 21 YEARS AND OVER, 1921. 



Birthplace 



Number in 
Penitentiaries 



Total 



Natural- 
ized 



Alien 



Rate per 100,000 population 
of each group 



Total 



Natural- 
ized 



Alien 



All Foreign Countries 

Europe 

Austria 

Belgium.. 

Bulgaria 

Czechoslovakia. . 

Denmark 

Finland 

France 

Galicia 

Germany 

Greece 

Holland 

Hungary 

Iceland 

Italy 

Jugo-Slavia 

Norway 

Poland 

Roumania 

Russia 

Sweden 

Switzerland 

Ukraine 

Asia 

China 

Japan 

Syria 

Turkey 

United States 

Other Countries 



355 
84 



3 

4 


73 



4 

26. 
24 
70 

6 

4 

2 

23 
19 

3 



1 

219 
11 



82 

35 
16 

1 



1 

1 
1 
1 


4 


3 
2 
4 
1 









46 



526 



320 
68 



1 

6 

7 

6 

5 

5 

7 

2 

4 



69 



4 

23 

22 

66 

5 

4 

2 

23 
19 
3 

1 

173 
10 



87 

90 

167 
58 

969 
27 
92 
65 
42 
16 
26 

230 
65 
62 


240 

19 

108 

124 
84 
24 

129 
20 

47 

56 

28 



278 

87 
473 



20 

15 

53 



541 







11 



6 

96 

43 





43 





25 

17 

8 

6 











28 
81 



179 

197 
341 

107 
1,075 
62 
219 
121 
83 
48- 
■ 68 ' 
.287. 
89" 

. 243 : 

0. 

'327-- 



•"'68' 

194 ■ 

291 

214 

63 

292 

45 

55 

58 

43 



513 
193 
921 



Citizenship of the Penitentiary Population. — Table 120 shows the numbers alien and 
naturalized of the penitentiary population of both sexes 21 years and over by countries 
of birth, and the rate per 100,000 of each group. Little comment is necessary. The one 
fact brought out in the table is presented in the first row of figures. Of the 608 foreign 
born inmates of Canadian penitentiaries in 1921, 526 (that is 80.5 p.c.) were aliens. The 
second section of the table expresses the same fact in another way. The proportion in 
penitentiaries of the alien foreign (born was 179 per 100,000, while that for the naturalized 
foreign born was only 20 per. 100,000. The alien rate was eight times greater than that for 
the naturalized. Further, in the case of every country of birth, the rate per 100,000 immi- 
74422—13 



194 RELATION OF ORIGINS AND NATIVITY TO CRIME 

grants was several times greater for aliens than for those who had taken out Canadian 
citizenship. Taking a few examples where the numbers are large and the rates consequently 
more or less reliable, for the Austrians the rate was 13 times greater for the aliens than 
for the naturalized, for the Italians and Poles nearly eight times, for the Roumanians 17 
times and for the Russians 27 times. 

It is apparent, therefore, that the alien foreign born immigrants constitute our major 
problem in respect to serious criminal offences in Canada and also that a policy of deporting 
the great majority of foreign born criminals after they have served the terms of punishment 
required by law would not encounter any impediment through their having taken out 
naturalization papers. 

Origin of the Penitentiary Population. — In Table 121 the penitentiary population, 21 
years of age and over, is shown by origins. In Column 3 are given the rates per 100,000 
of the total population 21 years of age and over of the corresponding origins. We have 
seen the marked differences between the proportions in penitentiaries of immigrants born in 
different countries. It will now be shown that criminal tendencies vary not only with 
birthplace but also with origin. The rates as given in Table 121, however, do not reflect 
merely differences of origin. Birthplace, age and sex distribution and length of residence 
also influence the percentages; but before attempting to isolate the factor of origin, it is 
of interest to see in what sections of the population major offences were most common 
in 1921, for there the practical problem of law enforcement is most serious. 

The first point to note is the marked variation in the proportions of the different stocks 
in penitentiaries. The Ukrainians had the lowest with only five per 100,000 twenty-one years 
and over; the Bulgarians the highest with 512, and the Negroes came next with 415. The 
British and French stocks stood on a par, with rates of 33 and 35 respectively. Ten stocks 
showed proportions lower than the British and French, namely, the Czechs, Dutch, Germans, 
Icelanders, Norwegians, Swedes, Swiss, Syrians, Japanese and Ukrainians. 

The rates for all others were higher, and in some cases very much higher. Mention 
has been made of the Negroes. With them, age and sex distribution are not more favour- 
able to crime than with the British, and much less favourable than for any immigrant 
peoples. Further, neither length of residence nor place of birth would account for the 
high figure for that stock. There seems to be no question that they are more given to 
serious crimes than any other people in Canada. Their rate of 415 per 100,000 was 12i 
times greater than that for the British stocks, and there do not appear to be any important 
mitigating circumstances. The rates for the Roumanian (341), Italian (239), Greek (219), 
Austrian (196), Serbo-Croatian (188) and Russian (141) stocks were also very high. They 
range from four to ten times that for the British stocks, and the Poles with 121 per 100,000 
in penitentiaries might also be classed with the six stocks mentioned above as having 
exceedingly high proportions serving long term sentences. 

In two of the above mentioned cases, namely, the Greek and Serbo-Croatian stocks, 
the numbers 21 years of age and over are so small that no great reliance should be placed 
on the actual magnitude of the rates. In all other cases, however, the number 21 years 
of age and over is greater than 10,000, and in most instances it is many times that number, 
so that the samples are more representative. 

Special comment should be made regarding the Ukrainian stock. Though they are 
our most illiterate and backward immigrants, they appear to be particularly free from crime 
of a serious nature. In this connection, it is recalled that out of a population of some 
25,000 between the ages of 10 and 20 years, not one was found in a reformatory in Canada 
in 1921. The record of that stock is most commendable on the score of its respect for law, 
as revealed by reformatory and penitentiary statistics. Their low rate is probably associated 
to some extent with another characteristic to which reference has been made, namely, rural 
residence and agricultural occupation. 



ORIGIN OF PENITENTIARY POPULATION 



195 



TABLE 121.-0RIGIN OF PENITENTIARY POPULATION, 21 YEARS AND OVER (BOTH SEXES), 

1921. 



Origin 



Canada. . 



British 

English. 

Irish 

Scotch.. 

Other... 

French 

Austrian... 

Belgian 

Bulgarian. 
Chinese.... 

Czech 

Danish 

Dutch . 



Finnish 

German 

Greek 

Hebrew 

Hungarian 

Icelandic : 

Indian 

Italian 

Japanese 

Negro 

Norwegian 

Polish 

Roumanian 

Russian 

Ser bo-Croatian 

Swedish 

Swiss 

Syrian ". 

Ukrainian 

Various and unspecified. 



(1) 


(2) 


Total number 


Total 


in 


population 


penitentiaries 


(21 years 


(21 years and 


and over) 


over) 




1,801 


4,811,9031 


059 


2,896,076 


536 


1,497,337 


247 


667,441 


165 


706,516 


11 


24,782 


405 


1,168,387 


91 


46,403 


6 


11,041 


7 


1,367 


19 


34,183 


1 


4,224 


7 


11,545 


12 


63,141 


7 


11,364 


27 


155,218 


8 


3,659 


30 


60, 695 


3 


5,592 


2 . 


8,757 


26 


51,088 


80 


33,480 


3 


10, 742 


44 


10,613 


7 


36,479 


29 


24,021 


22 


6,449 


62 


43,955 


4 


2,126 


7 


34,579 


1 


7,509 


1 


3,788 


2 


43,187 


19 


22, 235 



(3) 

Number per 

100,000 of 

corresponding 

group 



33 

36 

37 

23 

44 

35 

196 

54 

512 

56 

24 

61 

19 

62 

17 

219 

49 

£4 

23 

51 

239 

28 

415 

19 

121 

341 

141 

188 

20 

13 

26 

5 



1 Does not include Yukon and Northwest Territories. Includes persons of unstated age. 

When the European stocks are arranged by geographical and linguistic groups as in 
Table 122, the numbers are more representative and the rates more reliable. The North 
Western European group of foreign stocks had 21 per 100,000 21 years of age and over in 

penitentiaries in 1921, while the South, Eastern and Central group showed a figure of 138 

a proportion nearly seven times greater than that for the North Western Europeans. The 
Latin and Greek stocks had a proportion some ten to twelve times greater than that for 
the Scandinavian and Germanic peoples, and the Slavic stocks a proportion four to six times 
greater. Were it not for the Ukrainians, who form a very considerable proportion of the 
Slavic population in Canada, the rate for the latter group would have been higher than 
actually appears. 

So much for the crude data and their practical bearing on the problem of law enforce- 
ment in the various ' origin ' groups in Canada. 

Now these difference.? are by no means entirely due to birthplace or age and sex 
distribution. It becomes apparent that a genuine factor of origin and heredity is involved 
when one compares the groups in the light of previous sections of this study. The Slavic 
stocks, for instance, showed a considerably smaller proportion 21 years of age and over 
than the Scandinavians, as well as a much smaller surplus of males. Yet in spite of an 
age and sex distribution less favourable to crime than that of the Scandinavian peoples, 
the rate in penitentiaries for the Slavic group was four and a half times greater. The fact 
that the proportion born on this continent was some 7 p.c. smaller for the Slavs than for 
the Scandinavians offsets in some measure the difference on the score of age and sex 
distribution, but is certainly not adequate to account for the striking spread in the propor- 
tions in penitentiaries. It would seem that the difference is mainly due to origin and 
heredity. The figure for the Latin and Greek group may be unduly high because of eome- 

74422— 13j 



196 



RELATION OF ORIGINS AND NATIVITY TO CRIME 



what more recent data of arrival and a slightly larger surplus of males. Yet even if their 
rate in penitentiaries be discounted <by half, it would be far in excess of that for any 
other group. 



TABLE 122— ORIGIN OF PENITENTIARY POPULATION (BOTH SEXES), 21 YEARS AND OVER, 
BY SPECIFIED GROUPS OF ORIGINS. 1921. 



Groups of Origins 


Total 

number in 

penitentiaries, 

(21 years 

and over) 


Total 
population 
(21 years 
and over) 


Rate 
per 100,000 




09 
309 
23 
45 
110 
188 


328,269 
224.400 

91.360 
229,400 

43,588 
103,916 


21 




138 




25 




20 




252 




115 







But let us push the analysis a step farther and actually eliminate some of the disturbing 
factors. Table 123 shows the rate per 100,000 of both sexes in penitentiaries for specified 
groups of origins and broad nativity classes. In the lower section separate data for males 
are presented for the United States and other immigrant born. 

If the rates for the Canadian born sections of the different groups be compared, it 
will be seen that differences of origin by no means vanish. When we examine the Canadian 
born alone the disturbing influence of sex distribution is eliminated as well as differences in. 
respect to birthplace. The influence of origin is thus relieved of two important disturbing 
factors. The only other significant independent influence is age. 

It is admitted of course that rural and urban distribution is also related to crime, as is 
occupation; but occupation and rural and urban distribution are essentially characteristic 
of origins, as has been .pointed out in a previous chapter. The Italians, for instance, live in 
cities and follow urban occupations because urban residence is an outstanding characteristic 
of that group on this continent. At the same time the Italians show very large proportions 
in penitentiaries. If they were of another stock like the Ukrainians, for example, they 
would live in the country, work at agriculture and hold a different attitude towards the 
law. It is not denied that urban residence accentuates the proportion of crime; indeed 
it is one of the several characteristics of certain origins which favours it. In this section, 
however, attention is focussed on the sum total of the traits of different stocks as they 
affect the frequency of serious offences against society. 

As distinct from rural and urban distribution, the age. factor is a circumstance much 
more independent of origin, and allowance should be made for any marked differences in 
age distribution, when comparing two or more ' origin ' groups. The question thus arises, 
once sex and birthplace are eliminated, to what extent differences in age distribution 
make comparisons invalid between the Canadian born sections of the various groups of 
peoples. The answer is not hard to find. If one refers to Ta'ble No. 42, Vol. II of the 
1921 Census, it will be seen that age distribution, instead of invalidating the comparison, 
actually accentuates the differences to which reference has already been made. The propor- 
tions 21 years and over in the Canadian born sections of the British, French, Scandinavian 
and Germanic stocks were from -2 to 8 times greater than in the case of the Latin antd Greek 
and Slavic peoples of Canadian birth. Even assuming larger proportions of these 21 and 
over in the latter groups to be young adults, the age distribution of the Canadian born of 
the former stocks was unquestionably more favourable to a high crime rate. Yet the Latin 
and Greek people of Canadian birth showed from six to sixteen times the number in 
penitentiaries • per 100,000 shown by the Canadian born of the earlier stocks, and the 
Canadian born Slavs had a proportion from one half to four times greater. Similar differ- 
ences appear between the geographical groups. The rate for the Canadian born South, 



ORIGIN AND NATIVITY OF PENITENTIARY POPULATION 



197 



Eastern and Central Europeans was approximately six times that for the North Western 
Europeans of Canadian birth, in spite of the fact that the South, Eastern and Central 
Europeans had an age distribution less favourable to crime. 

But it may be objected that the numbers of the Canadian born Slavs and Latins and, 
Greeks are too small to warrant placing much faith in comparisons of that nature. If, 
however, one examines "the other immigrant born" section of the table, it will be seen, 
first, that the numbers of foreign born males 21 years of age and over of Latin and Greek 
and Slavic extraction are quite large; and secondly, that the rates for the foreign bom 
males of both those groups are much higher than for the foreign born males of the French, 
Scandinavian and Germanic groups. Further, the rate for the foreign born males of 
South, Eastern and Central European extraction is several times greater than for those from 
the North West of Europe. It is true that the age distribution of adult male immigrants 
from South, Eastern and. Central Europe was probably slightly more favourable to crime, 
but this difference is certainly not adequate to account for the rate being five times greater. 

In the face of such facts, it seems hardly possible to doubt that origin and heredity is 
an important factor, if not the most important, in the matter of penitentiary commitments; 
and even though one may differ with the suggestion made above that where major offences 
are frequent the law is commonly violated in less serious ways, it is difficult to see how 
one can gainsay the conclusion that in so far as penitentiary population is an index of 
criminality, the Scandinavian and Germanic stocks and the North Western European peoples 
in general, have a much better record than the Slavic and Latin and Greek peoples. 

There is one other point worthy of emphasis, and it is clearly brought out in the 
section of the table dealing with the United States born portion of the " origin " groups. 
It is first recalled that some 95 p.c. of the immigrants from the United States are of 
British, French, Scandinavian or Germanic stocks. The number of Latin and Greek and 
Slavic immigrants from that country is almost negligible. Now, while the French, Scandi- 
navian and Germanic people who come to Canada from the United States show only slightly 
larger percentages and in some cases even smaller proportions in penitentiaries than the 
Canadian born of these stocks, the immigrants of British stock from the country to the 
South are among our most serious offenders. The bulk of the criminals coming to Canada 
from the United States are of British origin. 



TABLE 123— ORIGIN AND NATIVITY OF PENITENTIARY POPULATION, 21 YEARS AND OVER, 
BY SPECIFIED GROUPS (BOTH SEXES), 1921. 





Canadian Bo 


rn 


United States Born 


Other Immigrant Born 


Groups and Origins 


Popu- 
lation 
21 years 
and over 


Number 

in 
peniten- 
tiaries 


Rate per 
100,000 
of each 
group 


Popu- 
lation 
21 years 
and over 


Number 

in 
peniten- 
tiaries 


Rate per 
100,000 
of each 
group 


Popu- 
lation 
21 years 
and over 


Number 

in 
peniten- 
tiaries 


Rate per 
100,000 

of each 
group 


Both Sexes- 


1,874,200 

1,117,316 

7.928 

138.814 

2,297 

10.110 

150,193 

12,983 

(') 
(') 
(') 
(') 
(') 
(') 

(') 

(') 


581 
382 
2 
18 
5 
5 

20 

10 


31 
34 
25 
13 
218 
49 

13 

77 


146.216 
31,930 
24,259 
34,723 
658 
4,352 

60, 153 

5,623 

77,896 
15,648 
13,685 
19,194 
373 
2,373 

33,528 

3,082 


157 
14 
4 
11 
2 
4 

15 

6 

151 
14 
4 
11 
2 
4 

15 

6 


107 
44 
16 
32 

304 
92 

25 

107 

194 
89 
29 
57 
536 
168 

45 

195 


874,660 
16.972 
58.610 
54,776 
40,224 

146.926 

116.188 
202,893 


221 

9 

16 

15 

103 

175 

32 

288 


25 

' 53 

27 




Latin and Greek 


256 


North Western 
EuropeP) 


28 
142 


South, Eastern and 
Central Europe.... 

Males — 

British Stocks 








7,6is 

37,966 
31.367 
28,490 
89, 989 

71,078 

127,994 


9 

16 

15 

102 

173 

32 

285 


118 








42 








48 








358 


Slavic 






192 


North Western 






4] 


South, Eastern and 






223 











(') Data not available. 

( 2 ) Does not include British and French. 



198 



RELATION OF ORIGINS AND NATIVITY TO CRIME 



Parentage of the Canadian born in the Penitentiary Population. — In the discussion on 
the reformatory population, reference was made to the importance of parentage and in 
particular to the theory that it is the children of foreign born parents who constitute our 
major problem in respect to disregard for law. Table 124 classifies the penitentiary 
population by specified parentage groups, and an examination of the rates in the third 
column yields some interesting information. 

First, the Canadian born children of British born parents show the lowest proportion 
in penitentiaries. . It is recalled in this connection that the Canadian born children of 
British born parents showed the highest proportion in reformatories; yet the data for 
penitentiaries show the very reverse. How can this paradox be explained? It was 
suggested that the absence of British born fathers from Canada during the war was a 
major factor in accounting for the large numbers of Canadian born children of British 
born parents in reformatories in 19211. The younger generation of children of such parents 
appear to be exceedingly badly behaved; yet as far as penitentiary population may be 
taken as an index the older children of British bom parents have been unusually 
free from crime. Confirmation is thus given to the contention that the situation in respect 
to the Canadian born reformatory population of British parentage was most abnormal, and 
whether the explanation suggested is either correct or adequate, there is no doubt that 
the phenomenon was a temporary one and not likely to be repeated. 

When one parent is Canadian and one British born the proportion in penitentiaries 
was only slightly higher than where both parents were British bom. In both these cases 
the chances of a child being found in a penitentiary were only half as great as where both 
parents were Canadian born. That is not surprising, however, for there is a large admixture 
of foreign stocks in Canada which show much greater criminal tendencies than do the basic 
British and French stocks, and the children of Canadian born parents include among their 
number many of such foreign origins. 

The chances of going to the penitentiary are greatest for the children of foreign born 
parents. Here again it ds recalled 'that such children were found in reformatories in very 
small numbers -in 1921. The abnormal conditions incident on the war were suggested as 
a possible cause. Yet the penitentiary data seem again to be in closer record with the 
expected result. Disregard for law is hereditary — not so much in a biological, as in a 
social sense. WheTe the parents are criminal, the children learn disrespect for the law 
from the home environment, and with the foreign born adults showing larger proportions in 
penitentiaries than the Canadian born, the normal expectation is that the children of the 
foreign born as a group would include larger proportions among whom crime is more 
prevalent. The origin of the children of such parents also favours criminality. 

TABLE 124.— CANADIAN BORN POPULATION OF PENITENTIARIES, BY NATIVITY OF 

PARENTS, 1921. 



Parentage 



Canada 



Penitentiaries 



Rate 

per 

100,000 



Canadian Bom Population, 21 years and over. 

Both parents — 

Canadian born .■ 

British born 

Foreigriborn (including U.S. born) 

Mixed parentage — 

Father Canadian, mother Foreign 

Father Foreign, mother Canadian 

One parent Canadian, one British 

One parent British, one Foreign 

Parentage not stated 



3,230,531 



2,395,278 

385,963 

66.058 



25.227 

37, 790 

284,979 

21,557 



22,679 



1,051 



867 
70' 
29 



7 
14 

55 

7 



32 



36 
18 
44 



28 
37 
19 
32 



DATE OF IMMIGRATION OF IMMIGRANTS IN PENITENTIARIES 199 

Date of Immigration oj Immigrant Penitentiary Population. — Before concluding 
this chapter there is a further question which is of general interest. How soon after 
their arrival in this country do the immigrant offenders get into trouble? The answer 
is suggested in Table 125, which distributes the total male immigrant penitentiary 
population by date of arrival in Canada, and also gives separate figures for countries 
of birth showing the greatest numbers in penitentiaries. The proportion of all immigrants 
in penitentiaries is greatest for the group which came between 1915 and 19118. The same 
applies to the European males and to each of the European countries from which large 
numbers of our criminals have come. The rate was smaller for those who arrived after 
1918, and it decreased with length of residence prior to 1915. What then is the inference? 
One is first reminded that the census of penitentiaries in 1921 does not give the date of 
admission but rather records the actual number in penitentiaries at that time. If we 
assume that on the average the foreign born inmates of penitentiaries had already served 
one and a half years of their sentences at the date of the Census, and further that those who 
were reported as coming between 1915 and 1918, had, on the average, been in the country 
four, and a half years prior to 1921, it would appear that the most common length of 
residence prior to committing an offence sufficiently serious to merit a penitentiary sentence, 
was about three years. 

The reason for this is a matter of conjecture, but the suggestion is offered that the new 
arrivals, finding themselves in a strange country with a strange language and strange ways, 
require two or three years to adjust themselves to the new environment before falling 
into the error of mistaking liberty for license. That- this seems reasonable is confirmed 
by the figure for the United 1 States immigrants, which differs from that of all other foreign 
countries. The largest proportion of immigrants from that country commit offences almost 
immediately on arriving here. The majority of them are of British stock, and have been 
reared on this continent under conditions very similar to those existing in Canada. A period 
of adjustment is consequently not necessary. They are not strangers in a foreign country, 
like the European and especially the Asiatic immigrants, and if they have criminal tendencies 
they are not deterred from giving expression to them on account of unfamiliarity with the 
language and ways of the country. 

It also seems probable that more criminals oome from the United States for the express 
purpose of committing crime than from other foreign countries; Canada appears to be 
somewhat off the beat of the international criminal from other foreign .parts. 

TABLE 125— DISTRIBUTION OF THE IMMIGRANT MALE POPULATION OF PENITENTIARIES, BY 
BIRTHPLACE AND YEAR OF ARRIVAL, CENSUS OF 1921. 





Immigrant male population in Canada 
by date of arrival 


Rate per 100,000 immigrant male population 
in penitentiaries by date of arrival 


Birthplace 


Jan. 

1919 to 

June 

1921 


1915- 
18 


1911- 
14 


1901- 
10 


Before 
1901 


Totals 


Jan. 

1919 to 

June 

1921 


1915- 
18 


1911- 
14 


1901- 
10 


Before 
1901 


Totals 


Total 


103,089 

59,563 

43,526 

15,154 

438 

4,065 

1,171 

346 

1,694 

3,210 

24,957 


58,595 

17,400 

41,195 

8,799 

355 

1,104 

.360 

207 

1,497 

5,204 

27,041 


283,682 

145,598 

138,084 

83,452 

10,599 

7,842 

6,289 

4,376 

19,839 

11,981 

42,187 


438,631 

225,900 

212,731 

121,068 

16.888 

8,741 

7,059 

6,589 

23,781 

18,422 

72,622 


187,942 

110,845 

77,097 

42,620 

5,457 

2,161 

1,683 

1,644 

9,629 

7,970 

26,241 


1,086,542 

567,072 

519,470 

273,892 

34,034 

24,219 

16,864 

13,228 

56,967 

47,211 

196,427 


89 

24 

179 

92 

1,142 

49 



289 

118 



256 


171 
115 
194 
409 
1,408 
815 

56 
483 
667 

19 
155 


96 

37 

158 

210 

330 

370 

239 

388 

193 

60 

83 


79 
54 
105 
117 
225 
400 
156 
121 
80 
65 
94 


60 
54 
69 
45 
92 
46 
59 
61 
42 
38 
114 


87 




49 
127 
142 
259 
314 


Italy 


Poland 


172 
219 






United States born . 


51 

124 



200 



RELATION OF ORIGINS AND NATIVITY TO CRIME- 



-.-• ,, • MATHEMATICAL APPENDIX TO CHAPTER X 

Table.' A below' shows the number' of convictions for indictable offences in Canada in 
1924, by sex and specified' age groups and the rate per 100,000 population for each group. 

TABLE A.-CONVICTIONS FOR INDICTABLE OFFENCES IN CANADA, BY AGE AND SEX. 



. Age Group. 


Sex 


■ Con- 

. victions 
in 1924 


■ Popu- 
lation of 
Canada, 
1921 


Con- 

■ victions 

per 

100,000 ' 

' population 


16-20 • 


M. 

F. 

■ M. " 
. F. 

F. 

,M. 

F. 


2,831 
272 

6,577 
1,054 

' 2,167 
368 

: 2,857. 
132 


393,406 
' 390,945 

1,311,783 
.1,224,667 

1,207,411 
1,055,408 


719 
• 70 

501 
86 

180 
35 






Not given 



■..■■Table B' gives the mumfoer' of "males , and' females' respectively in corresponding age 
groups, resident in. Canada in ; 1921 and '/born- (1<)> in Canada,. (2) in other parts of the 
British Empire .and. (3) . in foreign countries: Table C . expresses the number of males in 
each' age and nativity group as a .percentage, of, .the .total male population of like nativity 
in Canada, ,'and f Table D is" a similar schedule for females.' ','•.■• 

TABLE B.— MALES AND FEMALES BY.SPECIFIED AGE AND NATIVITY GROUPS IN CANADA, 1921. 



. •" . , ,' ...i r „,.'<( ; -.».- > :■' ' .•...,.'! ,1! -!M!|.'i- v i ■ . ,..«■ 
, ■ ' '; Age Group , .. , 


Sex 


' Canadian 
born 


Other 

British 

born 


Foreign , 
born 


16-20....... ....;.:;.;,;..:.;.;.■..).... .>../.. .......... ,..;.. ;■.•. l'.V. ..'.'.. V. . V. i . .' . . .' 

21-39 


■ m: 

F.. 

M. 
■■ F. ' 

M. 

■ F. 


323,015 
311,264. 

. 824,584 
834,572 

798,018 
758,393 


40.440 
40,419 

239.795 
218,708 

234,311 
189,701 


39,804 
38,082 

244,401 
170,424 

175,082 
107,314 


,..• . .,; ... ;,., ...••. 




M. 
F. 


3,432.864 
3.379.968 


566.778 
498,209 


518, 702 
370,685 


V ..... 



TABLE C— MALES IN EACH AGE AND NATIVITY GROUP AS PERCENTAGE OF TOTAL MALE 
POPULATION OF CORRESPONDING NATIVITY IN CANADA, 1921. 



1 ' i Age Group; 

! ' : ' i . . ' , 


' Canadian 
born 


Other 

British 

born 


Foreign 
born 




p.c. ' 

9-4 
24-0 
23-3 


p.c. 

7-1 

42-3 

1 41-4 


p.c. 

7-7 

47-1 

• 33.8 


21-39 ' ■ , . ...••■•:•• 





TABLE D.- FEMALES IN EACH AGE AND NATIVITY GROUP AS PERCENTAGE OF TOTAL FEMALE 
POPULATION OF CORRESPONDING NATIVITY IN CANADA, 1921. , - 



| ' ' i Age Group j , ' '. 


Canadian 
born 


Other 

British 

born 


Foreign 
born 


16-20 


p.c. 

9-2 
24-7 
22-4 


p.c. 

8-1 
43-9 
38-0 


p.c. 

10-3 

46-0 
28-9 


21-39 • 







RATE OF CONVICTIONS OF CANADIAN BORN AND IMMIGRANTS 201 

In Table A it is seen that 719 convictions occurred in 1924 per 100,000 males in Canada 
between the ages of 16 and 20 inclusive. Table C shows that 9.4 p.c. of the Canadian born 
males in 1921 were in that age group. Applying that rate to the Canadian born males 16-20, 
it is apparent that 9.4 p.c. of 719 or 67.6 would be the number of males at those ages per 
100,000 Canadian born males (all ages), who would be convicted of indictable offences. 
Applying the rates 501 and 180 respectively in a similar manner to other age groups, it is 
found there would be 120.2 convictions of Canadian born males between the ages of 21 and 
39 inclusive and 41.9 for the group 40 and over. Adding the numbers so computed for the 
three age classes a total of 229.7 is secured as the number per 100,000 Canadian born males 
(all ages) who would be convicted of indictable offences on the basis of age distribution as it 
actually existed in 1921, and on the assumption that crime at the various ages was neither 
more nor less prevalent among Canadian born males than among the male population as a 
whole in 1924 (the standard year), like computations were made for the other British and 
Foreign born maJes and a summary appears in Table E. In Table F are presented similar 
data for females of each nativity group. 

TABLE E— NUMBER OF MALES PER 100.000 MALE POPULATION OF EACH NATIVITY WHO WOULD BE 
CONVICTED OF INDICTABLE OFFENCES ON THE BASIS OF UNIFORM CRIME RATES FOR MALES 
OF ALL NATIVITY GROUPS. 



Age Group 


Canadian 
born 


Other 

British 

born 


Foreign 
born 


16-20 


67-6 
120-2 
41-9 


51-2 

211-9 

74-5 


55-4 


21-39 


236-0 




60-8 








Total 


229-7 


337-6 


352-2 









TABLE F.— NUMBER OF FEMALES PER 100,000 FEMALE POPULATION OF EACH NATIVITY WHO WOULD 
BE CONVICTED OF INDICTABLE OFFENCES ON THE BASIS OF UNIFORM CRIME RATES FOR 
FEMALES OF ALL NATIVITY GROUPS. 



Age Group 


Canadian 
born 


Other 

British 

born 


Foreign 
born 


16-20 : 


6-4 

21-2 

7-8 


5-7 
37-8 
13-3 


7-2 


21-39 


39-6 




9-9 






Total 


35-4 


56-8 


56-7 







The totals in the last two tables give an index of the allowance that must be made 
on the score of age distribution in comparing the different nativity groups in respect to 
criminality, as indicated by convictions for indictable offences. Taking the rates for the 
Canadian born as a basis, a simple calculation shows that the age distribution of the 
" Other British " born males is 47 p.c, and of the foreign born males, 53 p.c. more favour- 
able to crime than that of the Canadian born males; and the age distribution of the 
" Other British " born . and foreign born females 60 p.c. more favourable than that for 
the Canadian born females. 

The next problem is to determine the importance of differences in sex distribution. 
The numbers of males and females shown in Table A constitute the following proportions 
of the population (both sexes) in respective nativity groups. 



Nativity 


Percentage 

of total 

population, 

males 


Percentage 
of total 

population, 
females 




50-4 
53-2 

58-3 


49-6 




46-8 




41 -7 









If rates for Canadian males and females as given in Tables E and F, be weighted by 
the proportions of males and females in the total -Canadian born population, allowance 
would thereby be made for the peculiar sex distribution of that nativity group, and the 
resulting figure would measure the expected number of convictions per 100,000 of the 



202 



RELATION OF ORIGINS AND NATIVITY TO CRIME 



Canadian born population corrected for both age and sex. When a similar procedure is 
followed with the data for the " Other British " and Foreign born the following rates 
are found: — 







Number who would 






be convicted per 
100,000 population 










(both sexes) under 




Nativity 


existing age and sex 
distribution, on the 

assumption of a 

uniform crime rate 

for all nativity 

groups 




133-3 




206-1 




229-0 







The actual rates in the census year 1921 were as follows: 



Nativity 


Actual number 

of convictions 

per 100,000 

population in 1921 




156 




236 




408 







Taking the Canadian rate as a base in each of the above cases and expressing the rates 
for each of the other nativity groups as a proportion of the Canadian rate, we get the 
following results: — 



Nativity 


Number who would 
be convicted per 
100,000 of each 
nativity group 
on the basis of a 
uniform crime for 
all, expressed as 
percentages of the 
rate for the Cana- 
dian born 


Actual rates 

in 1921 

expressed as 

percentages of 

the rate for 

the Canadian 

born 


Ratio 
of actual 

convictions 
to expected 
convictions 




100 
155 
172 


100 
151 
262 


100 




98 











It is apparent from the above percentages that sex and age distribution are adequate 
to account for the entire difference in crime rate between the Canadian and "other 
British " born. In the case of the foreign born, the expected number of convictions per 
100,000 was 72 p.c. greater than that for the Canadian born population; the actual rate 
was some 162 p.c. greater in 1921, leaving an excess of 90 convictions or 52 p.c. to be 
accounted for on grounds other than age and ssx. 

The figure of 90 convictions or 52 p.c. probably understates the difference for two 
reasons. In the first place, for 2,625 or 13.5 p.c. of the convictions birthplace was not given. 
There are reasons to believe that more than a proportionate number of these were of foreign 
birth. If so, had the " not givens " been distributed, the rate for the foreign born would 
have been relatively higher than appears in the table. Further, the analysis has proceeded 
on the assumption that the age distributions of the foreign and Canadian born within the 
broad age group 21-39 were similar. Now Table 6, Volume II, of the Census 1921 shows ' 
that this is not the case. Of the Canadian born males between 20 and 29, the largest 
number were in .the age group 20-24 and the second largest in the group 25-29. Thus 
relatively larger proportions of the Canadian born males were in the twenties. With 
the foreign • born, on the other hand, the largest number's were between 35 and 39 years 
of age and the next largest quinquennial group was 30-34— that is, relatively larger propor- 
tions were in the 30's. The 20^3 are the years most favourable to crime, as is shown above 
by penitentiary data. Thus the age distribution of the foreign born between 20 and 40 
was less favourable to crime than that of the Canadian born in the same broad age group. 

In view of these facts it is obvious that the results minimize the difference between 
criminality among the foreign born and the Canadian born. That such is the case is 
confirmed in the preceding discussion of penitentiary population by age and nativity. The 
foreign born males in penitentiaries' show more than twice the rate for the Canadian 
born age for age. 



CHAPTER XI 
OCCUPATIONAL DISTRIBUTION OF THE POPULATION 

OCCUPATIONS OP THE POPULATION BY SEX AND BIRTHPLACE 

The census tabulates the employed males and females by occupation and nativity, and 
Table 126 shows the numbers and percentages classified as of Canadian, British, United 
States, European and Asiatic birth in certain principal occupations of Canada. Table 127 
shows the percentages of the males separately, and Table 128 those of the females. 

In 1921, there were well over five times as many employed males as females in Canada. 
The number of Canadian born females 'employed in gainful occupations outside the home 
was a little larger than one-fifth the number of men, while the number of United States 
and European born women in business formed a very much smaller proportion of the 
total occupied men employed .in the same nativity groups. The reason for the difference 
is threefold: first, there is a much larger proportion of men in the United States and 
European 'born population in Canada than in the Canadian born; secondly, a larger. percent- 
age of the European born women marry; and thirdly, the largest proportion of our 
agricultural settlers come from Europe and the United States, and a great many of these 
women work at home on the farm, while if the family lived in the city, many would take 
employment outside the home and appear in the census return as employed women. As it 
is, they are not listed as " occupied " in the census. ' 

The number of British born females employed is also small as compared with the 
number of British born males, but while the proportion is smaller than that for the 
Canadian born it is not so small relatively as that of the United States or European 
bom employed women. Inequality of the sexes and a higher marriage rate account for 
the proportion being smaller than in the case of the Canadian born. The percentage of 
British born women married, however, though greater than that of the Canadian born, 
was smaller than the proportion among those of European birth. When one couples with 
this circumstance the fact that British immigration has shown a very small proportion 
settling on the land, it is only to be expected that the ratio of gainfully occupied British 
women, when compared with the male immigrants from Britain, should be greater than 
obtains in the case of the European and United States born. 



203 



TABLE 126. 



-NUMBERS AND PERCENTAGES OF EMPLOYED MALES AND FEMALES OF SPECIFIED NATIVITY GROUPS IN PRINCIPAL OCCUPATIONS 

IN CANADA, 1921. 



Occupations 



CANADA No. 

Agriculture No. 

P.c. 
Logging, Fishing and Trap- 
ping No. 

P.c. 
Mining and Quarrying No. 

P.c. 
Manufactures No. 

P.c. 

(1) Animal Products No. 

P.c. 

(2) Iron and Steel No. 

P.c. 

(3)Textiles .No. 

P.c. 

(4) Vegetable Products. . No. 

P.c. 

(5) Wood and Paper No. 

P.c. 
Construction No. 

P.c. 
Transportation No. 

P.c. 
Trade No. 

P.c. 

(1) Retail Merchants No. 

P.c. 

(2) Salesmen and women. No. 

P.c. 
Finance No. 

P.c. 
Service No. 

P.c. 

(1) Custom Repair No. 

P.c. 

(2) Domestic and PersonalNo 

P.c. 

(3) Professional No. 

P.c. 



Aggregate 



Total 



3,173,169 

1,041,618 
32-82 

69, 107 

218 

51,063 

1-61 

520,275 

16-37 

40,096 

1-26 

110,575 

' 3-48 

96,261 

303 

47,486 

1-50 

128,836 

406 

185,202 

5-84 

247,410 

7-80 

310,439 

9-78 

100,522 

317 

110,266 

3-47 

61,301 

1-93 

547,073 

17-24 

48,782 

1-54 

214,552 

6-76 

181,391 

5-72 



Male 



2,683,019 

1,023,706 
38 16 

69,049 

2-57 

50,860 

1-90 

414,943 

15-47 

32,864 

1-22 

106,648 

3-97 

38,841 

1-45 

35,818 

1-33 

118,853 

4-43 

184,577 

6-88 

226,277 

8-43 

248,548 

9-26 

94,285 

3-51 

74,792 

2-79 

46,180 

1-72 

299,351 

1116 

48,467 

1-81 

80,013 

2-98 

82,064 

3-06 



Female 



490, 153 

17,912 
3-65 

58 

•01 

203 

•04 

105,332 

21-49 

7,232 

1-48 

3,927 

•8C 

57.420 

11-71 

11,668 

,2-38 

9,983 

204 

626 

-13 

21,133 

4-35 

61,891 

12-63 

6,237 

1-27 

35,474 

7-24 

15,121 

3-08 

247,722 

50-54 

315 

•06 

134,539 

27-45 

99,327 

20-26 



Birthplaces 



Canada 



Male - Female 



1,762,485 

720,948 
40-91 

52,566 

2-98 
24,191 

1-37 

255,902 

14-52 

22,043 

1-25 
58,250 

3-30 
21,006 

116 
23,016 

1-31 
84,483 

4-79 
115,731 

6-57 
140,431 

7-97 
163,764 

9-29 
59,762 

3-39 
51,442 

2-92 
32,512 

1-84 
174,498 

9-90 
31,633 

1-79 
34,947 

1-98 
55,366 

314 



361,171 

12,862 
3-56 

51 

•02 

162 

■04 

77,530 

21-47 

■ 5,1 

1-63 

2,872 

. -80 

42,782 

11-85 

8,644 

2-39 

7,178 

1-99 

467 

■13 

15,262 

4-23 

44,961 

12-45 

4,436 

1-23 

25,867 

7- 16 

11,695 

3-23 

183,195 

50-72 

186 

•05 

88,853 

24-60 

83,207 

23 04 



British Isles 



Male Female 



464,764 

111,105 
23-91 

3,126 

■67 

10,807 

2-33 

94,870 

20-41 

6,263 

1-35 

32,655 

7-03 

7,408 

1-59 

8,399 

1-81 

16,804 

3-62 

45,676 

9-83 

50,875 

10-95 

46,326 

9-97 

12,965 

2 

15,438 

3-32 

10,105 

217 

70,859 

15-25 

9,635 

2-07 

16,534 

3-56 

17,012 

3-66 



85,258 



1,862 
2-18 



25 

•03 

19,786 

23-21 

962 

1-13 

826 

■97 

9,832 

11-53 

2,036 

2 "" 

2,218 

2-60 

115 

•13 

4,434 

5-20 

11,729 

13-76 

966 

113 

6,852 

8-04 

2,340 

2-74 

41,455 

48-62 

97 

•11 

30,913 

36-26 

8, 

10-20 



Br. Possessions 



Male Female 



1,725 
9-51 

595 

3-28 

1,593 

8-79 

4,521 

24-94 

284 

1-57 

2,063 

11-38 

187 

103 

225 

1-24 

1,124 

6-20 

2,127 

11-73 

2,155 

11 

1,520 

8-38 

481 

2-65 

450 

2-48 

470 

2-59 

2,544 

14-03 

304 

1-68 

551 

304 

876 

4-83 



3,713 

50 
1-35 

1 

■03 

2 

•05 

628 

16-91 

14 

■38 

27 

•73 

387 

10-42 

55 

1-48 

49 

1-32 

4 

•10 

176 

4-74 

432 

11-63 

61 

1-64 

323 

13-54 

108 

2-91 

2,167 

58-36 

1 

•03 

1,615 

43-50 

490 

13-20 



United States 



Male Female 



146,672 

78, 180 
53-30 

2,858 

1-95 
2,239 

1-53 
15,947 
10-87 
1,062 
•72 
4,313 

2-94 

1,351 

•92 

1,230 

•84 

4,493 

306 
6,449 

4-40 
11,032 

7-52 
10,780 

7-35 
3,! 

2-72 
3,126 

2- 13 
2,042 

1 
13,388 

9-13 
2,745 

1-87 
3,378 

2-30 
4,203 

2-87 



21,663 



1,078 

4 "" 



•04 

3,192 

14-73 

188 

•87 

154 

•71 

1,687 

7-79 

404 

1-86 

285 

1-32 

30 

■14 

1,032 

4-76 

2,572 

11-87 

258 

1-19 

1,409 

6-50 

790 

3-65 

12,072 

55-73 

10 

•05 

6,578 

30-37 

4,874 

22-50 



Europe - 



Male Female 



245,974 

106,771 
43-41 

6,254 

2-54 

10,720 

4-36 

35,593 

14-47 

2,114 

•98 

9,155 

3-72 

8,434 

3-43 

2,577 

1-05 

. 6,203 

2-52 

14,216 

5-78 

20,017 

8-14 

21,841 

8-88 

14,399 

5-85 

3,330 

1-35 

918 

•37 

19,583 

7-96 

3,938 

1-60 

7,043 

2-86 

4,278 

1-74 



17,476 



2,021 
11-56 



5 

•03 

4,070 

23-29 

147 

•84 

46 

•26 

2,662 

15-23 

525 

300 

234 

1-34 

9 

•05 

220 

1-26 

2,026 

11-59 

445 

2-55 

1,048 

6-00 

175 

1-00 

8,345 

47-75 

18 

•10 

6,218 

35-58 

1,948 

1115 



Asia 



Male Female 



43,076 

4,485 
10-41 

3,602 

8-36 

1,257 

2-92 

7,839 

18-20 

791 

1-84 

139 

•32 

425 

•99 

347 

•81 

5,652 

13 12 

206 

•48 

1,620 

3-76 

4,145 

9-62 

2,596 

6-03 

970 

2-25 

98 

•23 

18,085 

41-98 

185 

-43 

17,322 

40-21 

255 

•59 



600 



19 
317 



14-67 

23 

3-83 



46 

7-67 

4 

•67 

10 

1-64 



5 

•83 

143 

23-83 

59 

9-83 

54 

9-00 

7 

1-17 

323 

53-83 

3 

•50 

251 

41-83 

60 

10-00 



Other Countries 



Male Female 



1,918 

492 
25-65 

48 

2-50 

53 

2-76 

271 

14-13 

10 

•52 

73 

3-81 

30 

1-56 

24 

1-25 

84 

4 

172 

8-97 

147 

7 

172 

8-97 

94 

4-90 

36 

1 

35 

1-82 

394 

20-54 

27 

1-41 

238 

12-41 

74 

3-86 



20 
7-43 



38 
14 13 



2 

74 

24 

8-92 



9 
3-36 



4 

1-49 

28 

10-41 

2 

•74 

12 

4-46 

6 

2-23 

165 

61-34 



41-26 

50 

18-59 



o 

*■-, 
O 



to 

>—, 

ca 
CI 

O 
O 



o 

CI 

-9 
o 



NATIVITY OF THE GAINFULLY EMPLOYED POPULATION 



205 



TABLE 127— PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF EMPLOYED MALES IN SPECIFIED OCCUPATIONS, BY 

NATIVITY, 1921. 



Occupations 


Total 

p.c. 

males 


Canada 


British 
Isles 


British 
posses- 
sions 


U.S.A. 


Europe 


Asia 


Other 
countries 


P.c. 
males 


P.c. 
males 


P.c. 
males 


P.c. 
males 


P.c. 

males 


P.c. 
males 


P.c. 

males 




38-16 
2-57 
1-90 

15-47 
1-22 
3-97 
1-45 
1-33 
4-43 
6-88 
8-43 
9-26 
3-51 
2-79 
1-72 

11-16 
1-81 
2-98 
306 


40-91 
2-98 
1-37 

14-52 
1-25 
3-30 
1-19 
1-31 
4-79 
6-57 
7-97 
9-29 
3-39 
2-92 
1-84 
9-90 
1-79 
1-98 
3 14 


23-91 
0-67 
2-33 

20-41 
1-35 
7-03 
1-59 
1-81 
3-62 
9-83 

10-95 
9-97 
2-79 
3-32 
2-17 

15-25 
2-07 
3-56 
3-66 


9-51 
3-28 
8-79 

24-94 
1-57 

11-38 
103 
1-24 
6-20 

11-73 

11-89 
8-38 
2-65 
2-48 
2-59 

14-03 
1-68 
3-04 
4-83 


53-30 
1-95 
1-53 

10-87 
0-72 
2-94 
0-92 
0-84 
3 06 
4-40 
7-52 
7-35 
2-72 
2-13 
1-39 
913 
1-87 
2-30 
2-87 


43-41 
2-54 
4-36 

14-47 
0-98 
3-72 
3-43 
1-05 
2-52 
5-78 
814 
8-88 
5-85 
1-35 
0-37 
7-96 
1-60 
2-86 
1-74 


10-41 
8-36 
2-92 

18-20 
1-84 
0-32 
0-99 
0-81 

1312 
0-48 
3-76 
9-62 
603 
2-25 
0-23 

41-98 
0-43 

40-21 
0-59 


25-65 
2-50 
2-76 

14-13 
0-52 
3-81 
1-56 






















8-97 
7-66 
8-97 
4-90 
1-88 
1-82 

20-54 
1-41 

12-41 
3-86 














Custom and repair 

Domestic and personal 





TABLE 128.- 



-PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF EMPLOYED FEMALES IN SPECIFIED OCCUPATIONS 
BY NATIVITY, 1921. 



Occupations 


Total 

p.c. 

females 


Canada 


British 
■ Isles 


British 
Posses- 
sions 


U.S.A. 


Europe 


Asia 


Other 
Countries 




P.c. 
fomales 


P.c. 

females 


P.c. 
females 


P.c. 
females 


P.c. 

females 


P.c. 
females 


P.c. 
females 




3-65 
001 
0-04 

21-49 
1-48 
0-80 

11-71 
2-38 
2-04 
0-13 
4-35 

12-63 
1-27 
7-24 
3-08 

50-54 
0-06 

27-45 

20-26 


3-56 
0-02 
004 

21-47 
1-63 
0-80 

11-85 
2-39 
1-99 
013 
4-23 

12-45 
1-23 
7-16 
3-24 

50-72 
005 

24-60 

23-04 


2-18 

0-03 

23-21 

113 

0-97 

11-53 

2-39 

2-60 

013 

5-20 

13-76 

1-13 

8-04 

2-74 

48-62 

011 

36-26 

10-20 


1-35 
0-03 
0-05 

16-91 
0-38 
0-73 

10-42 
1-48 
1-32 
0-10 
4-74 

11-63 
1-64 

13-54 
2-91 

58-36 
0-03 

43-50 

13-20 


4-98 

0-04 

14-73 

0-87 

0-71 

7-79 

1-86 

1-32 

0-14 

4-76 

11-87 

1-19 

6-50 

3-65 

55-73 

0-05 

30-37 

22-50 


11-56 

0-03 

23-29 

0-84 

0-26 

15-23 

3-00 

1-34 

■ 0-05 

1-26 

11-59 

2-55 

6-00 

100 

47-75 

0-10 

35-58 

11-15 


3-17 
0-33 

14-67 
3-83 

7-67 
0-67 
1-64 

0-83 

23-83 

9-83 

9-00 

117 

53-83 

0-50 

41-83 

10-00 


7-43 










14-13 










8-92 






3-36 








Trade - 


10-41 
0-74 








2-23 
61-34 












18-59 





Table 129 (p. 209) shows the percentage distribution of the population of Canada 15 
years of age and over, and of persons gainfully occupied by sex and broad nativity groups — 
Canadian born, British born and foreign born. Unfortunately the age distribution is not 
available for the United States, Asiatic and European born separately. Table 130 gives the 
number and proportions of each nativity group employed, by sex. The percentages are in 
terms of population 15 years of age and over. This age was chosen in spite of the fact 
that the figures for the employed include all 10 years of age and over. Since the number 
from 10 to 14 years of age employed constitutes less than one p.c. of the total employed, 
the error involved is very small. Moreover, this procedure has a decided advantage. It is 
recalled that the proportions of children among the Canadian born differs radically from 
that among the British born and foreign born, and the inclusion of the 10-14 year group 
in the denominator would produce an exaggerated picture of the differences. An examina- 
tion of these two tables reveals some interesting facts regarding the employment of the 



206 OCCUPATIONAL DISTRIBUTION OF THE POPULATION 



British born and foreign born in general. While the British born males constituted 17.4 p.c. 
of the male population fifteen years of age and over, British bora employed males formed 
18 p.c. of the gainfully occupied male population in Canada; and while the foreign born 
males formed only 15.6 p.c. of the male population fifteen years of age and over, employed 
males of foreign birth represented 16.3 p.c. of the total occupied male population of the 
country. Thus both the British and foreign born males constituted larger proportions of the 
working population than would be expected from their numerical strength. The conclusion 
is that the British born and foreign born males are more generally employed than are the 
Canadian bom, as is shown clearly in Table 130. While the number of males of Canadian 
birth engaged in gainful occupations represent only 87.5 p.c. of the total Canadian bom 
males 15 years of age and over, the proportions of the British bom and foreign born were 
92.3 and 93.3 p.c, respectively. Such high rates of employment are not unexpected, how- 
ever, because of the unique age distribution of the new immigrants. Both the British born 
and foreign born are abnormally concentrated between 20 and 40 years of age — the econ- 
omically productive years. 

The women of British birth take remunerative work somewhat more generally than the 
Canadian born, but the foreign born women do so to a much smaller extent. The proportion 
of Canadian born women gainfully employed was 18.2 p.c. as compared with the higher 
figure of 19.5 p.c. for the British bom and the lower figure of 12.4 p.c. for the foreign bom. 
Thus, while the British and foreign born males and the British born females are engaged 
in the country's industries to a relatively greater extent than the Canadian born, the foreign 
born females find employment outside the home to a much less marked degree. Were data 
available for the daughters of the immigrant women the experience of the United States 
warrants the opinion that a very different situation would be revealed. Of all groups of 
women the daughters of foreign born parents show the largest percentage employed in the 
United States. 

Proportions Employed in Specified Occupations. — Turning now to a detailed examina- 
tion of Table 127, attention is first directed to the occupational distribution of the male 
population. Approximately 41 p.c. of the Canadian born employed males were engaged 
in agriculture; 14.5 p.c. in manufactures; 10 p.c. in services of various kinds, and 9, 8 and 
7 p.c. in trade, transportation and construction respectively. Those six groups of industries 
■,hus accounted for about 90 p.c. of the male working population of Canadian birth in 
Canada. A comparison of the distribution of the immigrants among the Canadian industries 
with that of the Canadian born males is suggestive. The males from the British Isles show 
24 p.c. employed in agriculture, compared with 41 p.c. for the Canadian born males. That 
this should be so was anticipated in the section on rural and ufban distribution of immigrant 
population. The British born showed a relatively high percentage living in urban districts. 
While the males from the British Isles had a much smaller percentage in agriculture than 
the Canadian born males, they showed about half again as large a proportion in all manu- 
facturing industries and over twice as large a proportion in the iron and steel industry 
The construction, transportation and service groups also claimed much larger proportions oi 
the British immigrants, and this is also the case with mining and quarrying. 

Immigrants from the British possessions show the least inclination to go into agriculture. 
Of males from .portions of the British Empire other than the British Isles, less than 10 p.c. 
were found on farms in 1921, that is, only one-fourth as large .a proportion as for the 
Canadian toorn males. The main occupations attracting immigrants from the British posses- 
sions are the manufacturing. Almost 25 p.c. of the males were employed in one or other 
of such industries, and the percentage in the iron and steel industry was notably high. 
Indeed the proportion of males from the British possessions employed in that industry was 
higher than that of any other immigrant group, and three times as large as that for the 
Canadian born. Abnormally high proportions are also employed in mining and quarrying, 
and as in the case of those from the British Isles, disproportionate numbers are engaged in 
construction, transportation and the various services. 

Thus, speaking generally, the immigrant males of British birth avoid agriculture, but 
concentrate in mining, manufacturing, building and transportation to a much greater extent 
than do the Canadian born. Particularly do they concentrate in the iron and steel industry. 



NATIVITY OF GAINFULLY EMPLOYED IN LEADING OCCUPATIONS 207 

Unlike the British born immigrants, a large percentage of those from the United States 
was found in agriculture. Over 50 p.c' of employed males of United States birth were on 
the farms in Canada in 192!l — a proportion 20 p.c. greater than that of the Canadian born 
male population and over twice that for the British born. The French, Germanic and Scan- 
dinavian immigrants from the United States are almost exclusively agricultural people, and 
probably a larger proportion of the British born in the United States are agriculturists 
than of those coming directly from the British possessions or the British Isles. Immigrants 
. from no other nativity group showed such a large percentage employed in agriculture as 
is shown by the United States born male immigrants in Canada. All other industries, 
except mining, quarrying and domestic and personal service, claimed a smaller proportion 
of the United States born immigrants than of the Canadian born. 

The European born males as a group are also largely engaged in agriculture, although 
not to such a marked degree as the United States born. That statement does not apply- 
to the immigrants from all European countries; it applies merely to the total, and if 
reference be made to the rural and urban distribution of Europeans in Canada in Chapter V 
■ it will be seen that there are many specific European nationalities for whom the reverse is 
true. The Hebrews and Poles, for example, from South, Eastern and Central Europe are 
exceptionally urban people. The Italians and Greeks are also among the most urban 
settlers. What is true of Europeans in general, however, is true of the Austrians and 
Russians and Ukrainians, who are largely rural, as are also the Scandinavian and Germanic 
people. It is unfortunate that the work involved in classifying the European group by 
occupation and specific countries of birth is so great, for such a table would be especially 
enlightening. However, by comparing the tables on occupational distribution for Europeans 
as a whole with those showing rural and urban distribution for specific peoples in Chapter V, 
a general idea of occupational distribution may be obtained for a number of the individual 
immigrant peoples from various parts of Europe. It is pointed out in passing that a large 
proportion of the European born, as compared with the Canadian born males, was employed 
in the mining industries of the country. 

The Asiatic males, like those from the British Possessions, were not engaged in agri- 
cultural employments to a very marked extent in 1921. The logging and fishing and trapping 
occupational groups claimed a disproportionate share of such immigrants, as did the wood 
and paper manufacturing industries and especially the domestic and personal services. The 
occupational distribution of the Asiatics is unique in this respect. A comparatively few 
industries claim the great majority of Oriental male immigrants. These immigrants showed 
as large a proportion in domestic and personal services as the Canadian born had in 
agriculture, and only a slightly smaller proportion in wood and paper manufacturing than 
the Canadian bom had in all manufacturing industries. A careful study of Table 127 
will be abundantly repaid. 

The material is presented by industries in graphic form in Chart 33. It is seen 
that the United States immigrants are by far the most agricultural of all incoming peoples, 
and that the Continental Europeans as a group stand second. The proportion in agriculture 
for both of these immigrant groups ds greater than that of the Canadian born males. 
The least agricultural are the Asiatics and those from the British Possessions. Immigrants 
from the British Isles, though showing a larger proportion of males following agricultural 
pursuits than either, the Asiatics or those from the British. Possessions, rank far behind the 
Canadian born males in this respect and very much farther behind the other European 
and United States born settlers. The chart also shows the different proportions of the 
males of specified nativity in all extractive industries combined. What is said of agriculture 
applies to the extractive industries as a whole. 

In the iron and steel manufacturing and the construction and transportation group* 
immigrants from the British Isles and British Possessions lead. The European born show 
about as large a proportion as the Canadian bom, and those from the United States con- 
siderably lower. The proportion of Asiatics in all three industries, with the exception of 
transportation, is negligible. The case of transportation is explained largely by the use 
of Chinese labour for maintenance work in the mountains. The section of the chart dealing 
wUh the groups of industries under the heading "Trade" is unique in that the variation 



20S 



OCCUPATIONAL DISTRIBUTION OF THE POPULATION 



Chart XXXIII 



PERCENTAGE of EMPLOYED MALES m SPECIFIED INDUSTRIES 
by NATIVITY GROUPS. n CANADA, 1921. 



Canadian Born 
British Isles 

Possessions 

United States 

Europe 
Asia 



Canadian Born 

British Isles 

" Possessions 

United States 

Europe 

Asia 



Canadian Born 
British Isles 

» Possessions 
United States 
Europe 
Asia 



Canadian Born 
British Isles 

* Possessions 
United States 
Europe 
Asia 



agriculture all extractive industries 

%0 10 20 30 40 50 10 20 30 40 50 60 % 




MANUFACTURING 



IRON! STEEL 




CONSTRUCTION 



TRADE 



r 



TRANSPORTATION 



SERVICES 




NATIVITY OF GAINFULLY EMPLOYED IN LEADING OCCUPATIONS 209 



in proportions of males employed for the respective nativity groups is very slight. A com- 
paratively few European nationalities raise the percentage of the Europeans to a figure 
almost as large as that for the Canadian born. 

In the service group the Asiatics lead through having such a large proportion of their 
employed males engaged in personal and domestic services. The numbers in custom, repair 
and professional work are negligible. The relatively high percentages for those from the 
British Isles and British Possessions appearing in the service classification are due mainly 
to the domestic and; personal service and the professional service branches. With the excep- 
tion of the male immigrants from the British Isles and the British Possessions, the proportion 
of Canadian born males in professional work is greater than for. all other groups. ... 

The British Possessions sent a larger proportion of their men to our manufacturing 
industries than any other nativity group, the British Isles- and Asia- ranking • second and 
third 'respectively: ' Male" immigration" from" the" United" States "shows'th'e" lowest""percentage" 
in the manufacturing industries, as is to be expected from the predominantly agricultural 
nature of immigration from that country. The proportion of European born males in 
manufacturing occupations is about equal to the proportion of the Canadian born. A 
detailed analysis by provinces would be very useful and it is hoped that such may be 
prepared at a later date. 

A few words remain to be said regarding the distribution of the employed femalea as 
shown in Table 128, p. 205. As has been pointed out, the proportion of females 1 among 
the immigrants is comparatively small as compared with the native Canadian population, 
and that fact should be kept in mind in comparing the percentages for the various nativity 
groups. Over 50 p.c. of all gainfully occupied women of Canadian birth appear in the 
. services group, practical^' all of whom were either in domestic or professional services. Of 
their employed women, the British Possessions show the largest percentage in all services, 
and the United States stand second, with Asia following a close third. Further, a larger 
proportion of women from the British Possessions are in domestic service than of women 
from any other group. Asia, the British Isles and Europe follow in order. The United 
States, with the lowest proportion of all immigrant groups, showed 30.37 p.c. of their gain- 
fully occupied women in domestic occupations, which was a proportion larger by a quarter 
than obtained for the Canadian born. The Canadian born, on the other hand, led in the 
proportion of women in professional work, and the United States born ranked second. All 
others showed much smaller proportions. 

While service is the most important occupational group for women irrespective of 
nativity, manufacturing ranked second in importance for the women in every case. The 
textiles claimed a larger proportion of women than all other manufacturing industries com- 
bined. Trade generally ranks third in importance as an occupation for women. The 
Asiatics are an exception, however, with the percentage engaged in trade somewhat larger 
than in the manufacturing industries. The numbers of Asiatic women gainfully occupied 
are so small that the exception is not significant. 

Generally speaking, the bulk of immigrant women are in the service group, especially 

in domestic service, and considerable proportions are in manufacturing, notably in the 

textile industries. Of the remainder the largest proportion is engaged in trade. As is to 

be expected, the percentage in the extractive industries and in heavy manufacturing work 

is small. 

TABLE 129— PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF POPULATION OF CANADA 15 YEARS AND OVER, AND 
OF PERSONS ENGAGED IN GAINFUL OCCUPATIONS, BY SEX AND NATIVITY, 1921. 





Male 


Female 


Birthplace 


Population 

15 years 

of age 

and over 


Population 
engaged 
in gainful 

occupations 


Population 

15 years 

of age 

and over 


Population 
engaged 
in gainful 

occupations 


Total 


100-0 
67-0 
17-4 
15-6 


100-0 
65-7 
18-0 
16-3 


100-0 
71-8 
16-5 
11-7 


100-0 

73-7 
18-2 
8-2 










74422—14 











210 



OCCUPATIONAL DISTRIBUTION OF THE POPULATION 



TABLE 130.— NUMBER OF PERSONS ENGAGED IN GAINFUL OCCUPATIONS, EXPRESSED AS PER- 
CENTAGES OF THE TOTAL POPULATION 15 YEARS OF AGE AND OVER, BY NATIVITY AND SEX, 
FOR CANADA, 1921. 





Males 


Females 


Birthplace 


Population 

15 years 

of age 

and over 


Number 

engaged 

in gainful 

occupations 


Gainfully 
employed as 
percentage 

of 
population 
15 and over 


Population 
15 years 

of age 
and over 


Number 

engaged 

in gainful 

occupations 


Gainfully 
employed as 
percentage 

of 
population 
15 and over 




3,006,476 

2,014,473 

523,193 

468,810 


2,683,019 

1,762,485 

482,894 

437,640 


89-2 
87-5 
92-3 
93-3 


2,762,447 

1,984,172 

455,626 

322,649 


490,150 

361,171 

88,991 

40,008 


17-7 




18-2 




19-5 




12-4 







CHAPTER XII 

RELATION OF ORIGINS TO FERTILITY, INFANT MORTALITY, 
BLINDNESS AND DEAF MUTISM 



FERTILITY OF THE PEOPLES OP CANADA 

Natural increase is a subject of first importance in any study of population. This is 
especially true in Canada, where the population is composed of many diverse elements. 
Immigration brings new stocks into the country. These stocks reproduce. At first the 
yearly influx of immigrants may keep pace with or exceed the additions by natural increase. 
It is only a matter of time, however, before the annual number of births becomes greater 
than the annual increase due to immigration. If imtmigrant stocks reproduce more rapidly 
than the basic stocks of the country, they must eventually outnumber them. How soon 
that condition will come about depends on (i) the number of immigrants in the first 
instance, (2) the numbers immigrating each year, and (3) the difference in the fertility 
rates. It is immaterial whether the general level of the rates of reproduction be high or 
low. So long as differences in the rates exist, the population structure changes. Such 
changes are much more rapid than is commonly supposed. 

The 1921 census furnished data from which important inferences may be drawn in 
respect to the rates of natural increase. The 1926 census makes possible a more definite 
comparison of birth rates. Statistics of 1921 will be examined first, and then those of 1926. 

Proportions oj Children in the Several Origin Groups. — Table 131 shows the percentage 
of each stock in Canada below 10 years of age as on June 1, 1921. Approximately one 
quarter of the total population of Canada was under 10 years of age on that date. The 
existence of such variation as appears in the table is remarkable. The seven origin groups 
with the highest and the seven with the lowest percentages are as follows: 



The Upper Group 


The Lower Group 


Origin 


Percentage 

under 

10 years 

of age 


Grigin 


Percentage 

under 

10 years 

of age 




36-60 
35-31 

35-31 
34-64 
33-70 
33-67 
32-91 




518 
14-27 
20-70 
20-00 
21-61 
21-96 
22-33 














Polish 










Welsh. . 







It is significant that all the stocks in the group showing the highest percentages under 
10 years of age are from Eastern and Central Europe. Included among them are the four 
principal Slavic peoples in Canada. On the other hand, among the seven origin groups 
showing the lowest percentages are found all four British stocks and the Negroes. 

What is the meaning of a high or low percentage under 10 years of age? The following 
factors would seem to be among the chief influences determining the size of the figures: 
first, birth rate; second, • infant mortality rate; third, extent, date, age and sex distribution 
of immigration; fourth, emigration; fifth, death rate. A high birth rate makes for a high 
percentage of children in the population; a high infant mortality rate works in the opposite 
direction. If immigration has been great compared with the numbers of a given stock 
already in Canada, and if it has been heavy in very recent years, one would expect a 
smaller percentage of children, because an immigrant population normally shows a higher 
proportion at adult ages. On the other hand, if immigration is of comparatively large 

211 

74422— 14J 



212 RELATION OF ORIGIN TO FERTILITY AND INFANT MORTALITY 



proportions in the earlier years and then ceases for a period, the young adults marry and 
the number of children increases very rapidly. Again, inequality of sex distribution tends 
to lower the percentage under 10 years of age. In a population where large numbers of 
men in a given stock are unmarried, the number of births would normally constitute a smaller 
proportion of the total .population. And finally, emigration would affect the proportions. 
Unattached adults emigrate more readily than those with families. With these points in 
mind, let us refer back to the two origin groups— the one group with the seven highest 
percentages and the other with the seven lowest. 

As to date of immigration, in no case has the proportion of an immigrant stock arriving 
during the last seven years of the decade. been significant. So, in all cases, the bulk of the 
children iinder 10 years of age must be Canadian born. .As .to. emigration, in all probability 
the British stocks in Canada were affected by that to at least as great an extent as were 
non-British and non-French stocks during the years prior to 1921. Such factors, then, were 
not of major importance in occasioning the wide range of percentages under 10 years 
of age in the various stocks in Canada in 1921. 

The relation between the volume of immigrants prior to the war and the numbers 
of a given stock resident in Canada is of greater significance. With the foreign stocks, 
the inflowing stream of immigration constituted a much greater proportion of the total origin 
group in Canada than with the British and French stocks. The effect of this difference was 
to produce an age distribution abnormally favourable to high fertility. With larger propor- 
tions in the early adult and middle years of life in 1914, it is natural to expect larger 
numbers of children born during the subsequent years of the decade to the foreign born 
parents of other than British and French stocks. How far this influence explains the high 
percentage under 10 years cannot be measured with the available data for 1921. 

As against the favourable age distribution of the foreign stocks there are several 
important influences especially unfavourable to natural increase. First, all the Eastern and 
Central European stocks mentioned above show much larger percentages of surplus males 
than the British stocks. Second, their infant mortality rates are much higher. Both 
these factors make for low percentages under 10 years of age. 

We have, therefore, unfavourable sex distribution and high infant mortality rates tending 
to neutralize favourable age distribution. In view of this compensating action, it would 
appear that the high percentages under 10 years of age in the several stocks in the first 
group are largely caused - by abnormally high birth rates. In any case, it is significant 
that the combined effect of high birth rates and favourable age distribution has been 
so great that, in spite of high infant 'mortality and unfavourable sex distribution, these 
. stocks show proportions under 10 years of age two-thirds larger than the British stocks. 

The relative importance of fertility and age distribution of women between 15 and 49 
years will be discussed below in reviewing the 1926 figures for the Prairie Provinces,' but 
before passing to that part of the analysis a few additional points may be mentioned in' 
connection with Table 131. The Italians, with an infant mortality rate somewhat larger 
than that of the British stocks and with over twice as many adult males as females in 
Canada, show 32.03 p.c. of their population under 10 years of age as against 21 p.c. for 
the British. The Greeks, with between three and four times more males than females (21 
years and over) and with an equally high infant mortality rate, had a percentage under 
10 years one quarter larger than that for the British stocks. In the Japanese stock, with 
two and a half times as many men as women, 24.03 p.c. of the total were below 10 years 
of age. The proportions under 10 for the Scandinavian and Germanic peoples, on the other 
hand, were only, slightly above that for the British stocks. 



PERCENTAGES OF EACH ORIGIN UNDER 10 YEARS OF AGE 213 



TABLE 131.— PERCENTAGE'OF EACH ORIGIN UNDER 10 YEARS OF AGE, 1921. 



Rank 

• 


Origin 


Per cent 
under 
lOyrs. 


1 ' 




36-60 
35-31 
35-31 
34-64 


2 




3 




4 




5 


Polish 


6 




33-67 
32-91 


7 




8 




9 




32-03 
28-17 
27-83 
27-79 
27-40 
26-88 
' 26-83 
26-54 
25-98 
25-26 
24-90 
24-79 
24-03 
23-82 
23-55 
22-60 
22-48 


10 




11 




12 




13 




14 




15 




16 • 




17 




18 




19 




20 


Dutch 


21 




22 




23 




24 




25 




26 


Welsh 


27 






28 






29 






30 






31 






32 ' 






33 






34 













Table 132 shows that the North Western Continental group had a proportion under 10 
years of age 18 p.c. greater than that for the British stocks, while the proportion of South, 
Eastern and Central Europeans was 60 p.c. larger. The percentages for the Scandinavian 
and Germanic peoples exceeded that for the British by less than 20 p.c. Those for the 
Latin and Greek and Slavic groups were larger by 53 p.c. and 62 p.c. respectively. The 
percentage for the North Western Europeans stands midway between those for the 
British and French. The South, Eastern and Central Europeans are obviously quite in a 
class by themselves, with a proportion under 10 years one-fifth larger than the French and 
three-fifths larger than the British. 

Such facts are exceedingly important to the future population structure of Canada, 
as well as to its social and political well-being. The stocks mentioned as having the highest 
percentages under 10 years of age are among the most illiterate in the Dominion. They 
are backward in learning the languages of the country and in echoo' attendance. They 
segregate into colonies, and do not intermarry with the basic Canadian stocks. With one 
or two exceptions, they contribute more than proportionate numbers to our prisons and 
reformatories. Such considerations claim special attention because of the tendency in recent 
years for the South, Eastern and Central European immigrants greatly to outnumber those 
from the North Western parts of the continent. So long as differential fertility rates persist 
and immigration does its part in keeping the age distribution favourable to fertility, the 
relative contributions of such stocks to future generations will continue to be somewhat 
as depicted in Tables 131 and 132. The subsequent analysis leads one to believe that 
differing fertility is perhaps the most important cause of the variation in the percentages. 



214 RELATION OF ORIGIN TO FERTILITY AND INFANT MORTALITY 



TABLE 132 -PERCENTAGE UNDER 10 YEARS OF AGE OF SPECIFIED ORIGIN GROUPS IN CANADA, 

1921. 



Origin 



British 

French 

North Western Europeans (Continental). 

South, Eastern and Central European 

Scandinavian 

Germanic 

Latin and Greek 

Slavic 




(2) 
Percentages 
in Column 1 
related to 
that for the 
British stocks 
as a base 



100 
132 
118 
160 
119 
118 
153 
162 



Birth Rates in the Prairie Provinces, 1926.— The cogency of the above remarks 
is apparent when an examination is made of births in the Prairie Provinces in 
1926. Table 133 was prepared! from data given in the Census of 1926 and statistics 
on births' for that year. A few explanations may not be out of place. A standard 
birth rate was computed in the following manner: the number o'f births in the 
Prairie Provinces to mothers in the several quinquennial age groups was related to the 
number of women in the population of corresponding ages. A standard rate was thus 
found for the whole female population between 15 and 49 years. This was applied to the 
age distribution of the women of the several origins, and an expected rate was computed 
for each stock. This expected rate appears in Column 1, Table 133. The difference between 
the figure of 10.6 for the French and that of 10.3 for the total population is due entirely 
to the more favourable age distribution of the women of French origin. The percentages 
for the other stocks are subject to a similar interpretation. In Column 3 the expected rates 
are expressed as percentages of the standard rate. The age distribution of the French 
women between 15 and 49 years was 2.9 p.c. more favourable to fertility than that of. 
the total female population between those ages, that of the Danish women 5.8 p:c. more 
favourable, that of the Icelandic women 7.8 p.c, and so on. Column 4 expresses the 
actual rates as percentages of the standard rate, and in Column 5 we have an index of 
fertility 1 obtained by expressing the actual rates given, in Column 2 as percentages of the 
exipected rates of Column 1. By expressing the actual dm terms of the expected, the influence 
of age distribution is eliminated. In Column 6 the. index of fertility shown in Column 5 
is expressed as a percentage of the rate for. the British stocks. 

A comparison of Column 2 and Column 4 confirms the suggestion made in a preceding 
part of this chapter, that differences in age distribution are by no means adequate to 
explain variations in the crude birth rates. Only with the Greeks is the age distribution 
of the women between 15 and 49 years responsible for a variation of as much as 10 p.c. 
from the standard number of births, and' the number of Greek women in the Prairie 
Provinces was so small that the exception is unimportant. For all but three origins 
variations in fertility are many times more important than differences in birth rate due 
to age distribution. The index of fertility in Column 5 being free from the influence of 
age, the dispersion in the percentages furnishes conclusive evidence of significant differences 
in the birth rates for the women of the different origin groups in Canada, 

High fertility may be due in part to larger proportions married— especially in the 
younger ages. (It was shown in Chapter HI that foreign born women had a larger 
percentage married and hence might be expected to have proportionately more children 
than the British born and Canadian born). On the other hand, a high birth rate may be a 
true social or biological characteristic. 

iThis index of fertility is in terms of all women of the several origin groups. While the age factor is 
removed, differences in conjugal condition are reflected in the index. This fact should be kept in mind in 
reading this section. 



CORRELATION BETWEEN FERTILITY, RURAL RESIDENCE, ILLITERACY 215 



The reader is left to make a detailed examination of Table 138 for himself and 
especially of Column 6. A word of caution, however, is necessary. Large numbers reported 
in the census as of Russian and Dutch origin spoke German as the mother tongue, and 
there- is reason to suppose that many of these were recorded as of German origin on the 
birth certificates of their children. Only on such a supposition can the excessively high 
figure for the Germans be reconciled with the moderate figure for the Russians and the 
very low percentage for the Dutch. Similar discrepancies probably account for the behaviour 
of the data for the Roumanians and Serbo-Croatians. 

TABLE 133.— BIRTH RATES PER 100 WOMEN, 15-49 YEARS, OF SPECIFIED ORIGINS, IN THE PRAIRIE 

PROVINCES, 1926. 



Origin 



Total 

British 

French 

Austrian 

Belgian 

Czechoslovaks 

Danish 

Dutch 

Finnish 

German 

Greek 

Hebrew 

Hungarian 

Icelandic 

Italian 

Norwegian 

Polish 

Roumanian. . . . 

Russian 

Serbo-Croatian 
Swedish.. .._... 

Swiss '. .. 

Ukrainian 



(1) 


(2) 


(3) 


(4) 


(5) 
Index of 






Expected 


Actual 


fertility 1 


Expected 


Actual 


aa 


as 


standard 


rate 


rate 


percentage 


percentage 


= 100 






of standard 


of standard 


(Col. 2 - 
Col. 1) 


10-3 


10-3 


100-0 


100-0 


100 


10-3 


8-4 


100-0 


81-8 


82 


10-6 


131 


102-9 


127-3 


124 


10-6 


14-6 


102-9 


141-8 


138 


10-3 


8-3 


100-0 


80-6 


81 


10-3 


12-3 


100-0 


119-4 


119 


10-9 


10-0 


105-8 


97-1 


92 


10-5 


7-9 


101-9 


76-7 


75 


9-3 


10-5 


90-3 


101-0 


113 


10-3 


17-0 


100-0 


165-0 


165 


13-2 


12-9 


128-2 


125-2 


98 


10-2 


7-0 


99-0 


68-0 


69 


10-3 


12-2 


100-0 


118-4 


118 


11-1 


9-0 


107-8 


87-4 


81 


10-9 


11-3 


105-8 


109-7 


104 


10-4 


11-2 


1010 


108-7 


108 


10-3 


11-6 


1000 


112-6 


113 


10-6 


17-2 


102-9 


167-0 


162 


10-4 


10-2 


101-0 


99-0 


98 


10-3 


18-5 


100-0 


179-6 


180 


10-3 


9-8 


1000 


95-1 


95 


10-4 


9-8 


101-0 


95-1 


94 


10-1 


15-0 


98-1 


145-6 


149 



(6) 
Index of 
fertility, 1 
_ taking 
index for 
British 
as 100 



122 

100 
151 
168 

99 
145 
112 

91 
138 
201 
120 

84 
144 

99 
127 
132 
138' 
198 
120 
220 
116 
115 
182 



1 In terms of all females, 15-49. 

Correlation Between Fertility, Rural Domicile, Illiteracy and Length of Residence in 
Canada.— Further light is thrown on the subject by the method of multiple correlation. 
Table 134 assembles the following data on the Prairie Provinces for the year 1926: (1) .index 
of fertility from Table 133 for each origin (women IS to 49) ; (2) the proportion of women 
(21 years and over) rural; (3) the percentage of women (10 years and over) illiterate; 
and (4) the percentage of both sexes (21 years and over) North American born. The latter 
is used as an index of length of residence. The figure 124 opposite- the French in Column 1 
means that higher fertility and more favourable conjugal condition caused the birth rate 
among women of French origin to be 24 p.c. greater than the rate for the whole popida- 
tion. Favourable age distribution is eliminated. Similarly, the figure of 82 for the British 
stocks signifies that the fertility of the women of these stocks was 18 p.c. below that of the 
population as a whole, quite apart from considerations of age. The figures for the Rus- 
sians, Germans and Dutch were combined for reasons mentioned above. .Complete data 
were not available for the Serbo-Croatians, so that that stock had to be omitted. 

A multiple correlation was taken in a manner similar to . that described in Chapter VI, 
with the fertility index as the dependent variable. The exceptionally high coefficient of 
+ -88± -05 was the result. The prediction equation was as follows: X]=0-66X2 
+2.86X3+0.37X4+34.80, where 

Xi=the index of fertility 

X2= Percentage of women (21 and oyer) rural. 

Xs^Percentage of women (10 and over) illiterate. 

Xj= Percentage of both sexes (21 and over) North American born. 
The predicted and actual values appear in Chart 34. 



216 RELATION OF ORIGIN TO FERTILITY AND INFANT MORTALITY 

The above equation is a generalized statement based on the experience of eighteen 
origin groups in Canada and contains information of general scientific interest as well as 
of special consequence to the Dominion. 

First, stocks showing a preference for rural life normally have higher birth rates 
than the more urban. Rural residence per se is probably more favourable to fertility.. The 
existence of such a causal connection could be demonstrated by comparing the birth rates 
of the rural and urban sections of each stock. It is of minor importance, however, from 
the point of view of this study, whether high fertility is 'the result of rural . environment 
or of biological and social characteristics associated with rural preferences. The essential 
fact is that rural peoples have high fertility. 

Second, illiteracy and high fertility go together. The larger the percentages of an origin 
group unable to read or write any language,' the higher is the birth rate. In the 
report on illiteracy to which reference was made in Chapter IX, it is shown that high 
illiteracy and low educational status among the literate of the same origin go hand in hand. 
The percentage of illiterates, then, reflects in a very adequate manner the educational 
standard of the group. In view of this fact; the high positive correlation between fertility 
and illiteracy is exceedingly significant. 

Third, the positive relation appearing between birth rate and the percentage North 
American born suggests that the birth rate of immigrant peoples normally goes up rather 
than down in the second and in some cases possibly in the third generation of Canadian 
residence. The word " normally '' is intended to imply that the statement is applicable to 
most immigrant stocks. The generalization is applied explicitly to immigrant' stocks, 
because sixteen out of the eighteen groups examined were of foreign origin. The pre- 
sumed tendency towards higher birth rates is associated with the second generation because 
the percentage of most non-British and non-French stocks resident in Western Canada for 
three or more generations is very small. The presumption in favour of this interpretation 
is strengthened by the fact that when the analysis is pursued further by the method of 
partial and multiple correlation it becomes clear that the use of the' proportion North 
American born (21 and over) as an index of length of residence is not vitiated by a 
transient abnormality in sex distribution. 

An impetus- to the birth rate following immigration to a new country is not without 
historical precedent. It is reasonable to suppose that Canada is more favourable to large 
families than are the countries of Europe from which many of our immigrants come. The 
pressure of population on natural resources is certainly not so great; indeed, in rural dis- 
tricts the child is an asset. This is especially so in a growing country where agricultural 
labour is both scarce and expensive. A stimulus to the birth rate would also occur wherever 
the rise in the standard of living failed to keep pace with increased' earnings. Many other 
contributory causes could be suggested, but whatever the explanation or explanations may 
be, the correlation at least draws attention to the cumulative effect on our population 
structure of the introduction of large bodies of immigrant agriculturists. 

While the association of higher birth rates with larger proportions North American 
born (after allowances are made for illiteracy and rural' and urban residence), seems to 
warrant the aforesaid influences, one should not overlook the possibility of the percentage 
of adults of North American birth reflecting more than length of residence. The explana- 
tions in the last two paragraphs, therefore, should be regarded as tentative until such time 
as more detailed classification of both vital statistics and census data makes direct verifica- 
tion possible. ' 

When the standard deviations of X2, X3 and X4 are related to the regression equation,, 
another important fact is revealed. Illiteracy is more than twice as important in the 
equation in accounting for a high fertility as either rural domicile or length of residence 
in Canada. Illiteracy and low educational standards probably cause high fertility. That 
the causal connection works in that direction is not proven by our data. It has been 
demonstrated, however, that origin groups that tolerate low educational standards have high 
birth rates and that the two are clearly associated characteristics peculiar to certain stocks 
in Canada. 1 



1 See also Illiteracy and School Attendance in Canada, page 129. 



CORRELATION BETWEEN FERTILITY, RURAL RESIDENCE, ILLITERACY 217 



This striking correlation recalls the close relationship established in earlier chapters 

between illiteracy, intermarriage, school attendance, learning of the languages of Canada, 

and crime. Now, fertility may be added; and when viewed in the light of the previous 
correlations, it is undoubtedly the most significant of all. 

TABLE 134— INDEX OF FERTILITY, PERCENTAGE OF FEMALES (1) RURAL, (2) ILLITERATE AND 
. (3) PROPORTION OF POPULATION NORTH AMERICAN BORN, FOR SPECIFIED ORIGINS IN THE 
PRAIRIE PROVINCES, 1926. 



Origin 


Index of 
fertility 


P.c. of 

females 

21 years 

and over, 

rural 


P.c. of 
females 
10 years 
and over, 
illiterate 


P.c. of 

both sexes 
North Am- 
erican born 




82 
124 
138 

81 
119 

92 
131 
113 

69 
118 

81 
•101 
108 
113 
162 

95 

94 
149 


47 
64 
70 
70 
65 
66 
72 
83 
7 
77 
55 
41 
77 
63 
68 
73 
63 
77 


•3 

4-7 

190. 

2-8 

5-6 

■8 

70 

4-2 

10-7 

11-7 

2-9 

9-8 

10 

164 

19-3 

1-3 

1-8 

26-3 


70 




86 




6 




9 




25 




37 




47 




15 




9 




p 




34 




7 




45 




8 




3 




31 




49 




3 



Chart XXXIV 



NDEX of FERTILITY: ACTUAL INDEX as SHOWN. n FIRST COLUMN 
of TABLE 134 COMPARED*™ INDEX PREDICTED on the BASIS 
of the CONDITIONS STATED inthe REMAINING COLUMNS '' ™* T 

TAB'LE. 



* X, Z JJ 


z X. I 

< VI » 


• 
« 


2 
I 4 


X 
t • 


X 
02 


55 


2 
< 


a 5 


2 


z 




E P o z J 2 a i 


f. ■ » i S^S z 2 j z * g 
u u 7 ^yoc u < o < >s 5 
E * - °rf u n: S ° 5 § S 
° (£ n- 2© k. z § 2 * 


10= ,-J< JC<IU» 
X « <D u - " 5. 


160. 1 1 1 1 1 








3 








I 




? 




-f\ 








o 


ACTU 


M. 


























t 


150 


140 




PRED 


CTED 
























' — < 


I 


























l 


> 












IJO 


























< 


I 










120 
















( 


l 


< 


i / 




i 


< 


> 






110 




















( 


> 
















100 
SO 








< 


> 




































\ 




' < 


> 




















90 
70 


/ c 


' 




































































i 


































fhe /T7t////p/e corre/dr/zo/T AeAvre/7 /> 


-tr/ei/fefaj 'from f£e reyres&ion eye/jf/o/r of 


^ir//7i/ex of"fer/////y.c?/7e/ /Ar fArtre c<?/7/////o/7s 


s/roiYn /rr/Ae fe6/tr. 





218 RELATION OF ORIGIN TO FERTILITY AND INFANT MORTALITY 



INFANT MORTALITY 

Attention is now called to another important section of vital statistics, that of infant 
mortality. The numbers of births and deaths of children under one year are tabulated by 
. the origin of the father, and the data for the registration area for the year 1925 appear in 
Table 135. The number of infant deaths is shown as a percentage of the total births in 
Column three, thus giving the crude infant mortality rate for each origin. The figures 
for the French include only those of French origin in parts of Canada outside the 
province of Quebec. 

The usual practice has been followed in computing the infant mortality rates, namely, 
that of expressing the number of deaths of infants under twelve months in a given calendar 
year as a percentage of the number of births in the same ye&T. In doing that, however, 
certain assumptions are made which may be mentioned in passing. First, a large percentage 
of infant deaths occurring in the given year consist of those who have been born some 
time during the previous twelve months: For instance, of the 12,169 infants less than one 
year of age who died in 1925 perhaps half were born in 1924, yet the total infant deaths 
in 1925 is expressed as a percentage of the total births in that calendar year. The assump- 
tion underlying this procedure is that no great error appears in the infant mortality rates 
as a result of using the 1925 figures of births as a basis with which to compare the deaths 
in that period. A slight error is involved, of course, and it might assume considerable 
dimensions if, for some reason, the birth rate was very much higher or lower in the later 
year. Under normal conditions, however, the error is negligible, and as the above is the 
most practical method of securing a rate it is usually followed. 

. The second assumption is that as many children under one year of age came into the 
Dominion as left it in the period examined. The influence of any probable difference 
between the number of infants under one year emigrating and immigrating can, in the 
nature of the case, be only very slight. So for all practical purposes it is correct to follow 
the universal procedure and to say that approximately 8-07 out of every 100 babies born 
in the registration area of Canada die before living twelve months. 

TABLE 135.-NUMBER OF DEATHS OF INFANTS UNDER ONE YEAR OF AGE, EXPRESSED AS A PER- 
CENTAGE OF NUMBER OF BIRTHS, BY ORIGINS, FOR THE REGISTRATION AREA OF CANADA, 

1925. 



Origin 


(1) 

No. of 
births 


(2) 
Deaths of 
children 

under 
■ 1 year 


(3) 
Per cent 




150,809 
51,846 
20,093 
22,773 
807 
18,573 

9,093 
72 

1,832 
480 
133 
349 
251 
484 

1,834 
496 
197 
11 
395 
384 

1,958 

2,161 
752 

1,460 
370 

1,638 

1,951 
599 

2,054 
201 

1,343 
227 
178 

4,884 
226 
704 


12,169 

3,808 

1,347 

■ 1,401 

36 

2,127 

683 

8 

252 

44 

8 

16 

16 

23 

110 

33 

20 

2 

72 

13 

413 

177 

65 

61 

59 

112 

240 

83 

188 

11 

87 

18 

21 

476 

22 

117 


807 
7-34 
6-70 










4-46 
11-45 


































Dutch 


6-00 
6-65 








































6-84 


Polish 






13 '86 




9 -15' 




5-47\ 




6-48 




7-93 




11-80 




9-75 




9-73 




16-62 



ORIGIN AND INFANT MORTALITY 219 

Rates for specified origins are arranged in order of size in Table 136. There is con- 
siderable variation shown in that table. Among the Indians 21 out of every one hundred 
infants born in 1925 died before reaching the age of twelve months, while among the 
Icelandic people, for example, the rate was between 3 and 4 p.c. Thus nearly six times 
as large a proportion of infants born to Indian fathers died in the first year of life as in 
the case of those of Icelandic parentage. So great a difference is exceedingly significant. 
The numerically most 'important Slavic stocks in Canada appear in the top half of the 
'table, as do the Latin and Greek peoples. The Germanic, Scandinavian and British stocks 
are grouped in the lower half. 

The difference between groups of peoples is shown more clearly in Table 137, which 
arranges them according to geographical and linguistic classes. There is considerable varia- 
tion within each of the geographical groups, suggesting that geographical origin is not a 
determining factor in the matter of mortality rate. The North Western European group, 
however, shows lower limits, both at the top and the bottom, than does the South, Eastern 
and Central European group, and the average stock in the former case shows an infant 
mortality of 6.39 -p.c. and in the latter case 10.32 p.c. It is rather surprising to find such 
wide variation in rates for the Asiatic stocks. The average is unduly high, owing to the 
influence of the mortality rates for the Hindoos and the Syrians, whose numbers are very 
small. It is interesting to note that the infant mortality for both the Japanese and Chinese 
is below the median rate for either the Latin and Greek or Slavic peoples. Indeed the rate 
of 4. 58 p.c. for the Chinese is one of the lowest in Canada, a lower figure being shown only 
in three cases, namely, the Welsh, Jews and Icelanders. The low rate among the Chinese, how- 
ever may be due to incomplete registration of deaths among a small and unassimilated group. 

Among the linguistic groups the rates for the Scandinavians appear on the whole to 
be the lowest. The average rate for the English speaking stocks is slightly higher than 
that for the Scandinavians. The rate of 4.46 for the Welsh is a little greater than the 
rate of 3.39 for the Icelandic, the lowest in'the Scandinavian group; and the rate for the 
English, the highest of the English speaking stocks, is slightly higher than that for the 
Norwegians, the highest among the Scandinavian stocks. With both lower and upper limits 
higher than the lower and upper limits of the Scandinavian group and with the average 
somewhat greater, it is safe to say that the English speaking stocks show a higher infant 
mortality rate than the Scandinavian peoples. Both groups, however, show comparatively 
low rates. The difference is not great. 

The rate for the average Germanic stock is higher than that for the average English 
speaking or Scandinavian people, although the rate for the Dutch (6.00 p.c.) is lower 
than for any except the Welsh in the former group. Among the English, Scandinavian, and 
Germanic peoples, the Belgians, with an infant mortality rate of 9.17 p.c, are considerably 
the highest, and the Icelanders, with a rate of 3.39 p.c, are by far the lowest. The other 
nine stocks are scattered more or less promiscuously between these upper and lower limits. 

Those of Latin and Greek origin show much higher mortality rates; their average is 
the highest of any group. The Austrians have the highest rate among the Slavs, and the 
Poles, Ukrainians and Russians foMow in the order named. These four origins inclwle the 
numerically .most important Slavic peoples • immigrating to Canada. The rate for the 
Russians, the lowest of the four, is equal to that of the Belgians, which, with the exception 
of the French, was the highest of the North Western Europeans. On the other hand, some 
of the Slavs show remarkably low rates. The Czechs, the Bulgarians and Serbo-Croatians 
ail have infant mortality rates below those of the Irish or the Swedes, but while this is to 
the credit of those eastern peoples, it is not of such vital significance to Canada as the 
higher rates for the Austrians, Poles, Ukrainians and Russians, whose numbers are so large. 

The order of infant mortality rates for various origins in Canada appears somewhat 
similar to. that obtained by arranging Ihe origins in order of percentages illiterate. In 
order to determine 'whether any significant relationship between infant mortality and illiter- 
acy existed, the two series were correlated, but the interference of one or two extreme 
cases running directly contrary to expectations, e.g., the Chinese, rendered the results 
unreliable. When these cases are eliminated a moderate coefficient appears and conse- 
quently the conclusion is tentatively advanced that some connection does exist between 
infant mortality and illiteracy. 



220 RELATION OF ORIGIN TO FERTILITY AND INFANT MORTALITY 



TABLE 136.- 


-INFANT MORTALITY RATE IN THE REGISTRATION AREA OF CANADA, BY ORIGINS 
ARRANGED IN ORDER OF SIZE, 1925. 


Rank 


Origin 


Rate per 
100 births 






21-09 






18-22 




Hindu .". 


18-18 






15-95 






13-86 






13-76 






12-30 






11-80 






11-45 






nil 






1015 






9-75 






9-17 






915 






8-64 






8-19 






7-93 






7-51 






7-34 






6-84 






6-70 






6-65 






6-48 






6-37 






6-15 






6-02 






6-00 






5-47 






4-75 






4-58 






4-46 






4-18 






3-39 









TABLE 137.- 



-INFANT MORTALITY RATE IN THE REGISTRATION AREA OF CANADA, BY GEOGRAPH- 
ICAL AND LINGUISTIC GROUPING OF ORIGINS, 1925. 



Origin 


Infant 

mortality 

rate 


Origin 


Infant 

mortality 

rate 


North Western European— 


9-17 
7-93 
7-51 
7-34 
6-84 
6-70 
6-48 
6-15 
6-00 
4-75 
4-46 
3-39 

18-22 
13-86 
13-76 
12-30 
10-15 
9-75 
9-15 
8-19 
6-65 
6-02 
5-47 

18-18 
11-80 
1111 
8-64 
4-58 


British- 


7-34 






6-70 






6-15 






4-46 




Average 6-16 

Scandinavian- 














6-84 






6-48 






4-75 






3-39 




Germanic — 




Average 6-39 . 

South, Eastern and Central European — 


9-17 




7-51 






6-00 




Latin and Greek — 














13-S6 






10-15 






8-19 




Average .10-73 

Slavic — 












Average 10-32 

Asiatic — 


13-76 




12-30 




9-75 


Q ■ 




915 






6-37 






6-02 






5-47 


Average 10-86 







ORIGINS OF DEAF MUTES AND BLIND 



221 



DEAF MUTISM AND BLINDNESS 

Tables 138 and 139 show the numbers of deaf-mutes and blind in Canada with the 
number per 100,000 for each important origin. The French, with 87.8 deaf mutes per 
100,000, show the highest rate of all groups in Canada (Table 138). The Germans come 
next, with a rate of 71.9 per 100,000. The lowest was the Italians, with only 29.4 deaf 
mutes per 100,000, while the Russians rank next to the Italians with 40 per 100,000. The 
English speaking stocks show approximately 50 deaf mutes per 100,000 of the population. 
Taible 139, showing the blind by origin for the year 1921, presents one startling fact: 209 
Indians out of every 100,000 in Canada are blind, a rate nearly 12 times the size of that 
of the Russians and over four times the average for the English speaking stocks. It is 
interesting to note that the proportion of blind among the Germans, Italians and Russians 
is lower than among the French and English speaking stocks in Canada. 

TABLE 138— ORIGINS OF DEAF MUTES IN CANADA, 1921. 



Origin 


Number 
of deaf 
mutes 


Population 

(000) 
omitted 


Number 

per 
100,000 




1,327 

568 

570 

2,154 

212 

62 

20 

40 

349 

32 


2,587 (>) 

1,108 

1,173 

2,453 

295 

111 

68 

100 


51-3 




51-3 




48-6 




87-8 




71-9 




55-9 




29-4 




400 








- 






Total 


5,334 


- 


_ 







f 1 ) Includes English, Welsh and a negligible number from Royal Canadian Navy. 



TABLE 139— ORIGINS OF THE BLIND IN CANADA, 1921. 



Origin 


Number 


Population 

(000) 

omitted 


Number 

per 
100,000 




1,114 

583 

647 

1,387 

98 
232 

17 

18 
260 

40 


2,5870) 

1,108 

1,173 

2,453 

295 

111 

68 

100 


43 




,52-6 




55-2 




66-5 




33-2 




209-0 




250 




180 




_ 




- 








4,396 


- 


_ 







0) Includes English, Welsh and a negligible number of the Royal Canadian Navy. 



INDEX 



Page 

Ago distribution 30, 31, 33-5, 211-12, 214-15 

and crime 79 

and criminality 200-2 

and nativity 77-81 

by linguistic groups 82, 84 

by nativity groups 82-3 

effect on social action 79 

importance of 79 

inadequacy of data on 77 

of different stocks 81-4 

of foreign born 76-81 

of immigrants 60 

Age lag 81 

— of Canadian and foreign born 18 

— of marriage , customary 75 

Agriculture, per cent engaged in 206-10 

Assimilability of different origins 24-5, 132 

— with the British 134-8 

Assimilation 55, 104, 130 

— by intermarriage 15, 23-5, 118-24 

— marriage as an index of 116 

— of U.S. residents 145 

— political 141, 151 

— related to naturalization 26 

Biological influence of immigrants 12-3 

Birthplace as a factor in illiteracy 28 

— census information on 11 

— related to illiteracy 173 

Birthplace of the population: 90-102 

Birthrate 35 

Birthrates in the Prairie Provinces, 1926 214-17 

Blind , by origins 221 

Canadianization 140 

Children, percentage by origin 211-14 

Citizenship, definition of Canadian 11 

— related to criminality 31 

Coefficient of correlation 129-30, 134, 141, 147, 

168-9, 173-5,215-7 

Coefficients of variation 93 

Colour barrier to assimilation 119 

Coloured stocks, criminality of 194 

Composition of population 43, 67-84 

changes in 16-7, 21 

Congregation in large cities.' 112-5 

Conjugal condition 35 

and nativity 75-6 

of different origins ; 19-20 

Convictions for indictable offences 176-9 

Crime 35 

— and origin 176-202 

— rates 177 

— related to extraction and birthplace 28-31 

Criminality 18 

Cultural influence of immigrants 12-3 

Deaf mutism, by origins 221 

Death rate of immigrants 60 

Delinquent children 182 

Density of population, by birth 100-101 

Distribution of immigrant stocks 20-21 

— of nativity groups 85-103 

— of population stocks 85-103 

Emigration 43, 59-60, 87 

Endogamous marriages 118 

Endogamy in coloured races 119 

English, learning of 167-9 

Environment of immigrants 13 

Exogamous marriages 25, 125, 127, 134 

Fertility 33-5 

— by origin. . . . .. .211-7 

Gainfully employed, by nativity 203-10 

Geographical classification 59-62 

— distribution of foreign stocks 85-101 

— groupings of stocks 44-6 

— groups, sex differences in 72-3 

Group heredity 28 

Heredity, affecting criminality 195 , 198 

— group 28 

Illiteracy 35-40, 215-7 

— and birthplace 173 

— and sex , 174 

— and rural and urban distribution 173-4 



Page 

— in foreign born 170-2 

— of different stocks 27-8 

— related to origins i 170-5 

Immigrant population, increase of 62 

— races 58 

Immigrants, able to speak English 163-5 

— by birthplace 62-3 

— by country of birth 41-2 

— by provinces " 93-5 

— distribution of 20-1 

— naturalization of 140-59 

— origin 49-50 

— percentage urban 104-8 

— proportion of 100-3 

— resident in each province 101-2 

— unable to speak French or English 161-3 

Immigration 43, 46-8, 59-61, 87, 90-1 

— and age distribution 77, 79 

— and sex distribution 70-1 

— "old" and "new" 54-7 

— : provincial proportions 102-3 

— shift of 63 

Indictable offences 28, 30, 200-2 

and nativity 176-9 

by age 177-8 

by sex 177-8 

Infant mortality 33-40 

byorigin 211, 212, 218-20 

Intermarriage 14 , 18 , 35-40 

— and mother tongue ■ 167-9 

— and length of residence 125-6 

— and sex distribution 126 

— in different stocks 116-39 

— of different origins 23-5 

— source of data on 116 

— with British stocks 121-3 

— with French stocks. 123-4 

Intermingling of stocks. 43 

Language _. 167-9 

— census information on '. 11 

— used, related to origin 160-9 

Languages spoken 27, 35-40 

Law enforcement f 18 

Length of residence 17, 49-66, 167-9, 215-7 

and intermarriage 125-6 

and sex distribution 70 

of immigrants 65, 66 

Linguistic classification 59-62 

— grouping of stocks 43-6 

— groups 64, 69 

sex distribution in 72-3 

source of immigration by 54-5 

Marriage tate 34 

Marriages, exogamous 25, 125, 127, 134 

Melting pot 123 

Mixed marriages 119, 121, 135, 137-9 

— parentage 181 

— stocks, classification of .". 14-5 

Mother tongue of immigrants 165-7 

Nationality, census information on 11 

Nativity and conjugal condition 75-6 

— groups, distribution of 85-103 

— of Canadian people 17-8 

— of immigrants 17-8 

Natural increase 43, 87, 211 

Naturalization Act of 1914 11-2 

— and urban residence 145 

— by provinces 150-5 

— laws 140, 156 

— of immigrants 140-59 

— rate of * 159 

— related to assimilation 26-7 

— speed of 27, 156-9 

Naturalizations, by origins 148 

— by sex 148-50 

Naturalized proportion of immigrants 41-2 

, Occupations, by birthplace 203-10 

— by origins 32-3 

— by sex 203-10 

— proportions in specified 206-10 

Origin and criminality 31 

— and illiteracy 27-8 

— census information on 11 

— classification difficulties 13-4 

explained 14 



223 



224 RELATION OF ORIGIN TO FERTILITY AND INFANT MORTALITY 



Page 
Origin distinguished from race 12 

— geographical 13 

— of parents 117 

— of population of Canada 43-8 

Origins, adult population by 73-4 

— and crime ; 176-202 

— and fertility. 34-6 

-r-jand intermarriage... 116-39 

— groupings by. 43-6 

Penitentiaries '. 36-42, 176, 179 

Penitentiary data. .29-31 

— population, and date of immigration 199 

by age 188 , 189-90 

by birthplace. 189-93 

by sex.: .........../.......... ...188, 189-90 

citizenship of 193-4 

conjugal condition. 188-9 

origin of .' 194-7 

Percentage surplus of males 67, 69, 70-1 

Population born outside Canada 68-62 

— by origin 68 

— by sex .......". 68 , 69 

— composition of. . .'.' 67-84, 102 

— groupings. . . . . : 43-6 

— numerical distribution by origins: 49-52 

— of Canada, by origins ....... 1 ' 43-8 . 

— stocks, distribution of. . 85-103 

— structure of..' 20-1 

changes in ' 90-1 

Prairie Provinces, birthrates of '..:... 214-7 

Preferred stocks 61 

Race '. . 12 ■ 

Reformatories 35-40, 176, 179, 198 

Reformatory data 29 

— population, birthplace of ..... . 179-86 

by origin ., 182-5 

percentage of 180-1 

sex of 179-80 

Residence, length of 17, 49-66, 167-9, 215-7 

— requirements 156 

Rural and urban distribution 132 

and illiteracy 173-4 

by origins 22 



Page 

Rural and urban distribution by provinces 108-11 

by sex 11 1-13 

of crime 185-6 

— — of stocks 104-5 

— domicile; 215-7 

— isolation 104 

School attendance 35 

; related to illiteracy 27 

related to origins 170-5 

Segregation, a barrier to intermarriage 24 

— and intermarriage 132-5 

— in cities 114 

— occupational 131 

— of stocks 22 

— rural 133 

Sex and illiteracy 174 

— composition of various origins •. 67-74 

— distribution 29, 31, 34, 119, 211, 212 

-of criminality 200-2 

■ *■" ■ * ■ 18-9 

25 

104 

154 

13 

46-8 

49-66 

35 

14-5 

52-4 

44 

43-4 



■ of different origins. 

— disturbing influence on intermarriage 

Shifting of population 

Standard deviation. 

Stock, defined 

Stocks, changes in proportion of. 

— distribution of 

— fertility of 

' — mixed, classification of 

— percentages of, in Canada 

— various, numbers of 

proportions of 

Structure of Canadian population 20-1 , 43 

influence of intermarriage 25 

Surplus of males 67 

: of different birthplaces.. . .' 73 

Urban and rural distribution, by origins 22 

by provinces 108-1 1 

by sex 111-13 

of stocks I 104-15 

— proportion of immigrants 41-2 

— residence and naturalization 145 

Urbanization of different stocks 106-7 

— relation to naturalization 26 

Vital Statistical Reports 116-7 



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